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Although the tests summarized in this report were limited by the quantity available for trial, it is indicated that hemp sal cordage, made up of East African sisal and domestic hemp in the proportions of 70 to 30, or 50 to 50, respectively, will be fairly dependable for general fishing purposes. Hempsal has been found second to manila and superior to straight African sisal cordage in tensile strength, abrasion resistance, flexibility, and durability. Production of this mixed fiber cordage, in the proportion of 10 percent Am. hemp and 90 percent sisal, is scheduled for the latter half of 1944 and is expected to be available to the fishing industry within a few months.
1944. PRODUCTION OF U, S. FISHERIES ENCOURAGING AT HALF-WAY POINT
Continuing the upward trend begun last year, production in the major u. s. fisheries made encouraging increases during the first six months of 1944 as compared with 1943, although catches of a few important species are lagging behind last year's figures, the OCF reported on July 26.
A survey of production, just completed shows that although landings of California pilchards, Pacific mackerel, and shrimp are smaller, than last year, these losses are more than counterbalanced by increases in the production of California tuna, landings at New England ports, and the pack of Maine sardines.
Since the first six months normally account for only a fourth of the year's total landings, the fishing industry still has ample time to increase the present lead over 1943 production,
Landings of fresh fish at the major New England ports--Boston, Gloucester, New Bedford, and Portland, are substantially larger than last year, totaling 207,215,000 pounds or a 16 percent gain over last year's production of 178,989,000 pounds. By the end of June, Gloucester had received 80,356,000 pounds of fish and shellfish, compared with Boston's 75,720,000, New Bedford' 8 43,827,000, and Portland's 7,312,000 pounds. Landings at Gloucester and New Bedford increased about 33 percent over last year, while Boston's receipts were 5 percent less, and Portland also showed a small decline.
The California tuna Pishery, enjoying its best year since 1940, furnishes one of the most important increases. Landings during the first six months were 50 percent larger than last year, totaling 52,948,000 pounds, while the canned pack reached 1,149,370 cases, a gain of 61 percent.
Less successful than the tuna industry, the Pacific mackerel fishery is having a relatively poor year. Landings amounted to 7,868,000 pounds for the first half of the year, as against 9,007,000 in 1943. The canned pack showed a corresponding decrease: 84,982 cases compared with 95,799.
The Maine sardine industry has already packed 1,110,000 cases, or an increase of 35 percent over its production of canned fish last year. A considerable quantity of the sardines packed in Maine canneries is imported from Canada.
In the Gulf area, shrimp and oysters declined while crabs made important gains, Be. cause of labor difficulties and a scarcity of shrimp, production in the important shrimp fishery is 28 percent behind last year, with 73,340 barrels landed as against 101,738 in 1943. Oysters fell from 689,491 barrels to 459,306; while crabs increased from 3,796,000 pounds to 5,115,000.
The Pacific Coast pilchard fishery, which alone produces a fourth of the total poundage taken by U. S. fishermen, is inactive from April through July in California, the center of the fishery. ,
From January through March, however, production amounted to 81,417 tons, or a decline of 8 percent compared with the same period in 1943. Fishing for pilchards will be resumed from northern California ports on August 1,
Fresh fish came into New York's wholesale markets in some what greater quantity than last year, totaling 126,487,000 pounds compared with 113,579,000. On the other hand, in Chicago, most important inland market for fish, receipts declined from 39,735,000 pounds last year to 33,915,000. The scarcity of shrimp and the late opening of the halibut season were probably important reasons for the decline, for these two products normally outrank all others in volume of sales in Chicago,
Total production by all fisheries last year was approximately 4,000,000,000 pounds, and it is hoped that the yield may reach 4,300,000,000 in 1944. Although the fishing fleet is approaching its pre-war size through new construction and the return of many vessels requisitioned by the Army and Navy, lack of sufficient manpower to operate boats and shore plants, as well as inadequate refrigeration, have hampered production.
