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teresting work on "The Israelites at Mecca from the time of David until the fifth century of our era." He maintains that the Jewish tribe of Simeon left Palestine during the reign of Saul, moved southward, settled in Mecca, and there introduced the "Pilgrim Festival." If this assertion should prove true it would shed an entirely new light on the Jewish elements of the Koran and the Mohammedan religion. Hitherto it has not been believed that the Pilgrim Festival and the worship of the Kaaba and the Black Stone were of Jewish origin, but Dozy vindicates these and other portions of the Islam to the Jews. The name of the author is a sufficient guarantee that his opinions are not wild speculations, but keen investigations based upon extensive learning.

Dr. Kahnis has recently published the second volume of his Dogmatics, under the separate title, The Church Creed in its historical development, (Der Kirchenglaube Historichgenetisch Dargestellt. Leipzig, 1864.) The author was formerly looked upon as one of the pillars of the old High Church Lutheran party, but the first volume of his Dogmatics contained several statements which brought upon him the charge of having deviated from the fundamental tenets of evangelical doctrines. In the preface to the second volume Dr. Kahnis reviews the opinions expressed about his book by the leading theologians of the Lutheran and other ecclesiastical parties. We give a few extracts from this review, as it is an interesting contribution to the present state of theological parties in Germany.

On the same day (says Dr. Kahnis) on which an orthodox theologian of great reputation as a writer on Dogmatics, expressed to me his joy at the combination of evangelical sentiments and truth-loving science to be found in my work, I read in the Evangelical Church of Hengstenberg that I was on the point of apostatizing from Christianity. To defend myself against a charge which was sure to be read by many thousands, I published the pamphlet, "Testimony on the Fundamental Truths of Protestantism against Dr. Hengstenberg." (Zeugniss von den grund wahrheiten des Protestantismus, 1862.) I had not yet finished this pamphlet, when Dr. Dieckhoff, (old Lutheran, Professor at the University of Rostock,) commenced his series of articles against me, which are written in a tone so unworthy and so destitute of ability, that they gave the greatest offense, not only outside of the camp of the old Lu

therans, but also within. Of the same stripe was the pamphlet of a Lutheran pastor of Russia, published at Dorpat: Meditationen eines Lutherischen Pastor uber die Dogmatik des Dr. Kahnis, 1863.)

This pamphlet did, however, not meet with general approval in the Lutheran Church of Russia, although this Church is firmly attached to the old doctrinal standards of Lutheranism, and it was especially opposed by Dr. Berkholz, the editor of one of the papers of the Lutheran Church of Russia. A large portion of the Lutheran press joined in condemning the work of Dr. Kahnis, without, however, specifying the doctrines to which they objected. When the first excitement was over, two distinguished Lutheran scholars opposed the views of Dr. Kahnis in a worthy and scientific manner; Dr. Höleman, (Professor at Leipsic,) in his work on the "Unity of the two Accounts of Creation, (Nachweis der Einheit der beiden Schöpfungsberichte Genesis, chap. i un ii. Leipzig, 1862,) and Dr. Delitzsch, Professor at Erlangen,) in his pamphlet, Für und Wider Dr. Kahnis, (For and Against Dr. Kahnis, 1863.) Dr. Delitzsch, who is one of the foremost exegetical scholars of Germany, and a prominent champion of the theory of verbal inspiration, recognizes in the work of Dr. and some remarkable results, although Kahnis a spirit of thorough investigation he censures his (Kahnis's) views of inspiration and of several Christian doctrines, in particular his opinion about Father. Dr. Kahnis persists in claiming Luther as an opponent of verbal inspiration, and refers for a proof of this opinion to the work of Dr. Köstlin, on the "Theology of Luther." Finally, he infers from the preface written by the venerable Dr. Nitzsch, to the Manual of Introduction into the Scriptures by the late Professor Bleek, that this distinguished theologian is far from condemning the views advanced by him.

the subordination of the Son to the

Professor Huber, of Munich, has written a work on the Idea of Immortality, (Die Idee der Unsterblichkeit. Munich, 1864,) in which he refutes, from the standpoint of philosophy, the attacks of the recent pantheistic and materialistic literature upon the doctrine of personal or individual immortality.

