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Linnæus about this time had aston- and figures, and the other to paint subished the world with the progress he jects of natural history. A secretary had made in botanical researches; and, and four servants were also incorpo by the nomenclature which he had in- rated in his suite ; and more immedivented, and the arrangements he had ately as his director in natural history, formed, nearly all Europe was roused he engaged Dr. Solander, who was at from the lethargy in which it had been that time employed in the British Muentranced for ages; and the pupils of seum. This gentleman, who was a this great philosopher were enriching Swede by birth, and had been one of this department of science, with the the most eminent pupils of Linnæus, productions of almost every climate was well known to possess considerand every zone.
able merit, which, having recommendA study so congenial with the open- ed him to the patronage of England, ing genius of Sir Joseph Banks, could fully qualified him to become the comnot long escape his attention; and panion of Sir Joseph in his future being furnished with the means of in- researches. dulging in these favourite researches, On the 26th of August 1768, Sir Johe formed a resolution to promote, to seph and his companions sailed from the utmost of his power, the interests Plymouth, on board of the Endeavour, of this pleasing branch of philosophy. commanded by Lieutenant Cook, and From the islands of Jamaica and Bar- prosecuted the early part of their voybadoes many botanical treasures had age without meeting with any particubeen already collected; the continent lar accident. In their passage to Maof America had also been visited, and deira they discovered several marine Virginia had yielded a valuable scien- animals, which no naturalist had hitific harvest.
therto described; and from thence to Stimulated by these adventures, dis- Rio Janeiro their vigilance was pleascoveries, and successes, Sir Joseph ingly rewarded by various objects endetermined to extend his researches tirely new to science. But in this setbeyond the narrow round in which his tlement, the constitutional jealousy of predecessors and contemporaries had the Portuguese prevented them from travelled ;—to add enterprise to sci- visiting those places, in which they had ence;--and to enrich the treasures of anticipated a harvest of new beauties botany with the productions of coun- in the vegetable world. tries that had hitherto been unexplor- Landing on the coast of Terra del ed. Under these impressions, on leav- Fuego, Sir Joseph, Dr. Solander, and ing the University in 1763, he em- others, made an excursion into the barked in a voyage across the Atlan- country, where being overtaken with tic, to visit the coasts of Newfound- a storm of snow, they had nearly peland, and the inhospitable regions of rished. The cold was intense; no Labrador. In this expedition the diffi- mark to guide them in their return reculties he encountered were numerous mained visible; the desolation of winand formidable ; but his success in ter seemed to conceal the face of nacollecting the various objects of his ture; and their propensity to sleep research, more than counterbalanced was almost invincible. The love of the hardships which be endured, and life appeared to have abandoned them prepared him for greater exertions, with the probable means of preserving and more hazardous exploits.
it; and three of their companions fell Availing himself of that spirit of asleep to awake no more. One night naval discovery, which at this time they passed on shore, amidst the horpredominated, he resolved to embrace rors of the storm; and even against the earliest opportunity of embarking the dictates of their own judgments, with some celebrated circumnavigator, several were disposed to indulge their to take a circuit round the globe. propensity to sleep, even while they Anson, Byron, Carteret, and Wallis, were convinced that the consequences had respectively returned from their would be fatal. On the following day, perilous voyages: and Lieut. James they, however, discovered the beach; Cook being about to prosecute the dis- and making their way towards it, aru overies they had begun, with him he rived at last almost in the agonies of determined to sail.
death, in which condition they were Sir Joseph took with him two received on board the ship. Brughtsmen; one to delineate vicws From the inhospitable shores of
Memoir of Sir Joseph Banks.
Terra del Fuego, the Endeavour sailed at sea, and their escape was little into the Pacific ocean, and reached less than miraculous. On this disasOtaheite on the 12th of April, 1769. trous occasion, Sir Joseph was among At this place, and among the smaller the foremost in braving the dangers islands, the voyagers tarried about of their situation ; and to his firmness three months, during which time Sir and presence of mind they were much inJoseph was indefatigable in forming debted for their common preservation. his collections of whatever was rare At the mouth of a river, which, after or curious, and in making his observa- their ship, they named Endeavour, tions on every species of remarkable they repaired, in the best manner they phænomena. "On these occasions, his were able, the damage which the vesintimate acquaintance with human sel had sustained. But unfortunately, nature, enabled him to preserve a good they were compelled to lay her in a understanding with the natives, and, position, that admitted so much water, through his prudence and foresight, as entirely ruined a considerable part many dissensions were prevented. His of the collections which Sir Joseph collections in these islands were nu- had made, and the remainder was not merous and interesting, and compen- saved without much anxiety and trousated by their peculiar novelty for their ble. deficiency in actual value.
