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lieve those structures to be the proofsof other at the distance of some feet, an'ancient niode of building, in which and so close as to confine all the mafire was employed for the purpose of terials, of whatever size, that were censenting, butore our ancestors knew thrown in between them. Into this the use of lime. I am disposed to intermediate space, I suppose, were think, that the appearances of vitri. thrown boughs and truoks of trees, fication on some of those hills, are the earth and stones of all sizes, large or accidental effects of fire upon a struc- finall, as they could quarry or collect ture composed of combustible and fu- them. Very little care would be ne. sible materials, and by no n.eans the cessary in the disposition of these maconsequence of an operation intended terials, as the outward fence would to produce that effect. '

keep the mound in form. In this The buildings reared by the ancient way, it is easy to conceive, that a very inhabitants of this country, both for strong bulwark might be reared with habitation and defence, would natu- great dispatch, which, joined to the turally, be composed of such materials natural advantage of a very inaccef as the rude State of the country pre fible fituation, and that improved by fented in abundance, and such as re- artful contrivances for encrealing tbe quired little, either of labour or of difficulty of access, would form a skill, to bring into use. Io those quar- structure capable of answering every ters where ftone could be eally quar- purpose of security or defence. ried in square blocks, or where it The moft formidable engine of atSplit into lamine, no other material tack against a structure of this kind, than the finple stone was neceffary, would be fire; and this, no doubt, and very little labour was sufficient would be always attempted, and ofto rear the structure. Such has been ten successfully employed by a be the case at Dun Jardel and Dunfieging enemy. The double ramparts, Eyan. But where the stone is of at a considerable distance from each that nature as not to be eally split other, and the platfoi mi, at one end, into square blocks, or separated into were certainly the best possible secur lamine, but is apt to break into irre, rity against an attack of this kind. gular and generally small fragments, But if the besiegers prevailed in gain. as the rock of Craig-Phadrick, and ing an approach to the ramparts, and, all others of the plum-pudding kind, furrounding the external wall, set fire it would be extremely difficult to form to it in several places, the conflagra- · a regular structure of such materials tion muft speedily have become gene. alore, which ihould be endowed with ral, and the effect is easy to be conSufficient trength. ' 'The mode in ceived. If there happened to be any which I imagine building was prac. wiod at the time, to increase thę iprised in such fituations, was by em- tensity of the heat, the Aody parts ploying wood, as well as stone, in the could not fail to come into fulion, fabric. The building, I suppose, was and (as the wood burnt away) fiakbegun by railing a double row of pal- ing by their own weight into a solid lisades or strong flakes, in the form mass, there would renain a wreck of of the intended Itructure, in the famé vitrified maiter, tracking the spot way as in that anciert mode of build. where the ancient rampart had stood; ing, described by Paliadio under the irregular and of unequal height, from name of Riempiuta, a casa, or coffers the fortuitous and unequal diftribuwork. These stakes were probably tion of the itony materials of which warped across by boughs of trees laid it had been composed. The appear. very closely together, so as to form ance at this day of those vitrified (no fences, running parallel to each mcuods creates the strongest probabie

lity of the truth of this conjecture. present day, by the utmost combinaThey do not appear ever to have been tion of labour and of kill, to furround much higher than they are at present; a large space of ground with a double as the fragments that have fallen from rampart of stones, compacted by fire, them, even in those places where the of such height and folidity as to serve wall is lost, are very inconsiderable. any purpose of security, or defence aFrom the durable nature of the sub- gainit a befeging enemy. Any ftrucstance, they must have suffered very ture of this kind must have been irlittle change from time, though, from regular, low, fragile, easily scaled and the gradual growth of the foil, they quite insecure; a much weaker rammuft, in fome places, have lost, in ap- part, in short, than a fimple wall of pearance, a good deal of their height, turf or wooden pallifade. The vesand in others, have been quite ob- tiges yet remaining, as I have already scured. Mr Williams, in making a observed, give no roum to suppose, cut through the ramparts at Knock that the vitrified mound has ever been farril, found, in many places, the vit. much more entire than it is at present. rihed matter entirely covered with The effcet of fire upon structures peat-moss of half a foot in thickness. reared in the manner I have supposed

I have observed, that, in the forti- them to have been, will account most fication on Craig-Pratrick, a large perfectly for their present appearportion of the outward rampart opon ance. the north side bears no marks of vit. It was from necessity that the build. rification. · The reason of this it is ers of those fortifications betook themeasy to explain. In the structure of selves to a mode of structure so liable this part of the wall no wood has to be destroyed by fire. Io those been employed; for the extreme steep- parts where stones could be eagly ness of the rock on this quarter ren. quarried, of such size and form as to dered any rampart for defence entire rear a rampart by themselves of suffily unnecessary. A low fence of stones cient strength and solidity, there was and turf was sufficient here to prevent no occasion to employ wood or turf the cattle, which were probably lod- in its conitruction, and it was thereged between the outer and inner ram- fore proof against all assault by fire.. part, from falling over the precipice. Such are the ramparts which appear Such is that fence which at present on the hill of Dun.Jardel, Dun-Evan, remains on the north lide of the rock and many others, on which there is of Craig-Phadrick.