OPERATION OF MANPOWER PRIORITY SYSTEM EXPLAINED BY OCF
The War Manpower Commission Priority Referral Program which became effective July 1, is designed to benefit industries which are most vital to the Nation's war effort. The order which established this program requires that male labor with few exceptions be hired through the U, S, Employment Service, The application of this program will vary considerably from one local area to another because of the recognized need for flexibility in considering location of employment, types of essential production, and administrative factors.
The priority program sets up the relative importance of industries and plants for the guidance of U. S. Employment Service personnel in referring workers to jobs. Commercial fishing is one of the industries which can benefit from the application of this program, Employers in the fishing industry should take all necessary action to see that they secure the maximum benefit obtainable under this program, In order to secure such benefits each commercial fishing producer and manufacturer of fishery products should:
Apply for a priority rating at his nearest local office of the United States Employment Service, It should be borne in mind that the awarding of a priority rating is not automatic nerely because the industry is essential. The United States Employment Service local offices will be in a position to inform employers of the conditions which must be met by the employer in order to obtain and hold a priority rating.
When filing application for priority rating, the employer should indicate the number of workers he currently needs or anticipates he will need in the near future. Any change in numbers of workers needed should be made known to the United States Employment Service Office,
The employer should discuss with the local United States Employment Service office the practical aspects, with respect to his production, of the requirements of the War Manpower Commission order. If it is not practical for hiring to be limited solely through the United States Employment Service, the employer should request authority to continue his own recruitbent of workers, subject to such conditions or limitations on direct hiring as may have been found necessary in the particular locality. It is possible for the employer to continue his own recruitment of workers and still receive benefits from the application of the War Manpower Commission order.
Under certain conditions, communities may be exempt from this order. However, it would not be to the best advantage of the commercial fishing industry employer to have his community exempt, especially if the employer has obtained priority rating and permission to hire his workers direct.
The Area Coordinators are empowered to appear before the Area or State Manpower Priorities Committee whenever matters in which the fishery industries are interested are under consideration,
Whenever manpower problems of nation-wide importance will arise or whenever interregional recruitment requests will be discussed, in which the fishery industries are interested, the Coordinator of Fisheries will present the data and demands of the industries before the National Committee.
APPROVAL OF FISHING VESSEL CONSTRUCTION RESTRICTED
The Office of the Coordinator of Fisheries announced on July 12, that, with few exceptions, it will not approve applications for priorities for the construction of any additional fishing vessels during the remainder of the year, Construction of fishing vessels during the first half of the year has been so accelerated, Dr. Ira N. Gabrielson, Deputy Coordinator, said, that the materials originally estimated for the entire year of 1944 have been greatly depleted. The action was necessary to keep the vessel construction program at the level approved by the WPB. Since materials were made available by the WPB a year
OCF has recommended priorities for the construction of 1,029 vessels.
"When vessels now under construction or approved have been completed," Dr. Gabrielson said, "and with the addition of requisitioned vessels which are now being returned by the Navy in increasing numbers, the U, s, fishing fleet will be substantially at its pre-war size, although there will be a deficit in certain categories of vessels."
The OCF will not apply to the War Production Board for authorization of additional materials beyond that already programmed for the rest of the year, the Deputy Coordinator said, for the reason that manpower shortages, lack of shore facilities, and inadequate refrigeration are already acting as brakes upon the production of the fisheries in many areas.
In four categories, applications will still be considered.
1. Applications that have already been submitted to the Office of the Coordinator of
Fisheries, but have not yet been acted on;
2. Requests for increase in previous allotments;
3. Bona fide emergency or hardship cases, such as the loss (no t sale) of a boat which
is the owner's means of a livelihood;
4. Applications that are intended to authorize a production schedule and preference
rating only, without allotment of materials, or small projects of the Mackyard"
MANILA ROPE RESTRICTIONS AGAIN TIGHTENED BY M-84
Further restrictions have been placed on the use of manila Piber to conserve available supplies of this critical fiber, the War Production Board reported on July 6.