Surviving this disaster, they renewOn the 15th of August, they sailed ed their voyage; and, continuing to from this groupe of islands, taking advance northward along the coast, with them Tupia a priest, and Tayeto his losses were in some measure rehis boy, and on the 6th of October they paired, by the variety of shells, and came in sight of New Zealand, which other marine productions, which were at that time had been seen only by gathered, the species of which had Tasman, a former navigator. With been entirely unknown before. But the inhabitants a friendly intercourse their most important discovery was was quickly established through Tupia, that of the Kangaroo, which exhibited who understood their language, and a novelty in the animal world, and acted as interpreter. At this place, added an interesting species to the while the navigators examined the natural history of quadrupeds. This coast, and explored the strait, which animal is now too well known to renow bears the name of Cook, Sir quire any particular description. Joseph was busily engaged in cull- Leaving this place on the 23d of ing the rare and curious productions August, they steered for New Guinea. of nature. And although in propor- In the insalubrious climate of Batation to the extent of country with via, they experienced the common afwhich they were surrounded, the spe- flictions to which most Europeans are cimens were less numerous and diver- exposed, when they begin to breathe sified than might have been expected, this noxious atmosphere. Tupia was many articles were obtained, which seized with an ague, of which he died; acquire value and importance, as being and his boy Tayeto fell by an inflammaimported from a distant region, to en- tion of the lungs. For some time Sir rich the cabinet of the naturalist. Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander were
From New Zealand they proceeded exceedingly ill; and in their turns, all to New Holland, which they coasted on board were sick during their stay northward, until they reached Botany in this abode of pestilence and death, Bay; a name which was given to this except the sailmaker, an old man beplace, from the numerous and diversi-tween seventy and cighty, who got fied botanical objects it was found to drunk every day. At Batavia seven contain. On the shores, new species men died; and in the course of the of zoology were likewise discovered; next six weeks after they left the harand from the numerous and distant ex- bour, twenty-three more became the cursions made into the interior, they fatal victims of disease and death. concluded, that it would prove highly Nothing further of moment occurred favourable for a colonial settlement. during the remaining part of their In prosecuting their voyage along the voyage. The survivors contrived to eastern shore, the ship unfortunately navigate the vessel to the shores of struck upon a rock, which, making an England, which they reached on the opening in her bottom, they were in 12th of June, 1771, and cast anchor in the most imminent danger of perishing the Downs.
Sir Joseph Banks was received in granaries of science. In this voyage his native country, with all that kind- he was accompanied by a Danish clerness and warmth of affection, with gyman of considerable merit, who, which indefatigable industry, manly profiting by the observations of bis fortitude, the encounter of perils, the philosophical companion, communiliberal expenditure of wealth, and the cated his information to the Danish privation of comforts, to promote the government, of which they availed interests of science, ought always to themselves, for the improvement of the be rewarded. The productions of na- island, and the condition of the inhature which he had imported, were both bitants. rare and curious; and the invaluable Returning from Iceland, Sir Joseph information contained in his journals, spent a few years occasionally in Loncontinued to keep alive that admira- | don, or at his seat in Lincolnshire, astion and respect, which bis disinterest- sociating with men of letters, of rank ed conduct, and noble motives, had and fortune, and holding an extensive every where awakened. In private correspondence with the most eminent and in public, at court and among men naturalists, and other philosophers, in of science, the name of Sir Joseph Europe, and in the most distant parts Banks was mentioned with profound of the earth, which science had enveneration and esteem; and the sci- lightened with its beams. once and literature of his country ho- Sir John Pringle, who had been Prenoured him with evidences of their ap- sident of the Royal Society, retired probation,
from that office, towards the end of Ardent in the pursuit of knowledge, the year 1777. Prior to this time, Sir as a new expedition was about to be Joseph Banks had assisted at their fitted out for making discoveries in the meetings; and to many of the memnorthern regions, Sir Joseph was one bers it was well known, that the ultiof the first to engage in the perilous mate object of his pursuit was to raise enterprise. He was, however, after- science to its true dignity, by renderwards induced to relinquish his inten- ing it subservient to the useful purpotion; but his assistance and directions ses of life. Knowledge, respectability, were not withheld; and his communi- affluence, an inextinguishable love of cations of that knowledge of savage science, and an affability of manners, manners which he had acquired, were concentrating in Sir Joseph, the friends far from being unimportant.
