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Sir Joseph Banks was received in | granaries of science. In this voyage his native eountry, with all that kind- he was accompanied by a Danish clerness and warmth of affection, with gyman of considerable merit, who, which indefatigable industry, manly profiting by the observations of bis fortitude, the encounter of perils, the philosophical companion, communiliberal expenditure of wealth, and the cated his information to the Danish privation of comforts, to promote the government, of which they availed interests of science, ought always to themselves, for the improvement of the be rewarded. The productions of na- island, and the condition of the inhature which he had imported, were both bitants. rare and curious; and the invaluable Returning from Iceland, Sir Joseph information contained in his journals, spent a few years occasionally in Loncontinued to keep alive that admira- don, or at his seat in Lincolnshire, agtion and respect, which bis disinterest- sociating with men of letters, of rank ed conduct, and noble motives, bad and fortune, and holding an extensive every where awakened. In private correspondence with the most eminent and in public, at court and among men naturalists, and other philosophers, in of science, the name of Sir Joseph Europe, and in the most distant parts Banks was mentioned with profound of the earth, which science had enveneration and esteem; and the sci- lightened with its beams. ence and literature of his country ho- Sir John Pringle, who had been Prenoured him with evidences of their ap- sident of the Royal Society, retired probation.
from that office, towards the end of Ardent in the pursuit of knowledge, the year 1777. Prior to this time, Sir as a new expedition was about to be Joseph Banks had assisted at their fitted out for making discoveries in the meetings ; and to many of the memnorthern regions, Sir Joseph was one bers it was well known, that the ultiof the first to engage in the perilous mate object of his pursuit was to raise enterprise. He was, however, after science to its true dignity, by renderwards induced to relinquish his inten- ing it subservient to the useful purpotion; but his assistance and directions ses of life. Knowledge, respectability, were not withheld; and his communi- affluence, an inextinguishable love of cations of that knowledge of savage science, and an affability of manners, manners which he had acquired, were concentrating in Sir Joseph, the friends far from being unimportant.
of the institution, conceived that they As Iceland, according to common could not more effectually promote its report, was thought to contain many true design, than by procuring his elecnatural curiosities, Sir Joseph Banks tion to fill the vacant chair. Success hired a vessel, and, in company with attended their endeavours; and Sir Dr. Solander, once more ventured to Joseph Banks entered on the duties of brave the dangers of the ocean. The his office as President of the Royal islands scattered along the north-west: Society in the year 1778. coast of Scotland, lying contiguous to Unwearied in his attention to the their track, they were induced to land, interests of the society, Sir Joseph, by to examine their productions, and the extending its correspondence, procurstrata of the rocks. In this examina-ed communications that were in a high tion they discovered the columnar stra- degree pleasing and important; and tification of the rocks encircling the through his influence many persons of caves of Stafl'a; which, prior to this rank and ability were induced to contime, no naturalist had observed. Sir sider it an honour to be elected as felJoseph's report roused the attention lows. His example also operated to of scientific men, and gave such a turn the advantage of the society, by stito their researches, that the subject mulating to diligence some of its memsoon became famous throughout Eu- bers; and there are few periods in its rope.
history, of equal duration, in which so Arriving at Iceland, the volcanic many valuable papers have appeared, mountains, the hot springs, the sili- as during the first three or four years ceous rocks, the arctic plants, and the of his Presideney. animals peculiar to these polar re- The title to this office is that of angions, were carefully surveyed, and nual election; and for the first three another valuable harvest of specimens, or four years, Sir Joseph bound bis on his return, was gathered into the seat secure But discord succeeding
to the harmony that had prevailed, tion of strangers. To these, men of a formidable opposition was raised enlightened minds, and liberal views, against him, accompanied with a cata- regularly resort; and conversations, at logue of charges, in which he was re- once elegant, profound, and interestpresented as totally unfit for the office ing, employ their hours. On these he sustained ;-as possessing no scien- occasions, bis library and museum are tific merit!-and as concentrating in open to inspection, and new specimens bodily labour, and an expenditure of either of art or nature, generally lie on money, nearly all his qualifications. his tables to undergo examination. His friends, however, rallied round These exhibitions, which would be adhim, and repelling the charges, retain- ditionally pleasing, if presented on ed him in office by the voice of a great another day, discover a mind devoted majority: and no disposition has of to scientific pursuits. On almost every late been manifested to deprive him of subject of importance, some informa that honour, which all expect will ac- tion may be obtained in this assembly; company him through life.
