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with age.



of a King's Behaviour in Indifferent Things. ferie, although that of them selues strovs gluttony. Like as both the they cannot be wanted, and so in Græcians and Romanes had in dethat case are not indifferent ; as like- testation the


name of Philoxenus, waies in-cace they be not vsed with for his filthie wilhe of a Crane-craig. moderation, declyning fo to the ex. And therefore was that sentence vsed tremity whiche is vice ; yet the qua- antongst them against these artificiall litie and forme of yling them, may false appetites, optimum condimentum smell of vertue or vice, and be great favres. But be warre with vling exfurtherers to any of them.

cesse of meate and drink; and chieflie To beginne then at the things ne. be warre of drunkennesse, which is a ceffary ; one of the publiekelt indif- beastlie vice, namelie in a king : but ferent actions of a king, and that speciallię be warre with it, because manieft, especially ftrangers, will nar- it is one of those vices that increaseth rowlie take heede to, is bis man

In the forme of your ner of refcction at his table, and his meate eating, be

neither unciuill; behaviour thereat. Therefore, as like a groffe Cynicke ;, nor affe&atlie kings vse oft to eate publicklie, it is mignarde, like a dantie dame ; but meete and honorable that ye also doe cate in a manlie, rounde, and honest fo, as well to eschewe the opinion fashion. It is no waies comelie to that ye loue not to haunt companie, dispatche affaires, or to be penfiue at whiche is one of the marks of a ty- meate: but keepe then an open and rant; as likewise, that your delight cheerefull countenance, causing to to eate priuatlie, be not thought to be reade pleasant histories


that for priuate, fatisfying of your glut- profite may be mixed with pleasure : tonie: whiche ye would be ashamed and when ye are not disposed, enterfhould be publicklie feene. Let your taine pleasant, quicke, but honeft table be honourablie serued; but discourses. serue your appetite with fewe dishes, And because meate proucketh as young Cyrus did : whiche both is sleeping, be also moderate in your holesommest, and freeft from the Deepe; for it goeth muche by vse : vice of delicacie, whiche is a degree and reinember that if your whole life of gluttonie. And vse mofte to eate were deuided in foure parts, three of of reasonablie-groffe, and common- them would be found to be consummeates; aswell for making your bo- ed on meáte, drink, sleese, and vonedy strong and durable for trauell at ceffaric occupations. all occasions, either in peace or in But albeit ordinarie.times would warre : as that ye may be the hart- commonlie be kept in meate and lier receaued by your meane subjects Deepe ; yet vse your selfe some-times in their houses, when their cheere so, that any time in the foure and may fuffice you : whiche otherwaies twenty houres may be alike to you would be imputed to you for pride for any of them ; that thereby your and daintineffe, and breede coldenesfe diet


be accommodate to your af. and dilda:ne in them. Let all your fairs, and not your affairs to your foode be simple, without composition diet : not therefore vring your selfe or fauces ; whicbe are

to ouer great softnesse and delicacie medicines then meate. The vling of in your sleepe, more then in your them was counted amongst the aun- meate ; and speciallie in-case ye haue cient Romans a filthie vice of deli. ado with the warres. Cacie ; because they ferue only for Let oot your Chalmer be throng pleafing of ti e taste, and not for sao and common in the time of your rest, tisfying of the neceslity of pature ; afwell for comelineffe, as for eschew.abhorring Apicius their owne citizen,, ing of carrying repoits out of the for his vice of delicacie and mon- fame. Let them that haue the cre.

more like

dite to ferue in your Chalmer, be trus- their first institution by God; whiche tie and secrete ; for a king will haue was for three causes : first to hide need to vse secrecie in many thinges: our nakednesse and shame; next and but yet behaue your selfe so in your consequentlie, to make vs more come. greatest secrets, as ye neede not be lie; and thirdlie, to preserue vs from alhamed at the mercate crosie. But the injuries of heate and colde. If specially see that those of your Chal- to hide our nakednes and shamefull mer be of a sounde fame, and withoui parts, then these natur ll parts orblemishe.

