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Note b.-Most, or most of, when followed by a singular noun, is translated la mayor parte; as, most of the army, la mayor parte del exercito; but if the noun be in the plural, most may also be translated mas, with the corresponding article; as, most of the soldiers, la mayor parte, or los mas, de los soldados; most causes, la mayor parte, or las mas de las causas.

Note c-The preposition in after the English superlative is translated de in Spanish; as, the best house in the street, la mejor casa de la calle; the soul is the greatest wonder in the world, el alma es la mayor maravilla del mundo.

RULE 30. Superlatives which in English are made with very, are formed in Spanish by prefixing muy to the adjective, or by affixing to it the termination ísimo; as

Very clever,
Very easy,

Muy hábil, or habilísimo.
Muy fácil, or facilísimo.

Note a.-If the adjective ends in a vowel, it is suppressed; as, corto, short; cortisimo, very short; alegre, cheerful; alegrísimo, very cheerful; triste, sad; tristisimo, very sad ; famoso, famous; famosísimo, very famous.

Adjectives which change their final termination before they admit the termination ísimo:

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Superlatives in ísimo irregularly formed:

Bonísimo, very good,

from bueno,


very strong,



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sapientísimo, very wise,

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sacratísimo, very sacred,

sacro, sacred.


very faithful,

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Irregular comparatives and superlatives:

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*This is often compared, for greater energy, as, no tengo el mas

mínimo reparo, I have not the slightest objection.

All those form a superlative in ísimo according to the rules already given; as, malísimo, poquísimo, baxísimo, &c.

Note b.-These positives admit also a comparative formed with mus or ménos; and a superlative with muy, as, mas bueno, better ménos malo, less bad; los mas grandes, the greatest; muy pequeños, very small.

Note c.-Substantives used adjectively admit the degrees of comparison; as, es mas caballero que tú, he is more of a gentleman than thou; el es muy hombre, he is very much of a man, or very manly; este hombre es muy miño, this man is very childish.

Government of Adjectives.

RULE 31. Adjectives generally require de before their regimen, if it is part of the noun with which they agrce; as

Un saco ancho de boca, A sack wide at the mouth, Un cuchillo boto de pun- A knife blunt at the point. ta,

Un vestido largo de A suit long in the sleeves. mangas,

Un hombre baxo de cu- A man low in stature.

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Blando de corteza,

Chico de persona,
Crecido de cuerpo,
Duro de entendimiento,
Fuerte de condicion,
Gordo de talle,

Largo de cuerpo,
Ligero de pies,
Mediano de estatura,
Recio de complexion,

Sharp or keen.


Of a fair complexion.
Of a soft rind.

Hard of comprehension.
Of a rough temper.
Thick in the waist.
Long in the body
Of light feet.
Of a middle height.
Of a strong constitution.

Torcido de cuerpo,

Mayor de cuerpo,
Menor de edad,

Manco de una mano,

Pálido de semblante,

Twisted in the body.

Less in age.

Lame of one hand.

Having a pale face.

RULE 32. Adjectives require en before their regimen, if it denotes that wherein the quality of the adjective is conspicuous; as

Un hombre áspero en las palabras, incansable en el trabajo, exacto en sus pagos, constante en sus devociones, y devoto en sus oraciones.

A man harsh in his words, unwearied in his labour, exact in his payments, constant in his devotions, and devout in his prayers.

Note a.-If the regimen is an infinitive, it is also preceded by en; as, Los reyes deben ser lentos en castigar y prontos en recompensar, Kings ought to be slow to punish and ready to reward.

The following adjectives belong to this rule:

Diligente en sus negocios,
Experto en las leyes,
Incesante en sus tareas,
Indefatigable en la guerra,
Nimio en el proceder,
Parco en la comida,
Pesado en la conversacion,

Hábil en sus negocios,
Impropio en su edad,
Inconstante en su proceder,
Inflexible en su dictamen,
Superior en luces,

Diligent in his business.
Skilful in the laws.
Constant in his business.
Indefatigable in war.
Nice in his proceedings.
Sparing in his meals.
Tiresome in his conversa-

Clever in his business.
Unbecoming at his age.
Wavering in his actions.
Inflexible in his opinions.
Superior in understanding.

RULE 33. If the regimen of the adjective is the noun to which the quality of the adjective is directed, it is generally preceded by ú: as

La tirania es aborrecible á Tyranny is hateful to las gentes,

the people.

Esta fruta es agradable al This fruit is agreeable paladar, to the palate. Los limones son ágrios al Lemons are sour to gusto, the taste.

RULE 34. If the noun which forms the regimen is also what produces the quality implied in the adjective, it is generally governed with de; as Ella estaba pálida de miedo, She was pale with


El era temeroso de la muerte, He was fearful of death.

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Note a.--If the regimen of the foregoing adjectives is an infinitive, it also requires de before it; as, cansado de trabajar, tired of working.

RULE 35. Numeral adjectives govern with the preposition de a noun of

Dos varas de largo,
Treinta pies de alto,

Seis pulgadas de grueso,

dimension; as

Two yards in length.
Thirty feet high.
Six inches thick.

Note a. It is not requisite that the numeral adjective should precede the noun of dimension; as, la pared tiene ocho varas de alto, or la pared tiene de alto ocho varas, the wall is eight yards high.

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Note b.-If the quantity be expressed with the verb ser, or without any verb at all, the numeral adjective must also be preceded by de; as, al pozo es de ochenta brazas de profundo, the well is eighty fathoms in depth; la tabla es de quatro pulgadas de grueso, the plank is four inches thick; and un pozo de ochenta trazas de profundo, a well eighty fathoms deep, &c.

Note c.-The difference in the measure must be also preceded by de; as, el es mas alto que tú de tres pulgadas, he is taller than you by three inches.

RULE 36. Adjectives denoting plenty or scarcity, care or negligence, govern their regimen with de; as

Un jarro lleno de agua,
Un vaso vacío de vino,
Un hombre falto de juicio,
Un hombre cuidadoso de su

A jug full of water.
A glass empty of wine.
A man void of reason.
A man careful of his

Un enfermo descuidado de A patient careless of

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Note a.-Abundante admits en as well as de; as, abundante de or en riquezas, abounding in riches. Fertil and fecundo belong to Rule 32.

The following adjectives belong to this rule

Ageno de verdad,

Escaso de medios,

Infecto de heregia,
Inficionado de peste,
Limitado de talentos,
Apurado de dinero,

Foreign to truth.

Nearly bereft of means.
Tainted with heresy.
Infected with the plague.
Straitened in talents.
Exhausted of money.

RULE 37. Adjectives denoting desire or disdain, knowledge or ignorance, capacity or incapacity, worthiness or unworthiness, innocence or guilt, require also de before their regimen; as

Deseoso de la vida,
Desdeñoso de sus favores,
Cierto de las noticias,
Incierto de las conse-
Digno de una corona,
Indigno de alabanzas,
Capaz del empleo,

Desirous of life.

Disdainful of his favours.
Certain of the news.
Uncertain of the conse-

Worthy of a crown.
Unworthy of praise.

Capable of the employ


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