A new work on Church Constitution has been published by Dr. Amen, a cler

gyman of the State Church of Prussia, under the title, "Fundamental Principles of the Evangelical Church Constitution." (Grundbestimmungen der Evangelischen Kirchenverfassungen. Gotha, 1864.) The author is of opinion that in the constitution of the Evangelical Church the idea of the universal priesthood ought to be more fully carried through than is usually the case. Proceeding from this fundamental idea, he demands that no member of the Church be excluded from an active participation in the ecclesiastical affairs of the Church; that all offices of the Church be strictly regarded as offices of love, which require the free consent of the members of the Church; that the conscience of the teachers of the Church should not be fettered by external formulas; and that the evangelical Church must always be regarded as including every society which believes in justification through Jesus Christ.

Dr. Hefele, one of the ablest Catholic Church historians now living, and author of the best History of Ecclesiastical Councils, has commenced the publication of a Collection of Essays, published by him in the Theologische Quartalschrift of Tubingen, of which he is one of the editors. Some of the essays contained in the first volume, which has been published, are critical, as those on Tertullian and Athenagoras; others are designed to clear up obscure and controverted matters, such as the introduction of celibacy among the clergy; some are historical; and two of the most interesting are devoted to the Russian and the Greek Churches. A second volume is to follow, which will chiefly relate to ecclesiastical archeology and liturgies. (Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte, Archeologie and Liturgik, vol. 1. Tubingen, 1864.)

A new volume of the Biblical Commentary to the Old Testament, by Keil and Delitzsch, has been published, containing the Commentary to the Books of Samuel, by Keil. Biblischer Commentar über das Alte Testament. Leipzig.)

An important work on the "History of the Ecclesiastical Separation Between the East and the West from its First Beginning until the Present Times," has been commenced by Dr. A. Pichler, lecturer on (Roman Catholic) theology at the University of Munich. The first volume, containing the "Byzantine Church,"

has just been published. The spirit and scope of the work may be seen from the following words in the preface: "My work offers the first attempt at a complete history of the ecclesiastical separation between the East and the West. The separation of the two Churches, the Latin and the Greek, exercised upon the whole development of Europe in an ecclesiastical and political, as well as sciientific and moral point of view, a powerful influence, which on the whole is scarcely inferior to that of Protestantism. The correct answer of the two questions, Who is guilty of the origin of this separation? and why have the numerous attempts at effecting a reconciliation failed? is therefore of great importance, not only for the theologian, but for the historian and for every educated man. The common opinion that the overbearingness and the stolid obstinacy of the orientals was the cause of the one and of the other, appears to me to be insufficient for any earnest thinker. I deemed it necessary to consider the separation of the Greek Church in connection with

the history of the papacy, its rights and the doctrines which in the course of time prevailed respecting it, and the history of the European states in general. I have thus obtained the result that the West

(the Roman Catholic Church) is also not free from a share in the guilt respecting the origin and the perpetuation of this


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ciety which so many historians are only too ready to ignore. The following extract will give some idea of the views of this author:

The disastrous political and economical effects of the revocation of the Ediet

of Nantes have frequently been set forth, but too little has been said of the deplorable consequences which it has had upon the moral and religious state of society. It lies in the nature of Protestantism to exercise by its presence a vivifying influence upon even those who accuse it, with the greatest bitterness, of bowing only to the sovereign authority of the state. The principle of free, inquiry sets in motion and keeps wide awake the very spirits who combat it as a principle of revolution and anarchy. It leads them, they may be willing or not, to study the liberty which they attack and the authority which they defend. It induces them to render to themselves an account of the faith, and to conform their lives to it. It imparts to their faith a more personal. more rational, more energetical, more efficient character. Protestantism is a stimulant of which the Catholic Church in France, during the eighteenth century, stood greatly in need, and which was wanting to it through the fault of Louis XIV. The weakening of Catholicism in France dates from the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. At the same time, while it caused the Church to disarm, and to become absorbed in internal quarrels of the most illiberal character, it furnished terrible weapons against her to the unbelievers, and deprived her of a valuable auxiliary in her struggle against materialism. It delivered her, inert, unpopular, and divided, to the blows of the freethinkers. The system of religious coercion had in France the effect to paralyze Protestantism, to weaken and bring into ridicule Jansenism, to make the Jesuits odious, the priests indifferent, the philosophers fanatical, and the country philosophical.