of the institution, conceived that they As Iceland, according to common could not more effectually promote its report, was thought to contain many true design, than by procuring his elecnatural curiosities, Sir Joseph Banks tion to fill the vacant chair. Success hired a vessel, and, in company with attended their endeavours; and Sir Dr. Solander, once more ventured to Joseph Banks entered on the duties of brave the dangers of the ocean. The bis office as President of the Royal islands scattered along the north-west Society in the year 1778. coast of Scotland, lying contiguous to Unwearied in his attention to the thcir track, they were induced to land, interests of the society, Sir Joseph, by to examine their productions, and the extending its correspondence, procurstrata of the rocks. In this examina- ed communications that were in a high tion they discovered the columnar stra- degree pleasing and important; and tification of the rocks encircling the through his influence many persons of caves of Staffa; which, prior to this rank and ability were induced to contime, no naturalist had observed. Sir sider it an honour to be elected as felJoseph's report roused the attention lows. His example also operated to of scientific men, and gave such a turn the advantage of the society, by stito their researches, that the subject mulating to diligence some of its memsoon became famous throughout Eu- bers; and there are few periods in its rope.
history, of equal duration, in which so Arriving at Iceland, the volcanic many valuable papers have appeared, mountains, the hot springs, the sili- as during the first three or four years ceous rocks, the arctic plants, and the of his Presidency. animals peculiar to these polar re- The title to this office is that of angions, were earefully surveyed, and nual election; and for the first three another valuable harvest of specimens, or four years, Sir Joseph found his on his return, was gathered into the seat secure But discord succeeding 1081
A Question more fully stated.
to the harmony that had prevailed, tion of strangers. To these, men of a formidable opposition was raised enlightened minds, and liberal views, against him, accompanied with a cata- regularly resort; and conversations, at logue of charges, in which he was re- once elegant, profound, and interestpresented as totally unfit for the office ing, employ their hours. On these he sustained ;-as possessing no scien- occasions, his library and museum are tific merit!—and as concentrating in open to inspection, and new specimens bodily labour, and an expenditure of either of art or nature, generally lie on money, nearly all his qualifications. his tables to undergo examination. His friends, however, rallied round These exhibitions, which would be adhim, and repelling the charges, retain- ditionally pleasing, if presented on ed him in office by the voice of a great another day, discover a mind devoted majority: and no disposition has of to scientific pursuits. On almost every late been manifested to deprive him of subject of importance, some informathat honour, which all expect will ac- tion may be obtained in this assembly; company him through life.
and scarcely any discovery takes Nearly all the voyages of discovery place, of which the earliest intelligence and arduous travels which have been may not be procured at the house of undertaken by the natives of England, Sir Joseph Banks. during the last twenty-five years, have If we view his person at present, enbeen more or less encouraged and pa- feebled by age and emaciated with the tronized by the patriotism of Sir Jo- gout, we shall form but an inadequate seph Banks. Ledyard, Lucas, and conception of what Sir Joseph Banks Stoughton, were stimulated by him in was. In the prime of life, his person their dangerous undertakings. The was tall and robust, and his countecelebrated, but unfortunate Mungo nance expressed dignity and intelliPark, began his perilous enterprise gence. Rich in instructive informaunder the auspices of Sir Joseph; and tion, his manners were vivacious withFrance is under obligations to his out levity, dignified without affectation, manly and philanthropic spirit. In no and affable without mean familiarity. small degree, the African Association His conversation was easy and exowes its origin to his fostering care; pressive, displaying a mind capable of and the prosperity which now distin- entering on almo any subject with guishes the colony at New South becoming gracefulness. But his race Wales, may claim him as its friend and seems nearly run; and he now waits, parent. It is through his exertions, that on the margin of his mortal existence, the Bread-fruit tree has been cultivated that call from heaven, which shall with so much success in our West India usher his spirit into the regions of the islands, and that our botanical gardens disembodied. are enriched with so many foreign plants. Of his advice and encourage
