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ANECDOTE OF HYDERALY.

of soldiers, then in the very act of preparations, he always professed the committing depredations. But, what- strongest attachment to the king, and ever opinions may be formed of cha- avowedly aimed at nothing more than racters like these, we cannot reason the removal of Conderow from that ably entertain a diversity of sentiment office, to which his treachery had exon the conduct of the German peasant. alted him. He appears to have been actuated by Conderow, aware of his perilous the genuine spirit of Christianity, situation, put himself at the head of which inculcates, among other virtues, the king's troops, and marched out to benevolence, honesty, forbearance, and give Hyder battle. An engagement self-denial.

almost immediately ensued. Hyder was victorious. The army of Conderow was totally defeated; his camp

plundered; and it was with difficulty The Christian system is not more that he made his escape to the city, to replete with examples of virtue, in the communicate the tidings of his disascharacters of those who are actuated ter to the king. by its principles, of which the preced- As the pretences of Hyder were ining article furnishes a striking proof, variably confined to the removal of than Paganism is, with instances of Conderow from his office, which were barbarous ferocity, in those spirits always accompanied with the strongest where its dominion is unsubdued. professions of attachment to the king, This fact we shall illustrate by the fol- a considerable portion of the defeated lowing anecdote.

army rallied round his standard, and When Hyder Aly began his daring soon enabled him to approach with his march to empire, he contrived to place forces to the gates of the capital. The one of his confidants, named Conderow, king, alarmed for his own safety, used a man of an artful disposition, in the every endeavour to penetrate the decharacter of a spy, near the person of signs of his enemy; but so artfully had the monarch whom he was contriving he concealed his intentions, under the to dethrone. The king, who was pro- plausible pretext which had been afbably aware of his intentions, had the forded him, that, giving to the king address to detach Conderow from the the fullest assurance of his perfect obeinterest of Hyder; and, to secure his dience, he prevailed on him to open friendship, he was raised to the office the gates to receive him as duan, and of duan, or prime minister of state. to deliver up his former friend, but This mark of confidence, bestowed present enemy, Conderow, into his upon the new favourite, was far from hands. being pleasing to many of the king's No sooner had Hyder entered the old friends, among whom were some, city, than he placed his own centinels who probably felt no small degree of on the magazines, and on the palace disappointment, in finding themselves gates; and, making the king a prisoner, excluded from an office of such distin- seized upon all his treasure, with guished honour. It is well known to which he paid his troops their full politicians, that between disappoint- arrears; and, to secure their attachment and revenge the distance is not ment, he made many valuable presents great; and that, both in civilized and to his officers, who had distinguished savage life, certain characters are al- themselves in his service. ways to be found, who, if they cannot His old friend Conderow, who now reap the harvest, will endeavour to de- fell into his hands, he shut up in an stroy the field.

iron cage, and for several days exposThe disaffection which the conduct cd him to public view. In this state of of the king, 'in creating the new duan, confinement, he was afterwards sent to had occasioned, soon strengthened the Bangalore; where, after remaining hands of Hyder, so that he actually upwards of a year in this miserable obtained an accession of power, by situation, he died. The cage containthose means which had been adopted ing his bones was afterwards preserved to arrest the progress of his ambition. in Bangalore, as a trophy of this meThe menacing attitude, which Hyder morable exploit. Both the cage and could not conceal, was also furnished his bones were to be seen in 1786, and with a plausible pretext; so that, while it is highly probable, that some frag

carried on with vigour his warlike ments remain even to the present day.

OF GOD.

evidence, that the supposed existence INHUMANITY TO A SLAVE, PUNISHED.

of such a being includes contradictory An inhabitant of Curaçoa was lately ideas. But can any man conceive declared infamous, and banished the for a moment, that infinite power can colony for life, for inhumanly treating create a being, the result of whose a female slave, which occasioned her actions, infinite knowledge cannot death. If such instances of justice, penetrate? The absurdity of such a were to correspond in number with the supposition seems almost too gross to barbarities which call for them, they be refuted. might prove too common, we fear, to As power, which is omnipotent, be recorded. They would, however, can do every thing that does not inassociate with interest, in protecting volve a contradiction, so infinite knowthe unfortunate Africans.

ledge must be able to discern whatsoever does not include contradictory

ideas; and on this basis both of the REVIEW, &c.-ON THE PRESCIENCE propositions must rest.