dained to be hid, Thould not be reTake no heede to any of your presented by any vr-decent formes in dreames: for all prophecies, visions, the cloaches: and if they should helpe and prophetick dreames are accom- our comlines, they should not then, plished and ceased in Chrift. And by their painted preened fashion, therfose take no heede to freets ferue for baites to filthie lecherie ; as either in dreames, or any other things: false haire and fairding does amongst for that errour proceedeth of igno- vnchaste wemen : and if they should rance, and is unworthy of a Chris- præserue vs from the injuries of heat tian; who should be assured, Omnia and colle, men should not, like senseofe pura puris, as Paule faieth ; all lelle stones, contemne God, in lightdaies and meates being alike to Chrif- lying the seasons : glorying to contians.

quere honour on heate and colde. Next followeth to speake of ray. And although it be praise-worthy and ment, the on-putting whereof is the necessarie in a Prince, to be patiens ordinary action that followeth next to algoris & aftus, when he hili haue fleepe. Be also moderate in your adoe with warres vpen the fieldes; sayment; neither ouer superfluous, yet I thinke it meeter that ye goe fike a debolhed waister ; nor yet ouer both clothed and armed, then naked base, like a miserable wretche ; not to the battell ; except you would artificiallie trimmed and decked, like make you light for away running: a Courtizane ; nor yet ouer fuggish- and yet for cowards, medus addit alasa iy clothed like a country-clowne; And shortlie, in your cloathes keepe nor yet ouer grauelie, like a minifter. a proportion, aswell with the seasons But in your garments be proper, of the yeare, as of your age: in the cleanlie, comelie and honest: wear.

fashions of them being carelesse, vsing ing your cloathes in a carelesse, yet them according to the common forme comelie forme : keeping in them a of the time, fome-times richelier, . middle forme, inter Togatos & Pa. Some times meanlier clothed as occaLudatos; betwixt the grauitie of the lion ferueth, without keeping any one, and lightnesse of the other. precise rule therein. Thereby to signifie, that by your cal. minde be found occupied vpon them, ling ye are mixed of both the profes- it will be thought idle otherwajes, fions : Togatus, as a judge making and ye shall be accompted in the and pronouncing the lawe; paludatus, nomber of one of these compti iuvenes; by the power of the sword: as your which will make your spirit and office is likewise mixed, betwixt the judgement to be lesse thought of. Ecclesiasticall and ciuille state. For But speciallie eschewe to be effoe nie a king is not meré laicus, as both the nate in your clothes, io perfuming, Papistes and Anabaptiftes would haue preening, or suche like: and faile him ; to the whiche error also the neuer in time of warres to be gal-Puritanes incline ouer-farre. But to liardeft and braueft, both in cloathes returne to the purpose of garments, and countenance. And make not a they ought to be vsed according to fool of your selfe in disguyfing or



For if your

in both,

Date tearmes.


Of a King's Behaviour in Indifferent Things. wearing long haire or nailes; whiche speake to the eies of the auditour. In are but excrements of nature, and both your fpeaking and your gesture, bewraie suche misusers of them, to vse a naturall and plaine forme, noc be either of a vindi&tiue, or a vaine fairded with artifice : for (as the light natura!l. Especiallie, make no French-men say (Rien contre-faict vowes in suche vaine and outward fin; but eschewe all affectate formes thinges, as concerne either meate or cloaches.

In your language be plaine, boLet your selfe and all your Court nest, naturall, comelie, cleane, short, were no ordinarie armour with your and sentencious: eschewing both the clothes, but suche as is knightlie, and extremities, aswell in not vling any honourable : I meane rapier-fwordes, rusticail corrupt leide, as booke-lanand daggers. For tuilyesome wea- guage, pen and inke-borne tearmes, pons in the Courte, betokns confu- and least of all mignarde and effani.. Gon in the countrie. And therefore