A QUESTION MORE FULLY STATED. ment, Sir John Sinclair availed himself, when compiling his Statistical ac- In our 10th number, column 994, we count of Scotland; and the Board of inserted the following question, proAgriculture is indebted to his counsels posed by Tyro, of Tetbury: " Does the for some branches of its utility. By Earth increase in magnitude ?” In his genius, the fens of Lincolnshire stating this question, we introduced have been drained; new implements what we thought necessary in order to in husbandry and gardening have been its being understood. Since that time introduced by his application; and the we have received a letter from the improvements which have taken place author, in which he seems to think in the breed of our sheep, and other that we injured his query by suppressdomesticated animals, may in a great ing what we deemed superfluous. To degree be ascribed to his attentions. remove the cause of his complaint, we
Possessed of an ample fortune, and now insert the whole in his own words. blessed with a liberal spirit, his house “ Has the Earth, since the Creation, is open to men of science and talents increased in magnitude, or not? from all parts of the world. Every “ In connection with this query, allow Sunday evening while Parliament is me to observe,-if the possibility of sitting, and during the ordinary meet- such increase cannot be admitted, ings of the Royal Society, his apart- (which I have heard disputed) annihiments are always ready for the recep- lation, I conceive, must have taken place in some shape; but as absolute or par- us not, by refusing us thy grace,' to tial annihilation of any part of the enter into temptation.” creation, while time exists, is generally believed to be impossible, the earth, it appears to me, must have increased Reply to a Query on“ Lead us not into considerably in weight, from the in
temptation." crease of population, &c., and if increased in weight, must have increased MR. Editor, in bulk ; but if this increase in bulk Sir,-In perusing the eighth Number has taken place, there must conse- of your valuable Miscellany, col. 768. quently have been a gradual compres- I observe “ A Constant Reader” of sion or expansion of the atmosphere, Blackburn, is desirous of being able to admit, if it may be so termed, of the consistently to reconcile the apparent growth of the earth. Now, if the re- paradox of our Lord teaching his disduction of the atmosphere into a ciples to pray, viz. “ Lead us not into smaller compass had been effected by temptation;" with what his apostle the increasing surface of the earth, the James says, when writing to the twelve force of compression would, I con- tribes, that“ God tempteth no man.” ceive, have impeded vegetation in some If you should deem the following curdegree, and have been attended with sory remarks on the subject, worthy a perceptible inconvenience to the ani- | place in your publication, you will by mal creation. But if, on the other their insertion oblige, Sir, hand, our atmosphere has expanded, to
Your's very obediently, give place to the growing earth, how
A. B. E. has the atmosphere which exists above
The passages above alluded to, canours been ellected ? Simply, with regard to the increase of the earth's import; as to tempt, and to lead into
not be considered synonymous in their magnitude, I feel satisfied in my own mind; but cannot reconcile, what ap- though it must be confessed their sig.
temptation, imply different actions, pears to me to be its attendant conse- nifications apparently clash with the quences.”
general tenor of Scripture. In our English Dictionaries, the meaning
given to the word tempt, is to solicit Reply to a Query on Substantives.
or incite to do evil; but the scriptural In the 8th Number of the Imperial meaning of the word temptation, has Magazine, col. 762, an inquiry was a very different import, and gives the made how the words Nothing, Non- Greek word, llegaguos its original entity,” &c. could be denominated meaning, which is trial rather than substantives. To this question a cor- temptation, or lleigalw, to try to exrespondent of Saltash, who gives the plore; nor does the word lleigalw in initials S. T. has sent the following any degree tacitly imply, to tempt 10
do evil. The apostle James has it, "A Constant Reader appears to . God cannot be tempted with evil, neihave forgotten, that the word Nothing ther tempteth he any man.' Now if is a compound term, and implies not the apostle had merely said, God
tempteth no man, &c. it would be a
direct contradiction of other passages Reply to Query, col. 768, on“ Lead us that a person having the true scriptu
of Scripture; but I am led to infer not into temptation.”
ral meaning of the word temptation in In answer to this question, S. T. of view, may conscientiously pray, Lead Saltash, (from whom we have other us not into temptation: but if the Lord communications, which we hope to in- should, in his fatherly chastisements sert in our next,) has also furnished and dispensations toward us, suffer us us with the following observations. to be tempted, tried, and alllicted, as
A Constant Reader, of Blackburn, we have an instance in the characters will, it is likely, have his scruples re- of Job and Peter, it is ours to pray, moved by being informied, that in He- | Deliver us from evil; and submissively brew and Syriac, the expression to say, Thy will be done, on earth, as in lead,' is the same as to permit to heaven;-knowing that the trial of our enter;' so that our Lord meant .susfor | faith is precious.