This is a point which has been already argued ;

and we have concluded, not only that [Continued from Col. 27.]

contingent beings are possible, but Having made. these preliminary ob- that the actions and volitions of manservations, let us now proceed to in- kind, rnish all the evidences of conquire more immediately respecting the tingency, which reason could ever nature of this sacred attribute, so far direct us to expect. And, conseas its operations extend to human quently, as no contradictory ideas are beings, to human actions, and to the included in the supposition, we must final destinies of mankind.

conclude, on the same principle, that By the infinite knowledge of God, a being of infinite knowledge, must or, what in reference to us we deno- be able to discern these actions and minate his foreknowledge, we under- volitions, although they are continstand that branch of his infinite dis

gent. cernment, which enables him to per- But, while it is asserted, that some ceive the various results of every actions and events are contingent, volition that lies within the reach of which are nevertheless plainly discernpossibility.

ed by God, another question relative Whether this infinite discernment to the certainty of these, and of all can penetrate contingencies, is a point actions and events, immediately prewhich has been much disputed. By sents itself to our view. This is urged some, the possibility of the fact has with no common degree of eagerness, been expressly denied; and the reason by those who are solicitous to render of this denial, is founded upon the im- the prescience of God subservient to possibility that what is actually con- the interests of a particular system. tingent, should ever become an object In attempting to repel some of those even of infinite discernment. That the consequences with which Dr. Clarke power of man cannot discern the result charged that system, upon the suppoof an action, which is equally poised sition that every future event and between the possibility of being and action were seen as absolutely certain, not being, will be most readily ad- and rendered absolutely certain by God, mitted. But, if we attempt to carry the critic in the Magazine introduces the analogy from finite to infinite, and this divine attribute to our view, decoto infer the impossibility of the fact, rated with a simplicity of attire, which with regard to God, merely from our he well knew how to change for robes inability to comprehend the manner, of other colours. Of this fact, the folthere are few, we may presume, with lowing passages will furnish no inadethe exception of those who are inte-quate specimen. rested in the issue, who would not Now, we have a right to presume, conclude, that such a denial implied that this author knows that Calvinists more indiscretion than wisdom. deny that God's decree impels men to

That God, who possesses infinite sin; for with regard to sin, the utmost power, is able to create a being whose they hold is, a decree to permit, and actions may be contingent, is a fact many of them contend that this is unwhich no one has a right to deny, un- necessary; for it is, in fact, a decree less it can be proved by the clearest to do nothing. But as to his fore

be past.

knowledge, they contend, that it has shall be.” – Evangelical Mag. Feb. no influence at all on men's future 1819, p. 49. actions, no more than his afterknow- How this singular, but unequivocal ledge or remembrance can give being passage, is to be reconciled with the to what must have taken place before preceding, in which“ foreknowledge is it could be remembered, or known to merely a spectator, that looks on and

But for a man who asserts sees things rise into being,” we will that God views all things as now ex- not stay to inquire ; neither are we isting, so that to his mind (and the disposed to unfold“ all the consequences judgment of God is according to truth) of election which follow." These may there is no distinction between past, be fairly submitted, without any devepresent, and future, but all are ac- lopment to the reader's consideratually now in his presence ; for such a tion. There is one point, however, writer to charge others with the blas- which seems to have been assumed phemous consequences of making God without any proof whatever, which, the author of sin, because they main- until some evidence shall be adduced, tain that God foreknows some things as we hesitate to concede, namely, that certainly future, is most marvellous ; “ if God foresees every thought, temand such an instance of injustice, ag- per, word, or action of men, from all gravated by effrontery, as is scarcely eternity, then all things are certain, to be matched even by the feats of and no decree can make them more Antinomianism, that brazen bull.” In so.”. And, it seems to be a duty inthe following paragraph, these pas cumbent on us, on the present occasages also almost immediately occur. sion, because all who oppose the con“We still, however, adhere to the old- sequences of the critic's system, are fashioned doctrine, that present know- challenged, “ either to get rid of foreledge does not give present existence, knowledge, or to shew that it does not nor past knowledge or recollection of involve all the consequences of Calevents give them their past existence, vinistic decrees.” nor foreknowledge give future exis- In proceeding to examine this imtence. The futurition of an event is portant question, “ whether on all octhe ground of foreknowledge, which casions the Almighty beholds with

be a mere spectator,' absolute certainty, the event or action, that looks on and sees things rise into which is the object of his discernbeing.” p. 289.