But let the greatest bannihe not onclie from your Courte, parie of your eloquence corlift in a all traiterous offensive weapons, for: naturail, cleare, and lenkble forze of bidden by the lawes; as gunes and the deliuerie of your minde, builded Luche like (whereof I fpake alreadie) euer vpen certaine and good groundes, but also all trailerous defenfiue armes tempering it with graditie, quickuefie, as secreres, plate-Neeues, and suche or merineflc, according to the sublike vnseene aimour. For, besides ject, and occasion of the time ; not that the wearers thereof, may be præ- taunting in Thevlogy, nor alleadging suppoled to haue a secrete euill in- and prophaning the Scripture in teniion, they want both the vses that drinking purpolis, as ouer manie doe. detenfiue armour is crdained for : Vle also the like forme in your whiche is, to be able to holde out gesture ; neither looking filelie, like a violence, and by their outwarde Itupide pedant ; nor vnteriedlie, with glaunling in their enemies eies, to an vncouih morgue, like a Itrike a terrour in their harts. Where ouer Cavalier : but let your behavior by the contrarie, they can serue for 'be naturall, giaue, and according to neither ; being not onely vnable to the fashion of the countrie. Be not relist, but dangerous for foors, and ouer sparing in your courtesies ; for giuing no outwa:de showe against that will be imputed to in-civility and the enemie :. being onelie ordained; arrogancie: nor yet ouer prodigal for betraying vnder truite ; whereof in jowking or nodding at euery step; honeit men should be ashamed 10 for that forme of being populare, be: beare the outwarde badge, nat resem- commeth better aspiring Ablaloms, bling the thing ihey are' nor. And then lawfull Kings : framing euer for answere against there arguments, your gesture according to your preI know done but the olde Scottes fa- fent actions : looking grauelie and fhion : whiche if it be wrong, is no with a majustie when ye fit in julgemore to be allowed for auncientale, ment, or giues audience to Emballathen the olde Marte is, wbiche als doors; homely, when ye are in priso our forefathers vsed.

úate with your ownie fervantes ; mure: The next thing that ye haue tó lie, when ye are at any paitime or take heede to, is your 'speahing and merrie discourse; and let your coun. language ; whereunto I joyne your tenance smell of courage and magnagesture, lince action is one of the nimitie when ye are at the warres, cher fest qualities, that is required in And remember (I fav ouer againe) an oratour: for as the tongue speaketh to be paine and findible in your jan. to the eares, fo doth the gesture guage : for beldes that it is the


Longues office, to be the messenger heate, wherewith they were written, of the mind; it may be thought a coole at leasure ; and then as an von point of imbecillitie of spirite in a couch judge and cenfor, reuifing them King, to speake obscurelie ; muche ouer againe, before they be published, more vntrulie : as if he ftoode awe of quia i.efiit vox niillu reučrti. any in vttering his thoughts.

If ye would write worthelie, choose Remember allo), to put a difference subjectes worthie of

you, that be not betwixt your forme of language in full of vanitie, but of vertue ; eichewreasoning, and your pronouncing of ing obscuritie, and delighting euer to lentences, or dec'aratour of your wil be plaine and feasible. And if ye in judgement, or anie other waies in write in verse, remember that it is the points of your office. For in the not the principall parte of a poeme to former case, ye must rea'on pleasant- rime right, and Howe well with nany lie and pacienilie, not like a king, but prettie wordes : but the chiefe com. like a priuate man and a scholer; o- mendation of a poeme is, that wien therwaies, your impacience of contra- the verse shall be shaken fundrie in di&tion will be intreprated to be for prose, it shall be founde so riche in Jacke of reason on your parte. Where quick inventions, and poeticke floures, in the pointes of your office, ye should and in faire and pertinent compariripelie aduise indeede, before ye giue fons; as it shall retaine the luttre of forth your sentence; but fra it be gi. a poeme, although in prose. And I uen forth, the suffering of any con- would also aduite you to write in your tradiction, diminisheth the Majestie owne language, for there is nothing of your authoritie, and maketh the left to be faide in Grecke and Latine proceffes endlese. The like forme alreadie; and ynewe of poore scholwould also be obserued by all your lers would matche ou in these lans, inferiour judges and Magistrates. guages; and besides that, it belt be.

Nowe as to your writing, whiche commeth a King to purifie and make is nothing else, but a forme of en-re- famous his owne tongue, wherein he gistrate speeche ; vse a plaine, shorte, may goe before all his subjects ; as but itatelie stile, both in your procla- it seiteth him well to doe in all ho. mations and misliues, especiallie to neit and lawfull things. forraine princes. And if your en

And amongst all vndeceffarie gine fpurre you to write any workes, thinges that are lawfull and expedicyther in verse or in profe; I cannot ent, I thinke exercises of the bodie but allowe you to practise it : but moste commendable to be vsed by a take no longsome workes in hande, young priace, in suche honest games for distracting you from your calling. or paltimes, as may further ability and