not the smallet appearance of vitri. It appears, therefore, highly pro. fication. But on Craig - P.iatrick, bable, that the effe&t of fire upon and the other hills abuve described, those hill-fortiications, has been en- where, from the Daiure of the rock, tirely accidental, or, to speak more the stones could be procured, only in properly, that fire has been employ. irregular and generally small fraged, not in the construction, but to ments, it was neceflary to employ wards the demolition of such build. some such mode of construction as I ings; and for the latrer purpose it have supposed; and these ramparts, would certainly prove much more ef- though folid and well calculated for fcacious than for the former. It is defence against every attack by force much to be doubted, whether it or stratagem, were not proof agaiost would be at all porable, even in the the affault by fire.

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S18BALD. .

botany and anatomy. He appears to TT was late before natural history a. have been living in the year 1603; - rose in Scotland. The story of a at which time he sent to Caspar Bay

king Jolina, who is chronicled to have hine specimens of the Fucus digitatus, lived more than 150 years before the with the description, which is seen Chriftian æra, having written a book in the.“ Prodromus" of that author. De Viribus Herbarum, is not worth I know not of any publication from a comment. Fingal is said to have Dr Cargill, neither am I acquainted been well acquainted with the virtues with any successful effurts in the way of herbs : and Temora healed the of natural history, before the time of wounds of his countrymen, by his kill the Balfours. in vulnerary vegetables.

The founding of the Botanical • Allen Ogilby, who flourished about Garden and the museum at Edinburgh, 1471, a native of Scotland, after ha. by Sir Andrew Balfour, may be conving travelled through the east, and fidered as the introduction of natural resided some time at Constantinople, liistory into Scotland. · Sir Robert fixed at Venice. Besides his emi- Sibbald, the friend and colleague of nent acquaintance with the oriental Sir Andrew Balfour, and who himlanguages, he is celebrated for his self added to the stores of the inuseknowledge of natural history. He um, has written “ Menoria Balfuuri. left a book De Balneis, and Gx books ana," purposely to commemorate the De Virtutibus Herbarum.

liberal benefactions and encourageOf Dr James Cargill, of Aberdeen, ments given to literature, by Sir JaI can produce no material anecdotes, cob and Sir Andrew Balfour. - although he merits particular remem- · The Garden was established about brance ; fince it is manifeft, from the the year 1680; and in 1683 was so nature of his communications to his successfully cultivated by James So. friends, both on the continent, and therland, the intendant, that it is said at home, that he must have been ex. to have contained 3000 fpecies of tremely well acquainted with the plants, dispoied accoruing to Morri. botany of the age. There is suffici- lon's method. An account of it was ent evidence that he had studied bo- published under the title of “ Hor. tany and anatomy at Balil, during tus Medicus Edinburger.fis ; or, a Ca. the time that Caspar Bauhine held talogue of the Plants in the Physic the professurship in those sciences, for Garden at Edinburgh, containing whoin a chair was first created in that their most proper Latin and Englih city, in 1589. This celebrated pro. names.” By James Sutherland. 8vo. feffor enumerates Dr Cargill among fp. 357. Varieties, however, occupy those who transmitted seeds and fpe- a large share of this Catalogue, and cimens to him. Gesner records the very few of the native plants of Scotfame services on his part. At home, land are found in it. It was to Sir Lobel, in his “ Adversaria,ac- Robert Sibbald that the first attempts knowledges tbelke communications, towards indigenous botany were ow: and repeatedly speaks of him in very ing. Jespectable terms, as a philosopher, Robert Sibbald was a fellow of the dod as well skilled in the sciences of College of Physicians at Edinburgh,

and

• From Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany in England. By Dr Pultney:

and the first medical professor insti- tation on the Chara of Cæfar, med tuted in that university, about the tioned also by Dio, on which the year 1685. He was knighted by soldiers of Valerius's army subsifted, Charles II, and had also the title of under a penury of bread. This King's Physician and Geographer root has been by some supposed to be Royal conferred upon him, and was a the Karemile, Carmele, or, as Mr man of very confiderable and various Lightfoot calls it, the Corr, or, Corlearning. To the knowledge of his meille, of the Highlanders. It is the profession, he added that of natural Orobus tuberosus Linnæi, our Wood hiftory, and antiquities. He was, if Pease. not the first, among the earliest, who In his « History of the Sheriffdom wrote on the antiquities of his coun- of Fife and Kinross,” printed the try, on which he published several same year, in a catalogue of plants, learned works, to illustrate, more ef- chiefly maritime, growing about the pecially, the bistory of Scotland du Frith of Forth ; among which, he ring the time of the Romans.

had given to one the name of BalfoHe published, “ Scotia Illuftrata ; riană, now called Pulmonaria maritia five, Prodromus Historia Naturalis mia. Scotiæ : in quo regionis natura, incola

In the zoological way, Dr Sibbald rum ingenia et mores, morbi iisque me

published separately, “ Phalainologia dendi methodus, et medicina indigena !

nova : 1692. 460. or, “ Observations explicantur, et multiplices naturæ par.

on some Animals of the Whale Ge. tus, in triplici ejus regna, vegetabili ci.