ment,” it will be particularly necessary Now, admitting the statement given to understand, to what the term cerin the last sentence to be correct, tainty is referred. If it refers to the namely, that “ the futurition of an divine knowledge, the fact will not be event is the ground of foreknowledge, disputed; but, if it be referred to the which may be said to be a mere spec- action or event which is foreseen, sevetator, that looks on and sees things ral things must be ascertained, before rise into being,” we are at a loss to the conclusion can be either adopted conceive how this can imply certainty or rejected. in the action or event, which rises into It is a most unquestionable fact, being ; much less can we comprehend, that the knowledge of the Almighty, how “the foreknowledge of God, can in every form in which it can be involve all the consequences of Cal- viewed, includes certainty in its own vinistic decrees.” But whether we can nature, independently of all foreign comprehend this certainty, and these causes, actions, or events, whatever. consequences, or not, we are assured This certainty of the divine knowby the same critic, that these must in- ledge, arises from its inherent perfecevitably follow. Hence he observes, tion; and the truth of the position will “ If God foresees every thought, tem- be equally immutable, whatever may per, word, or action of men, from all be the object of the divine discerneternity, then all things are certain, ment. It follows, therefore, that the and no decree can make them more certainty of God's discernment, cannot, so; then all the consequences of elec- in itself, be affected by any action or tion follow, that God views every man event which is the object of it. For as he comes into the world as an heir should we refuse to admit this conof life or death; and creating and clusion, we shall be under the necessupporting them with these views is sity of granting, that the certainty of ! equivalent to a decree that thus it the divine knowledge does not arise

may be said

either from its own inherent perfec- which may be the object of certain tion, or from the perfection of that knowledge. Eternal Being, of whom it is an attri- If it be true, that all knowledge must bute; but from the nature of that ob- be finite, which is circumscribed by any ject, action, or event, which, while thing that does not include an absolodged in futurity, cannot have any lute impossibility, then it is true, that formal existence.

every species of knowledge which does We have already proved, that the not include certainty in its own nature, creation of beings whose actions may must necessarily fall short of infinite be contingent, as it involves no con- perfection;

nd in the same proportradiction, is perfectly possible to in- tion that it is defective, it ceases to be finite power;

Contingent actions we an attribute of God. This is a concluhave defined to be such as are poised sion, which can only be repelled by upon the possibility of being or not proving, that, for God to have a cerbeing; and it has been argued, that tainty of knowledge of an event or acmany human actions furnish all the tion, which is uncertain in its nature, evidence of their being contingent, that involves a contradiction. But where might be expected from such as we shall we find those contradictory ideas may suppose should be expressly de- which the proposition is supposed to clared to be so. Now if any actions or include? If God has a certain knowevents can be supposed to be uncertain ledge of things as they actually are, in their natures, they must be those and some things are uncertain in their which are contingent. But, if the un- own nature, it follows, that God must certainty of the action, will prevent the have a certain knowledge of uncertain certainty of the divine knowledge, we actions and events; but this implies must make the certainty of infinite dis- neither contradiction nor absurdity. cernment dependent upon the certainty Should it be asserted, that infinite of that action or event, which is the knowledge can discern no action or object of it. This is a conclusion event, unless that action or event be which appears to be undeniable. For, certain, we must then identify the cerif God can have no certainty of know- tainty of the event with the certainty ledge, unless the event or action which of knowledge; and this will lead us is its object be absolutely certain, the to inquire from what primary cause certainty of the event or action becomes the certainty of this action or event is necessary to the certainty of infinite derived. This inquiry will necessarily knowledge; and, consequently, this carry us up to God; since no one, it is knowledge, or discernment, is at once presumed, will pretend to assert, that dependent for its certainty upon that the absolute certainty of actions or action or event from which this cer- events can be derived from any other tainty is derived. But to suppose an primary source. We may, indeed, attribute of Jehovah to exist, without amuse ourselves in our retrospective inherently including the utmost per- ascent, with volition, disposition, and fection of which its nature is suscep-motive; or we may perplex our intible, is an absurdity which can hardly quiries with the mysterious influence be exceeded by any thing, but the of passive power, or negative energy; monstrous idea, that its perfection is and endeavour to infer a positive effect to be derived from an extrinsic cause, from causes which have only a negawhich can have no necessary exist- tive existence; but, if an action or an

event be rendered absolutely certain, Nor are these the only absurdities no power could have primarily renwhich will follow from the supposi- dered it so, except that of God. But tion, that certainty in the divine know- to suppose, that the Eternal God has ledge necessarily implies certainty in so constituted actions and events, as the action or event which is its object. to render them certain, in order that It is not in the nature of simple know- he might know them, is to conclude ledge to give existence to an action, or that he would have been ignorant of an event, because simple knowledge their possible and actual issues, if he can never become the efficient cause had not established a chain of suborof action. And on exactly the same dinate causes, which should finally principle, it is not in the nature of cer- terminate in the certainty that was tainty in knowledge, to give existence required. If the certainty of an acto certainty in an action or an event, | tion or event, be necessary to the cerknowledge, they contend, that it has shall be.” – Evangelical Mag. Feb. no influence at all on men's future 1819, p. 49. actions, no more than his afterknow- How this singular, but unequivocal ledge or remembrance can give being passage, is to be reconciled with the to what must have taken place before preceding, in which“ foreknowledge is it could be remembered, or known to merely a spectator, that looks on and be past.

ence.

But for a man who asserts sees things rise into being,” we will that God views all things as now ex- not stay to inquire ; neither are we isting, so that to his mind (and the disposed to unfold“ all the consequences judgment of God is according to truth) of election which follow.These may there is no distinction between past, be fairly submitted, without any devepresent, and future, but all are ac- lopment to the reader's consideratually now in his presence ; for such a tion. There is one point, however, writer to charge others with the blas- which seems to have been assumed phemous consequences of making God without any proof whatever, which, the author of sin, because they main- until some evidence shall be adduced, tain that God foreknows some things as we hesitate to concede, namely, that certainly future, is most marvellous ; “ if God foresees every thought, temand such an instance of injustice, ag- per, word, or action of men, from all gravated by effrontery, as is scarcely eternity, then all things are certain, to be matched even by the feats of and no decree can make them more Antinomianism, that brazen bull.” In so. And, it seems to be a duty inthe following paragraph, these pas- cumbent on us, on the present occasages also almost immediately occur. sion, because all who oppose the con“ We still, however, adhere to the old-sequences of the critic's system, are fashioned doctrine, that present know- challenged, “ either to get rid of foreledge does not give present existence, knowledge, or to shew that it does not nor past knowledge or recollection of involve all the consequences of Calevents give them their past existence, vinistic decrees.” nor foreknowledge give future exis- In proceeding to examine this imtence. The futurition of an event is portant question, " whether on all octhe ground of foreknowledge, which casions the Almighty beholds with may be said to be a mere spectator, | absolute certainty, the event or action, that looks on and sees things rise into which is the object of his discernbeing." p. 289.

ment,” it will be particularly necessary Now, admitting the statement given to understand, to what the term cerin the last sentence to be correct, tainty is referred. If it refers to the namely, that “ the futurition of an divine knowledge, the fact will not be event is the ground of foreknowledge, disputed; but, if it be referred to the which may be said to be a mere spec- action or event which is foreseen, sevetator, that looks on and sees things ral things must be ascertained, before rise into being,” we are at a loss to the conclusion can be either adopted conceive how this can imply certainty or rejected. in the action or event, which rises into It is a most unquestionable fact, being ; much less can we comprehend, that the knowledge of the Almighty, how "the foreknowledge of God, can in every form in which it can be involve all the consequences of Cal- viewed, includes certainty in its own vinistic decrees.” But whether we can nature, independently of all foreign comprehend this certainty, and these causes, actions, or events, whatever. consequences, or not, we are assured This certainty of the divine knowby the same critic, that these must in- ledge, arises from its inherent perfecevitably follow. Hence he observes, tion; and the truth of the position will “ If God foresees every thought, tem- be equally immutable, whatever may per, word, or action of men, from all be the object of the divine discerneternity, then all things are certain, ment, It follows, therefore, that the and no decree can make them more certainty of God's discernment, cannot, so; then all the consequences of elec- in itself, be affected by any action or tion follow, that God views every man event which is the object of it. For as he comes into the world as an heir should we refuse to admit this conof life or death ; and creating and clusion, we shall be under the necessupporting them with these views is sity of granting, that the certainty of equivalent to a decree that thus it the divine knowledge does not arise

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