M. De Witt borrows the following anecdote from Saint Simon. Louis XIV. having asked the Duke of Orleans whom he took with him into Spain, the duke mentioned Pontpertius. "How, my nephew?" replied the king, excited, "the son of that lady who followed Arnault to the end? the Jansenist? I do not wish that." "Sire," replied the Duke of Orleans, "I do not know what his mother has done, but as for the son being a Jansenist, he does not even believe in God." "Is it possible?" answered the king, "and you assure me of it. If that is so there is no harm in it; you may take him with you." The people at the

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court and in the city laughed much at it, and the greatest freethinkers wondered how far the Jesuits were carried by their fanaticism. The saying is worthy of a monarch who could not endure the heretics in his kingdom, and who had so much vice at his court. But the most culpable were the first to be punished. When the Jesuits were expelled from France in 1762 (says Mr. De Witt) a malignant joy was manifested throughout the country. People remembered their persecutions, and they themselves admitted that they were stoned with the stones of Port Royal, which they had destroyed under Louis XIV.

An interesting work on the "Relations between Church and State" has recently been published by M. Franck, a Jew, and Professor at the College de France. The views of Mr. Franck are generally applauded by the Protestant papers of France. The author establishes the rights of individual conscience and those of the association formed to

profess in common a religious faith. His views are especially interesting, as the fact of his being a Jew makes him an entirely impartial observer of the combats between the Christian Churches and the State. Mr. Franck defends with remarkable vigor the need of a religious faith and of the liberty of all the Churches, by showing that the progress of the human mind and the autonomy of conscience are neither destroyed nor compromised by religion, as long as the latter lays no claim to a civil and political authority, and does not seek to im(La Phipose its belief upon others. losophie du Droit Ecclesiastique, des Rapports de la Religion et de l'Etat.)

One of the most important publications which has been called forth by the tercentenary of the death of Calvin is a collection of the Correspondence of the French Reformers, under the title Correspondence des Reformateurs dans les pays de la Langue Française, par A. L. Herminjard. The work, which is to be published at Geneva, will consist of from eight to ten volumes, of about five hundred pages each, and will aim at a completeness which is but rarely reached by works of this kind. The editor has collected more than four thousand letters and documents, many of which have never before appeared in print, and he hopes to add considerably to this number while his work is going through

the press. It will not only embrace the correspondence of men like Calvin, Farel, Vienet, and Beza, but in general of all who took an active part in the reformation in the countries of the French language during the period from 1512 to 1565. Every single folio is to be furnished with a brief summary and historical and biographical notes.

The relation of the Christian Church to Slavery is a subject which is now frequently discussed in Europe also, in consequence of the profound interest awakened in the subject by our war. A new work on the subject has been published in France, under the title "The Church and Slavery," by Armand Riviere. The author traces the history of the relation of the Church to the classes living in involuntary servitude during ten centuries. He charges the Church with having done little or nothing toward promoting emancipation.


of a new work by Michelet, entitled the "Bible of Humanity." M. Michelet has acquired a reputation among the scholars of France by his former scientific works, and is a member of the French Academy. At the same time he is very popular among the masses of the people, among whom his latest works on "Love," on Woman," and others, have had a very large circulation. In his new works M. Michelet preaches a kind of mystic naturalism. He undertakes to draw a brief outline of the history of religion from a scientific point of view, and, as usual in the writings of Michelet, the greatest brilliancy is found by the side of the greatest confusion. His attacks on Christianity are much more violent and sweeping than those of Rénan, and historical truth and probability are outraged by him much more than by the latter.

The literary contest between the orthodox and the rationalistic schools of French Protestantism is carried on with great briskness. Among the latest pamphlets on the subject are the follow

The question of the unity of the human races has been recently the subject of an animated discussion among the scholars of France. The unity has especially been defended with great talenting: "What is Christianity without by M. de Quatrefages, while the contrary opinion, the plurality, has found a defender in G. Pouchet. (De la Pluralité des Races Humaines.)

The number of translations from English and German into French seems to increase. We notice among the last translations from R. W. Emerson, Sallet, and Feuerbach. (Emerson, Les Lois de la vie. Trad. par Xavier Eyma. L. Feuerbach, La Religion, Mort, Immortalité; Religion. Trad. par Joseph Roy. Sallet, Evangile. Trad. par Desti.)

A member of the order of the Jesuits, Carayon, has published a Bibliographical History of his Order, or a Catalogue of Works relating to the History of the Jesuits from their origin to our days. (Bibliographie Historique de la Compagnie de Jesus.)