and scarcely any discovery takes Nearly all the voyages of discovery place, of which the earliest intelligence and arduous travels which have been may not be procured at the house of undertaken by the natives of England, Sir Joseph Banks. during the last twenty-five years, have If we view his person at present, enbeen more or less encouraged and pa- feebled by age and emaciated with the tronized by the patriotism of Sir Jo- gout, we shall form but an inadequate seph Banks. Ledyard, Lucas, and conception of what Sir Joseph Banks Stoughton, were stimulated by him in was. In the prime of life, his person their dangerous undertakings. The was tall and robust, and his countecelebrated, but unfortunate Mungo nance expressed dignity and intelliPark, began his perilous enterprise gence. Rich in instructive informaunder the auspices of Sir Joseph; and tion, his manners were vivacious withFrance is under obligations to his out levity, dignified without affectation, manly and philanthropic spirit. In no and affable without mean familiarity. small degree, the African Association His conversation was easy and exowes its origin to his fostering care; pressive, displaying a mind capable of and the prosperity which now distin- entering on almost any subject with guishes the colony at New South becoming gracefulness. But his race Wales, may claim him as its friend and seems nearly run; and he now waits, parent. It is through his exertions, that on the margin of his mortal existence, the Bread-fruit tree has been cultivated that call from heaven, which shall with so much success in our West India usher his spirit into the regions of the islands, and that our botanical gardens disembodied. are enriched with so many foreign plants. Of his advice and encourage
A QUESTION MORE FULLY STATED. ment, Sir John Sinclair availed himself, when compiling his Statistical ac- In our 10th number, column 994, we count of Scotland; and the Board of inserted the following question, proAgriculture indebted to his co sels posed by Tyro, of Tetbury: Does the for some branches of its utility. By Earth increase in magnitude?". In his genius, the fens of Lincolnshire stating this question, we introduced have been drained; new implements what we thought necessary in order to in husbandry and gardening have been its being understood. Since that time introduced by his application; and the we have received a letter from the improvements which have taken place author, in which he seems to think in the breed of our sheep, and other that we injured his query by suppressdomesticated animals, may in a great ing what we deemed superfluous. To degree be ascribed to his attentions. remove the cause of his complaint, we
Possessed of an ample fortune, and now insert the whole in his own words. blessed with a liberal spirit, his house “ Has the Earth, since the Creation, is open to men of science and talents increased in magnitude, or not?' from all parts of the world. Every “In connection with this query, allow Sunday evening while Parliament is me to observe, if the possibility of sitting, and during the ordinary meet-such increase cannot be admitted ings of the Royal Society, his apart- (which I have heard disputed) anr ments are always ready for the recep- / lation, I conceive, must have taken
in some shape ; but as absolute or par- us not, by refusing us thy grace,' to tial annihilation of any part of the enter into temptation.” creation, while time exists, is generally helieved to be impossible, the earth, it appears to me, must have increased Reply to a Query on “ Lead us not into considerably in weight, from the in
temptation." crease of population, &c., and if increased in weight, must have increased MR. EDITOR, in bulk; but if this increase in bulk Sir,- In perusing the eighth Number has taken place, there must conse- of your valuable Miscellany, col. 768. quently have been a gradual compres- I observe “ A Constant Reader” of sion or expansion of the atmosphere, Blackburn, is desirous of being able to admit, if it may be so termed, of the consistently to reconcile the apparent growth of the earth. Now, if the re- paradox of our Lord teaching his disduction of the atmosphere into a ciples to pray, viz. “ Lead us not into smaller compass had been effected by temptation;" with what his apostle the increasing surface of the earth, the James says, when writing to the twelve force of compression would, I con- tribes, that“ God tempteth no man.” ceive, have impeded vegetation in some If you should deem the following curdegree, and have been attended with sory remarks on the subject, worthy a perceptible inconvenience to the ani- place in your publication, you will by mal creation. But if, on the other their insertion oblige, Sir, hand, our atmosphere has expanded, to
Your's very obediently, give place to the growing earth, how
A. B. E. has the atmosphere which exists above ours been effected ? Simply, with re- not be considered synonymous in their
The passages above alluded to, cangard to the increase of the earth's import; as to tempt, and to lead into magnitude, I feel satisfied in my own mind; but cannot reconcile, what ap- though it must be confessed their sig
temptation, imply different actions, pears to me to be its attendant conse
nifications apparently clash with the quences.”