Flatter not your selfe in your la- maintaine health. For albeit I graunt boures, but before they be set forth, it to be most requisite for a King to let them first bo priuilie censured by exercise bis engine, whiche furtlie some of the best filled men in that with idlenesse will rouste and become craft, that in these workes ye medle blunt; yet certainly bodily exercises with. And because your writes will and games are verie commendable; pemaine as true pictures of your afwell for baanishing of idlenesle (the minde, to all pofterities; let them be mother of all vice) as for making his free of all un-comelinefle aod vn- bodie able and durable for travell, honestie : and according to Horace his whiche is very neceffarie for a King: counsell

But from this count I debarre all Nomur:que premantur in annum. Tough and violent exercises, as the I meane both your verse and your foot-ball; meeter for laming, then profe; letting first that fury and making able the vsers thereof; as


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Of a King's Behaviour in Indifferent Things. likewise such tumbling trickes as one- 'ought euer præciselie to keepe ; rely serue for Comedians a d Balladınts, membring that these games are but to win their breade with. But the ordayned for you, in enabling you for exercises that I would hau: you to your office, tor the whiche ye are orvse (although but moderatlie, nor dained. making a craft of them) are ru.ning, And as for fitting houfe paftimes, leaping, wrattling, fencing, dauncing, where-with men by driving time, and playing at the cairche or tennis, fpurre a free and fast ynough ruoning archery, palle maille, and suche bike huise (as the prouerbe is) although other faire and plealant field games. they are not profitable for the exercise And the honorableft and molt com- either of minde or bodie, yet can I mendable games that ye can vle, are not yierlie condemne them; fince on horse-backe ; for it becomm:th a they may at times fupply the roome, prince best of anie man, to be a faire whiche being empty, would be patent and good horse-man. Vis therefore to pernitious idiones quia nihil poteft to ride and danton great and coura- elle vacuur. I will not therfore ago gious horses, that I may say of you, gree with the curiosity of some learnae Philip laide of great Alexander his ed men in our age, in forbidding carts, sonne. Maxidovíz 'odi And speci- dice, and other fuche like games of allie vse suche games on horle-back, hazard; although otherwaies surely I as may teache you to handle your reuerence them as notable and god. armes thereon ; suche as the tilt, the lie men. For they are deceaued ring, and love-ryding for handling of therein, in founding their argument

vpon a mistaken grounde ; whiche is, I cannot omit heere the hunting, that the playing at suche games, is a namelie with ruaning houndes, whiche kinde of cutting of lot, and therfore is the most honourable and noblest vn-lawtull; wherin they deceave themforte thereof; for it is a theeuishe felues. For the casting of lot was forme of hunting to shoote with vsed for triall of the trueth in any obgunnes and bowes ; aod grey-hound scure thing, that otherwaies could hunting is not so martialt a game. not be gotten cleared, and therfore But becaus I would not be thoght a was a forte of prophecie ; where by a partiall praiser of this sport, I remit the contrarie, no man goeth to apie you to Xenophon, an olde and famous of these plaies, to clear any obscure writer, who had no mind of flatter- trueth, but onelie to gage so muche ing you or me in this purpose : and of his owne money, as he . pleaseth, who also setteth downe a faire patern, vpon the hazarde of the running of for the education of a yong king, va- the cartes or dice, as well as he would der the supposed name of Cyrus.

the speede of a horse or a As for hawking I condemoe it not, dog, or any fuche like gaigeour. but I must praise it more sparinglie, And so, if they be vn-lawfull, all because it neither resembleth the gaigeours vpon vncertainties mult likewarres so neere as hunting doth, in waies be condemned. Not that theremaking a man hardie, and fkilfullie by I take the defence of vaine carridden in all grounds ; and is more ters and dicers, that waste their mo. uncertaine and subject to mischances; yen and their time (wherof fewe conand (whiche is worst of all) is there. Iider the pretiousoeffe) vpon prodigall through an extreame ftirres vp of paf- and continuall playing ; no, I would Gons. But in vsing either of these rather allowe it to be discharged, games obserue that moderation, that where foche corruption cannot be efye slip not there with the houres ap- chewed. But opelie I cannot conpointed for your affaires, whiche ye demne you at some times, wben ye

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