The number of assailants of Biblical Christianity in France has received a dangerous addition by the publication

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Doctrines and without Miracles?" by N. Poulain; "Our Christianity and our Good Right," three letters to Mr. Poulain, by A. Reville, one of the most gifted representatives of the Rationalistic School; " Reply to the Three Letters of Mr. Albert Reville on the New Theology," by N. Poulain; and the "Doctrine of the New School," according to Reville, A. Coquerel, and Colani.

A new work on the Holy Land has just been published by E. de Pressensé,

the learned editor of the Revué Chretienne. (Le Pays de l'Evangile. Notes d'un Voyage en Orient.) M. Pressensé undertook this journey chiefly for the purpose of preparing himself the better for writing a work on the Life of Jesus against Renan. Two introductory chapters of the book treat, first, of the pilgrimages and journeys in the Holy Land; and, secondly, of the great geographical divisions of Palestine.


American Quarterly Reviews.

AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN AND THEOLOGICAL REVIEW. October, 1864. (New York.)-1. Ebionitism and the Christianity of the Sub-Apostolic Age. 2. The Fundamental Properties of Style. 3. The Indian Tribes and the Duty of Government to them. 4. Religious Influence of Colleges. 5. Ecclesiastical Organizations and Foreign Missions. 6. Difficulties of Revelation. 7. The Ancient Schools of Ireland.

BIBLICAL REPERTORY AND PRINCETON REVIEW. October, 1864. (Philadelphia.)—1. Man's Mental Instincts. 2. The Russian Church. 3. Modern Philology. 4. Lange's Theological and Homiletical Commentary. 5. Whedon and Hazard on the Will. BIBLIOTHECA SACRA, October, 1864. (Andover, Mass.)-1. The New Analytic of Logical Forms. 2. The Bearing of Modern Scientific Theories on the Fundamental Truths of Religion. 3. Authorship of the Pentateuch. 4. Palestine and the Desert, Past and Present. 5. Is Theology an Improvable Science? 6. Theology of the Modern Greek Church. 7. God the Supreme Disposer and Moral Governor. 8. The Brethren of Christ.

DANVILLE REVIEW, September, 1864. (Danville, Ky.)-1. Conflicts of Revelation and Science: The Science of the Bible Phenomenal. 2. The Borrowing of Jewels from the Egyptians. 3. Treason, Slavery, Loyalty, in Kentucky. 4. The Past Course and Present Duty of Kentucky. 5. The Peace Panic-Its Authors and Objects. EVANGELICAL QUARTERLY REVIEW, October, 1864. (Gettysburgh, Pa.)— 1. The Wisdom of the World and of the Church Compared. 2. Instruction in Christian Doctrine according to the System of the Evangelical Lutheran Church; by John Henry Kurtz, D.D. 3. The Study of the Ancient Classics. 4. The German Language. 5. Reminiscences of Deceased Lutheran Ministers. 6. Precious Stones. 7. The Lord's Supper. 8. Catechization. 9. The Mystical Union. 10. Responsibilities of the American Citizen.

FREEWILL BAPTIST QUARTERLY, October, 1864. (Dover, N. H.)-1. Education for the Ministry. 2. The Anglo-Saxon Church. 3. The Support of the Ministry. 4. The Doctrine of Divine Providence. 5. Education in the Freewill Baptist Denomination. 6. Abolition of the British SlaveTrade. 7. Lady Huntingdon.

NEW ENGLANDER, October, 1864. (New Haven.)-1. The Conflict with Skepticism and Unbelief. Fourth Article: Recent Discussions upon the Origin of the First Three Gospels. 2. The Sermons of John Huss. 3. A Century of English Parties. 4. The American Cavaliers. 5. The Revival of Letters in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. Part I.— To the Middle of Century XV. 6. Southern Evangelization. UNIVERSALIST QUARTERLY, October, 1864. (Boston.)-1. A Look into the Age of Man. 2. Condemnation of Universalism. 3. The Preexistence of Jesus Christ. 4. Rome, Paganism, and the Church. 5. John Wesley. 6. Universalism: Its Relation to Politics. 7. General Review: Education and the Pulpit-The Church of England Controversy-Interesting Antiquities-Faith and Works-Anastasis, Resurrection.

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