general tenor of Scripture. In our English Dictionaries, the meaning
given to the word tempt, is to solicit Reply to a Query on Substantives.
or incite to do evil; but the scriptural In the 8th Number of the Imperial meaning of the word temptation, has Magazine, col. 762, an inquiry was a very different import, and gives the made how the words “ Nothing, Non- Greek word, leigaguos its original entity,” &c. could be denominated meaning, which is trial rather than substantives. To this question a cor- temptation, or leigazw, to try to exrespondent of Saltash, who gives the plore; nor does the word Terçaļw in initials S. T. has sent the following any degree tacitly imply, to tempt to
do evil. The apostle James has it, "A Constant Reader appears to God cannot be tempted with evil, neihave forgotten, that the word Nothing ther tempteth he any man.' Now if is a compound term, and implies not the apostle had merely said, God
tempteth no man, &c. it would be a direct contradiction of other passages
of Scripture; but I am led to infer Reply to Query, col. 768, on, Lead us that a person having the true scriptunot into temptation.”
ral meaning of the word temptation in In answer to this question, S. T. of view, may conscientiously pray, Lead Saltash, (from whom we have other us not into temptation: but if the Lord communications, which we hope to in- should, in his fatherly chastisements sert in our next,) has also furnished and dispensations toward us, suffer us us with the following observations. to be tempted, tried, and alllicted, as
A Constant Reader, of Blackburn, we have an instance in the characters will, it is likely, have his scruples re- of Job and Peter, it is ours to pray, moved by being informied, that in He- Deliver us from evil; and submissively brew and Syriac, the expression' to say, Thy will be done, on earth, as in lead,' is the same as to permit to heaven;--knowing that the trial of our enter;' so that our Lord meant 'suffor faith is precious,
COMMERCIAL REPORT, DECEMBER 22d, 1819. In closing our labours for this most eventful Year, we beg leave to present our readers with an abstract of the principal Imports during the last twelve months; and in directing their attention to the material decline in many articles, we venture to anticipate a revival in our commerce ; and which has already manifested itself in some degree.
The imports of Sugar do not much differ from the preceding year, but prices are greatly reduced; in low descriptions this amounts to 14s. per cit. and to 5s. in finer qualities.
Coffee is at a reduction of 25s. per cwt.
In Dyewoods the depreciation has been great, being £3. per ton in Fustic.—In Logwood £1. 10s. per ton.--In Nicaragua Woud, £4. per tun.-In Camwood, £6. per ton
Spirits have experienced a corresponding decline. Jamaica Rum is at a depression of 1s. per gailon. Leewards, 8d. per gallon.—Tobaccos generally, have fallen 3d. per lb.-Russian Candle Tallow is the most prominent article in the scale of depression, being 30s. per cwt. lower than at the prices of last year.
The difference in value in the various descriptions of Cotton is not less striking, beiug 3d. per lb. in Upland Georgia ; In Brazils, 6d. ; and 1s. per lb. in Sea Islands. The deficiency in the comparative import cannot fail to be sensibly felt, when any improvement takes place in any branch of trade.