Amendments, issued June 28, 1944, to Conservation Order M-84, provide for a 25 percent reduction in manila processing quotas. Commencing July 1, 1944, cordage manufacturers may process manila rope only for the 10 end uses listed in the Cordage End Use List of the order. The permitted end uses are life-saving equipment used aboard Great Lakes, coastwise and ocean-going ships, and cables, crackers and torpedo lines required to meet the program for increased drilling of oil and gas wells.
The amount of manila allocated for these uses possibly will be sufficient to meet minimum requirements, WPB said. However, if the se requirements during the third quarter exceed the amount allocated for these end uses, it will be necessary to use sisal rope as a substitute for manila rope.
Operators of commercial fishing boats, harbor and riveri tugs, ferries, barges and lighters will be required to use sisal rope because processing quotas do not include any manila rope for the se users. The permitted end uses for rope are included in Schedule A and for twine in Schedule B. (See following pages for Schedules A and B.)
The fishery cordage end uses permitted under the series of M-84 orders have varied considerably, according to a recent report of Frank E. Firth, a Service technologist conducting cordage studies in New England, Previous orders permitted more liberal use of this fiber in the fishing industry. The October 1943 order allowed 23 end uses, while that of April 1944 permitted 20 uses. In May 1943, however, only one end use was permitted in the order issued at that time.
The increase in the uses of manila for our fisheries between October 1943 and July 1944 was due to the WPB's recognition of the great need which the Fish and Wildlife Service pointed out existed for dependable cordage in fishery uses where life or valuable property would be at stake if ropes made of an inferior fiber were substituted. Increases were granted on the strength of reports which indicated that an increased supply of manila fibers was expected
Anchor buoy spar rope...
A rope used to steady a spar projecting from the side of a vessel... Anchor lines-submerged Fishing A line used to fix the position of stationary gear such as pounds or trap nets, sykes, and anchored gar.
gill nets. Anchor lines-sea plane..
The anchor rode of a sea plane.. Anchor rodes....
See anchor lines. Anchor lines-vessel.
A line used to connect the anchor chain and the vessel. Anchor lines--small ships
The lincs carried on small ships for anchoring... Anchor lines-sea anchor.
A rope attached to a canvas sea anchor used to retard the progress of a small boat or life rast.. Antenna rope...
A rope used for raising or lowering radio antennae for maintaining tension on antenna. Autiliary line-Lyle gun.
A 3" circ. hawser-drawn to or from a vessel by means of a whip line and which is used to support Yes.
a breeches buoy. Awning rope..
Rope for reinforcing and securing awning in place. Awning rope.
A small sized rope used to hoist or lower an awning. Backbone
The rope stitched to the back of the middle of an awning and to which the crows foot is spliced. Backhaul rope.
The rope to haul back a hoisting tackle when it is not heavy enough to return by gravity.. Backhaul rope--boom.
A rope used for hauling in the sounding boom aboard vessels. Bale rope.
A heavy wrapping twine for securing large bales or bundles.. Barrel chimes.
A special type of sling used only to hoist fuel drums aboard ship where rope is passed through
eyes at each end of drum; hoists 4 drums at a time. Band line.
See Guard rope. Beckett.
A rope eye or grommet used for the hook of a block. Beckett-Sprit sail.
A small piece of rope with an eye spliced in each end to hold the end of a sprit to the mast. Becket-Bandle..
See Handles... Becket rowlock.
A rowlock formed of a rope grommet secured over a throle pin in a sailing launch. Beckets-Steering wheel.
Used for lashing the wheel of a trawler when running on a fixed course.. Beckets-Trawl lines...
A short loop inserted at regular intervals in the ground line to provide fastening for the spell
or ganging. Bell rope.
A small hand rope suspended or attached to a bell and used for the purpose of ringing the bell. Belly lines-Otter trawl..
Ropes running from the head or foot line to the cod end and seized to the seams joining the top
side and bottom sections of the net. Their purpose is to reinforce the net. Belt shifter rope.
Frequently used on machinery as a medium of shifting belt drive from idler pulley to driving
pulley and vice versa. Berth bottoms.
A network of rope fashioned inside a frame which constitutes the bottom of the berth.. Bight line...
A line used to support a heavy line at the bight. Boat line.
A line used to tend boats when coming alongside. Bobstay...
A rope or chain preventing the bowsprit from jumping and leading from the end of the bow
sprit to the vessel's stem. Boisch iine...
A line lashed to the foot rope on which the bottom section of the otter trawl is hung.. Bolt rope-Sail
A rope to which a sail is sewed to reinforce the sail and maintain its shape. The efficient action
of a sail depends on the strength and stretching characteristics of the rope both when it is
wet and dry. Boom lift (Fishing vessels).
A line rove through tackle blocks attached to the mast and boom. It is used to adjust the
angle at which the boom is inclined from the mast and must support the load applied to the
fall lines. Boom-out haui line...
A line used to hold the boom away from the amidships when men are working and as a stop to
prevent sudden gusts of wind from unsuspected directions, causing the boom to fly over and
strike men in the boat.. Boring machine rope.
A rope used to clean inside of large caliber gun barrels after being bored or filed Bos'n's chair rope...
The rope to which is suspended a piece of board on which a man working aloft is swung and
used to raise or lower or support man. Bottom line...
See Hanging Rope - Fishing Industry. Bow lines..
See mooring lines. A line used in mooring or docking to check the vessel from going astern.
Line is led forward through bow check making an angle of less than 45o to the keel. Braces.
The ropes to control the horizontal movement of the yards... Brails.
Ropes used for furling fore and aft sails such as spanker to the mast. Can be foot-throat
or peak braiis. Brailer lifting rope..
A line rove, singly, through a block attached near the outer end of the boom, or suspended
from a pennant between two masts, or a mast and a suitable point on the vessel. Used for
various hoisting purposes. Breast line...
See mooring lines. A line used in mooring or docking vessels and runs at rightangles to keel
and dock. Breast line30 to 50 ton booms. A stay or guy used to prevent swinging of boom when lifting heavy load. Breast lines-Pile drive (Fishing). These lines lead from the sides of pile drivers to anchors and control the position of a pile driver
with reference to a definite area in which piling must be spotted for a fish trap. Breast line-Sea Plane and Flying Control surge of seaplane when moored or anchored....
the net and splicing them near the bottom. Its purpose is to prevent the weight of the lead
line from tearing the netting and to take the towing strain on the net. Breast purse line.....
A line passed through rings attached to the breast line of a purse seine and fastened near the
nets, the approximate midpoint being attached to an anchor line. Bucket ropes.
A rope attached to a bucket and used to raise or lower the bucket.. Bull rope.
A rope working through a hull's eye, especially one used in securing a light yard of mast. Bull ropes..
Oil well and gas cirilling-A rope 2% to 3'' diam, in lengths 80% to 120 long with eye splices in
cach end; used to transmit power in grooyed pulleys from engine to bull wheel. (A bull wheel
out wells.) Bumper rope.
A rope secured to the outside of the gunwale ol a small boat and used as a permanent bumper.. Bumpers...
Bumpers are usually made of old rope, the poorer sections used as Alling and the covering made
by lacing a strand over the filling. New strand is sometimes required for this purpose. Buntlines.
The lines used to haul the foot of a sail above and forward of the yard for convenience in furling..
See Tow line-Towing spar.
Same as above...
(50and less). Burton rope (below 3" circ.)
A type or part of a cargo fall- a cargo fall is a rope used in uploading and loading vessels. Burton rope (3" circ. & larger).
Same as above.... Busy lines..
See buoy lines.. Caisson ropes
See hoisting ropes. Cable laid ropes used for hoisting Call rope
See bull rope. A small size bull rope.. Car puller rope.
A rope, either plain or cable laid used for moving railway cars along an industrial sidingL'arriage rope.
See mill carriage rope. asing lines.
Rope used in pulling 'casing" out of oil wells. Cathead lines.
Oil well and gas drilling-a rope not smaller than 1/4" diam. used around a drilling rig in oil
and gas drilling for hoisting tools, pipe, etc., by means of power driven capstan. Catlides.
Same as Cathead lines.
The ropes running angularly from the hammock surface to the ring or other fitting whereby the
hammock is supported. Clew line-Sail.
A type of lashing rope used to secure the hem rope of a sail to the mast of a small boat.
Cotton only. Cod end rope....
This line is passed through the last ipeshes or rings attached to the fish bag opening and serves
to close and open the fish bag or cod end. Cod line...
See cod end rope..
Small sized lines, generally lightly tarred, used for ground fishing.
See chain compressor fall. Concluding line...
A small rope rove through the middle of the steps of a Jacob's ladder. Construction Rigging Rope (below Used in construction of new machinery and repairs to existing machinery or equipment. Also 1" diam.) for the maintenance of existing and construction of new structures, including
power lines and communications systems. In shipyards, for uses in building of yards; construction of new
hulls and the repair of existing vessels. Construction Rigging Rope (1" diam. Same as above...
Yes.... and over). Cork line.
See Float line. Crab line
Usually a 316" to 44" soft laid rope used as the bait line by inserting bait between strands in the
crab fishing industry. Crackers...
A short length of fiber drilling cable used in conjunction with a wire drilling cable affording Yes... Yes.....
spring or elasticity to the wire line. Generally 24" diam. and larger. Cringle....
A piece of rope splined into an eye over a thimble in the bolt of a sail.
See hoisting rope..
See Mooring lines.
brailing. or fishing. The bottom of the spiller is attached to the down haul. Down hau..
See Hoisting Rope-Sail...
Ropes used to drag a trawl on shrimp fishing boats
A rope generally attached to a hook oi one variety or another and used to locate and recover
objects lying on the bottom of a body of water. Draw line...
See Cod end rope.... Dressing lines..
The lines used in the display of national colors (fags) at all mastheads and the flagstaff aboard
ships. Drist line-Gill net fishing..
A line by which the net is secured to the boat wbile drifting..
Yes. and larger). Drilling cables-oil wells (" diam. Used for operating the tcol: in "cable tool" drilling
Yes..... Yes..... and above). Drilling cables, water wells.... Used on portable machine: for drilling water wells. Usually made in size 1/4" diam. 10 17"
The rope used for operating a dumbwaiter.. Earing.
A shori piece of rope secured to a cringle for hauling out the cringle. Easing out line.
A line used in clearing hawse and in mooring for casing out a chain which has been unshackled.. Eelpot Rope
See Buoy line... Electric coil Aller.
A rope filler in double deck coils for securing insulation, used principally in electric traction
A rope used to stop and start power of a power driven elevator; : Iso a hand rope to raise or
lower a hand powered elevator. Elevator Gati Rope....
A rope attached to a gate or door ant attached 10 counterbalance to facilitate operation of
See awning rope....
Yes... ortwo masts or a pendant between the mast and a suitable point on the vessel. Falls-Cargo (below 3" circ.).
A 3 or 4 strand rope used in loading or discharging cargoes..
See Halyard-flag and signal.
See topping list fall. Falls-Lifeboat.
A rope used generally in conjunction with a pair of davits, used to raise or lower lifeboats wbich Yes. Yes..
ter)., Falls-Topping list (78" dia. or larger). Same as above.
Rope for adjusting windsails (ventilators) in position
Coir only. Fire escape rope
Rope used for fire escape in hotel rooms, etc., not connected with outside stairways... Fisherman's cable.
See anchor lines. Cable laid rope, sometimes tarred, for use off the fishing banks for anchor line. Fish bag release line.
See cod end rope.... Float line Fyke Dets.
The floatline is used to support the leader netting of fyke nets.
A line to which the corks or floats are attached and supports the netting-