Dus, lately thrown on the shores of licei, animali, et minerali explicantur?" 1684, folio; and 1696, folio.

Scotland." This tract had merit ela this volume, which, he tells us,

nough to entitle it to a republication,

so lately as in the year 1773. He was the work of twenty years, one

meditated a Cetologia, together with part is appropria:ed to the indigenous

the history of the other marine ani, plants of Scotland ; it contains obser

mals of Scotland, in his second vovations on the medicinal and econo rical uses. A few rare fpecies make

lume of the “ Prodromius." their first aprearance in this book. In the year 1706, he communicaparticularly that which Linnæus na

ted to the Royal Society an accurate med Sibbaldia, after the author; and

descriptior; accompanied with a figure the Ligusticum Scoticum.

of the animal, and its shell, named Dr Sibbald having thrown out some

Balanus Balena, or Pediculus Ceti of Arittares ca the mathematical princi

Boccone (Lepas Diadema of Linnæus, ples of phylic, for which the learned Syst. 1108.) These were published Dr Pitcairn was a trenuous advo: in vol. XXV. of the Philosophical cate, the latter wrote a severe facire Tran actions, p: 2314. on this work, under the title “ De Although Sir Robert Sibbald did Legibus Hiftoria Naturalis.Edin. not carry his researches so far, as to 1696. But it contains notbing solid, rank high in the character of the naand was thoughi by some to have turalist; yet, as having led the way 'beca the re'ult of party, if not pere in that branch, and singularly pronofooal dilike.

ted the study of the antiquities of his Among the “ Miscellanea quædam country, he is justly entitled to that erudite Antiquitatis of Sir Robert, honourable station he bears among the published in 1710, there is a Differ. writers of North Britain *. Vol. XII, No. 68. 0

WALLACE. * His name was applied by Linnæus, in the Flora Laponica, to a small plant of the Pentandrous class; which was know2 to Csipar Bauhine and others, and consiWALLACE.

fidered

land, and allied to the noble family In the year 1700, was published, of Hamilton, who, after having itu" An Account of the Islands of Ork- died physic, and travelled with seveney," by James Wallace, M. D. F. ral gentlemen, declined the practice R. S. which contains a catalogue of of his profeflion, and retired to his some of the indigenous plants of that patrimony. His fon Charles was northern region. Flora is not exube- born in the year 1683 ; and, at the rant in her gifts in the chilling re- time of his father's death, was at gions of the north. I have not seen Glasgow, applying with great afliduthis book ; but I read, that the arbo- ity to his studies. On this event, the 7/cent, and some other tribes, parti. Duchess of Hamilton took him under cularly the malonceous, are sparingly her patronage, and wished him to feen in these islands.

have chosen the department of the

law; but his inclination for botany, PRESTON.

and the study of physic, superseded I know not whether there was any all other schemes; and, from the fuperintendent to the garden of E. year 1716, he entirely devoted himdinburgh, between Sutherland, and felf to phyfic. Gcorge Preston, whom Blair ftiles . At the age of thirty-three, he an indefatigable botanist, and who went over to Leyden, to iludy unpublished, about the year 1710, the der Boerhaave, where he remained following catalogue, written in Latin near three years. At that place, he and English: “ Catalogus. omnium contracted an intimacy with the late Plantarum quas in Seminario Medicis celebrated Dr Alexander Monro; 0.dicto transtulit Georgius Prestonas, and, with bim, on their return to EEst. Prof. ii Hort. Edinburg. Pre- dinburgh, projected the revival of fectus ex 1:87oriterte ejus," 12mo. medical lectures ; where but little. Not having seen this volume, I can had been done in that department give no account of it. A writer of fince the first establishment of the methe same name occurs, though I dical professorships in 1665, under know not whether the same person, Sir Robert Sibbald, and Dr Pitcairn. as a correspondent of Mr Ray, See The plan was modelled by that of his Leiters, p. 308-316; “ Some Leyden. Monro was appointed to Obfervations on Mr Ray's Synopsis," give leatures in anatomy and surgeby Dr Preston, tending to illustrate ry; and Airton in botany, and the the characters of about fifteen species materia medica. Rutherford, Sincof English plants ; with some Stric- lair, and Plummer, were soon after tures on Tournefort's method of claf- appointed to fill up the other depattfification.

ments; and, to the spirited endea. In the year 1716, Mr Charles Al vours of these celebrated names, the iton succeeded Preston as superintende university of Edinburgh owes the ant of the garden.

rise of that reputation, which has fince so deservedly railed it to be one

of the first schools of physic in EuCharles Alfon, as we are inform- rope.*. ed by Dr Hope, was the son of Mr Dr Aifton continued to teach boAlton of Eddlewood ; a gentleman tany, and the materia medica, with of small estate in the west of Scot- unwcaried affiduity, until the time of

bis

ALSTON.

Gdered by them as allied to the Fragaria, and the Pentaphylla. It was first figy. red by Sibbald in his,“ Prodromus ;?' being found in Britain on!y on the Highland mountains.

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