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THE PRINCIPLES OF FRUIT
FRUIT-GROWING and pomology are and pomology are synonymous terms. They comprise the whole art of raising fruits and fruit-trees, and the applications of the various sciences thereto. It is impossible to define what a fruit is, in the sense in which the term is universally understood in pomological writings. It is best delimited by giving a list of those products which are commonly known as fruits. If a definition were attempted of the use of the word in its pomological application, it would be approximately correct to say that a fruit is the edible product of a woody or a tree-like plant, -as of a tree, bush, or vine, and which is intimately associated in its development with the flower. This conception of a fruit is wholly unlike the botanical idea, for the botanist defines the fruit to be the ripened pericarp and attachments. It should be said, however, that this confusion in terminology is not the fault of
the horticulturist, for the botanists have taken this common-language word and have given it a technical meaning. The word belongs primarily to general literature and horticulture, and if the botanist desires to impress it into other service, he must be prepared to accept the confusion which arises.
INVENTORY OF FRUITS.
Pomological fruits may be roughly classified under four heads, tree fruits, vine fruits, small fruits, and herb-like fruits. The following is an inventory of the staple fruits of the United States and Canada, and of those lesser known species which, having been tried in this territory, either give promise of successful cultivation here or have been more or less prominent subjects of discussion:
CLASS I. ORCHARD* CULTURE, OR TREE-FRUIT CULTURE.
SUB-CLASS 1. Pomaceous fruits.
Apple, Pyrus Malus.
Crab apple, Pyrus baccata.
Quince, Pyrus Cydonia.
Chinese quince, Pyrus Cathayensis.
*Orchard (originally herb-yard, and now rarely written hortyard). An assemblage or plantation of fruit trees.
The Orchard Fruits.
SUB-CLASS 2. Drupaceous or stone fruits.
Plum, Prunus domestica.
Myrobalan plum, Prunus cerasifera.
Purple apricot, Prunus dasycarpa.
SUB-CLASS 3. Citrous fruits.
Orange, Citrus Aurantium.
Lemon, Citrus Medica var. Limon.
Lime, Citrus Medica var. Limetta.
Sour lime (lime of the U. S.), Citrus Medica var. acris.
Kumquat, Citrus Japonica.
Trifoliate orange, Ægle (or Citrus) trifoliata.
SUB-CLASS 4. Moraceous fruits.
Fig, Ficus Carica.
White (and Russian) mulberry, Morus alba.
Black mulberry, Morus nigra.
Red mulberry, Morus rubra.
Downing mulberry, Morus multicaulis.