Upon a review of these striking facts, we are sanguine enough to believe, that a revival of commerce is not very distant, and we trust shortly to have the pleasing task of announcing the improvement to our readers. IMPORTS of the principal Articles of East and West India, American, and
other Produce, from Jan. 1st to Dec. 22d, 1819; with a comparative view of the Imports in 1818 for the same period.
6576 10616 30111 8909
190 305011 261583 22838
Brls. and Bags.
Bris. and Bags.
West India.... Do.
Brls, Bags, Pckis. &c.
Bxs. Chsts. & Serons.
Puncheons OLIVE OIL
Casks PALM OIL
Bags and Pockets PIMENTO.
Barrels and Bags QUERCITRON BARK
Do. RICE ...
Puncheons & Hhds. SALTPETRE
Hads. and Tces.
Hogsheads, &c.. TAR
9136 5014 14716 13213
8476 15040 43078 41852 2528 4589 1806 1505 33631 14322 3682
8728 3710 3762 8371 11086 22431 58952 31331 46362
SUNDRIES.- Liverpool, 228 Dec. HAY, old, 205 ......os. ad.eu.
Dew STRAW, Wheat, 2011.. 3 POTATOES, dew, 21.6 5 6 OATMEAL, sack 3407b-35 O FLOUR, best, sk.to.48
seconds........42 45 FRESH BUTTER, 1602...... 1
1. Beef new, y tierce os 0 a 117 6 barrel 65 0
78 0 Butter, ewt.
0 70 Cork dry 3rds. new
pickled new ands. 76 Belfast dry new...... B20
83 0 Newry do..
790 600 Pork, Irish, brl. 80 92 6 Cheese, old, 1201b 700 85 0 pew..
55 0 650 LEATHER, y tb. Butts, 10 lb
.1 10 Dressing, 20 a 211b....19 1 10 Calf, doz. 40 a 50lb..2 7 29
Do. 30 a 35 ..2 2 Horse, lb. ........ 6 List of Vessels Arrived. Cleared From West India and Bri
for sea. tish Settlements in 90 24
135 89 Europe and all
46 other Parts
Prices of Bullion. Liverpool Foreign Gold, in Bars ......£3 17 105 Portugal Gold, in Coin. .....3 17 102 New Doubloons
.........3 16 0 New Dollars...
.....0 5 0 Silver, in Bars, Standard......O SY
Rates of Insurance.
L.posl.. Lond. To West Indies y cent. 356 405
U. States of America 40 -
East Coast.. 30
WHOLESALL.-L. pool, Dec. n, 1819.
74 65 boe ........ 82 90 Refned,Dble.Loavs 6.3 71b. 144 146
Single do. 10-1416.114 120
Canary do. 24-2816.114 120
3d. Leewards, common 2 1 2 2 BRANDY, Cognac.... 3 GENEVA....
2 10 COFFEE, cwt. West India, ordinary.. 108 a 112
middling ..122 130
145 MAHOGANY, V foot,
$. d. Honduras
1 40 16 St. Domingo
1 7 2 3 Cuba
18 COTTON, Ib.Sea Isl.
2 5 good to fine ...... ordinary to middling 19 2 3 Bowed, Georgia.... 11 New Orleans ......1 of 15 Pernambucco ......15
0 73 1 1 Bengal
0 94 DYE WOODS, y ton, £. s. Fustic, Cuba... 90 a 10 10
Porto Rico....60 7 0
Jamaica 70 60 Logwood, Campeachy 70 80
Jamaica.... 6 10 7 0
Honduras,.. 6 10 7 10 Nicaragua Wood,
24 0 large solid.. small
80 11 0 TOBACCO, tb. 8. d. s. d. James River
0 31 a08 stemmed........05 0 74 Rappahanock
05 stemmed........03 06 Kentucky
0 31 05 ASHES, Y cut.
8. d. 1st, Pot, fresh, U. S. 41 0 a 120
Montreal ........360 37 0
American, Ist, Pearl 400 410 TAR, V barri.Stockholm 200
Archangel 22 0 23 0
American 16 0 18 0 duty paid,
RICE, ¥ , }
Prices of Stock, London, Dec. 20. Bank Stock...
2131 3 Cent Reduced ........ 66 4 y Cent Consols... 831 Bank Long Annnities ....
175-16 Omnium Consols for Acct........... 674
IRISH FUNDS.-December 18.
scent, 104 Government Stock, 34 V cent....
5 cent. 1024 Grand Canal loan, 4 cent..
AMERICAN PUNDS.-Dec. 20. 3 Cents New 6 + Cents ............99 - 100% (The above with Div. from October.) U.S. Bank Shares ............£21
Liverpool Dock Shares, Dec. 17. £92 17 33-10th arerage price for £10 at 5 pcent per annum; Interest pas able in London or Liverpool half yearly.
Beans. Peas. 488 5d 50s Id
40 11 24 7 24 11
24 1 Average Prices of Grain for the 12 Districts.
378 8d | 24s 8d Wheat. Rye. Barley. Oats.
418 8d 40 11
42 ? 67$ 1d 65 8 66
36 : Ports closed against all kinds of Grain for home consumption
Course of Exchange, in London, December 19. Amsterdam, 11 : 19 C. F. Ditto at Paris, 3 days sight, 25. 1. Bourdeaux. 25:45. Praukfort on the Main, ist. Ex: M. Madrid, 351, effect. Cadiz, 364. effect. Barcelona, 341. Gibraltar, 30. 'Leghorn, 48. Genoa, 441. Venice, Paarlan Liv. 37: 30. Maji ManeaplesBlind items tin. Leon, 624. Oporn,.
4th Dec, 11th
Total Tonnage ........46251
358. a 40s. East India ....
15 19 HIDES, b. Buenos Ayres 6fd. a 91d.
West India 5 6 BRIMSTONE, y ton, £s. £. s.
rough ......23 10 a 24 0 SHUMAC, cwt.
s. d. s. d. Sicily ..........23 0 a 23 HEMP, y ton,
£... £. $. Petersburg clean 46 0 a
Riga Rhine ......48 O 490 FLAX, ton,
St. Petersburg 12-head 75 0 a HOPS, Kent, pock, new 3 18 4 10
bags, do. 4 2 Worcester,
do. 4 4 Yearling, Kent or
3 8 Worcester, in ps.
4 0 PINE TIMBER, cub ft. s. d. 8. d.
Ameriean ........16 17
s. d. Barley, Eng! Y 607h. * 6 a 5 9
Irish & Foreign 39 50
Foreign ....36 0 45 0
sour..32 0 34 0 Oats, Engl. 45tb.
3 4 new.. Irish & foreign 2 10 3 7 Wheat, Engl. 4 7015.100 10 9 Irish........8
9 0 Dantzig .... 96 10 3 TALIOW, V 11211. 8. d. s. d.
Russia Y. Candle 58 0 a 600
Brazit .....58 0 61 0 IRON, Eng. bar ......£11 10 13 0 Foreiga,
in bond 17 O 17 10 QILS, tun, Olive.... £79 0 a 81 0
Seal ......36 0 38 0
Cod ......37 0 SB 0
39 Turpeutige,wcwt.62 O
Liverpool Exports of British Manufac
tures, from 22d Nov. to 21st Dec. Cotton Stuffs 244043 pes. & 811412 yds. Woollen do... 17156
7976 Worsted do... 5365
113607 Linen Cloth.. 299
298641 Kerseyipere.. 520
15927 Baize ........ 1110
2 Blanketing ..
... 154 Rock Salt to Foreign Parts.. 895 Ireland
1777 Coals to Foreign Parts ....
741 chal. Ireland
Liverpool Imports, from the 22d Novo
to the 21st December.
PRINTED BY H. FISHER, LIVERPOOL, PRINTER IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY.