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lation, I sent for that dear, good old bly made especially in my own favor, man, Deacon Grab-all. I know not and that of my associates. My money what it was in my letter that interested manufactories are now carried on bim in my favor; but he came imme- under charlers, and I have the pleasure diately.
of adding 10 the circulating medium of “My dear child,” he said, “I grieve the country, according to law. Still I to see you in such a condition." cannot but regard myself as A MUCH
“Rather grieve, Deacon," I replied, WRONGED MAN. “at the depravity of the age in which There was, for example, “the Spe we live. You see one here who is cie Circular." At the time this was persecuted for righteousness' sake. My issued, I had an interest in several whole object has been to increase the western banks, and was engaged with wealth of the country by adding to the some of my associates in exchanging amount of circulating medium, and bales of paper for square miles of terbehold my reward."
ritory. The business was both pleas, “Your object was truly praisewor. ing and profitable, and would have thy,” replied the good old man, but been more so, if government had not perhaps you did not rest your issues on a interfered with us, by refusing to re
ceive our money at ihe land offices, “As much of a specie basis," I re- In vain did we cry out that all we joined, “as half the banks in the coun- wanted of government was, to “let us try can boast of. And even the best of alone,” and not be " tampering with them, as you know, Deacon, for every the currency.” Its impertinent interdollar they issue on such a basis, issue meddling with our affairs, in refusing two without any. Where is the differ- to receive our noies in payment for ence between their issues and mine? public lands, did me and my associates My notes performed all the functions of much injury. a circulating medium as well as theirs.” Then came the suspension of specie
"Aye, aye, my child, but perhaps you payments, and government did further had not a charter for your doings. injury to me and mine, in refusing to This is a country of laws, and actions receive our notes in payment of postwhich are identical in principle, are ages. As the Hon. Abbot Lawrence innocent or criminal, according to the said, in substance, on that occasion, at way in which, and the men by whom a public meeting in Boston, “I firmly they are performed."
believe that this is the most despotic, I need not relate all the arguments most oppressive government, and the the Deacon had recourse to, to expose most injurious to the welfare of the the sophistry with which Snooks and people, of any on the face of the earth.” I had beguiled ourselves. This Christ- Oh, the immense amount of money I ian philanthropist never desisted from have had to pay for specie to satisfy his labor of love till he had fully in- the demands of this tyrannic governstructed us in the principles of modern ment for duties and postages. morality. Nor did his kind offices Then government, not satisfied with cease here, for, finding us, as he said, this, must do further injury to me and now well qualified to be useful mem- mine, by compelling us to resume bers of society, he exerted his influ- specie payments. ence in our behalf so well, that we Then Government has done me furwere released from confinement with ther wrong, in refusing to assume the out being subject to the ignominy of a State Debts. I have large amounts of public trial.
Illinois, Indiana, and other State stocks, Immediately afterwards I joined the which are now nearly worthless, but church, and my life since has been so which would soon receive their full much like that of other respectable value, if the United States Governpeople, that I need not give it in de- ment would only assume the duty of tail. I am now fulfilling the true end paying them. of my being. I am living without Then there is my factory interest. labor and without economy, and in the On nothing which I am engaged in enjoyment of all that respect which is manufacturing, do I enjoy a higher accorded to great wealth when united protective duty than one hundred and with great piety. For years past I fifty per cent., while my rival manuhave had the benefit of acts of Assem- facturers in other countries, are pro
tected by duties of four, five, or even cause of religion and respectability, six hundred per cent. Here again, I dropped our patronymics. We are am a much-wronged man.
now known by other names, in church But I will not go through the cata- and on 'change. But this change in logue of my wrongs. Nor is it neces. my name does not in the least diminsary. Are not the Whis papers full ish my wrongs. I am still “ The of them? My name, indeed, is not Much-Wronged Man." And such, I mentioned in them, because Snooks fear, I musi continue to be, so long as and I, before we joined the church, in the pestilential principles of Democraorder to avoid giving scandal the cy have any sway in the land.
THOMAS Cole is unquestionably the with the scenery of the Western States, most gisted landscape painter of the when as yet they were a comparative present age. In our own opinion, wilderness. While toiling for a repunone superior to him have ever ex- tation, he resided for a few years at a isted, when we consider, in connection time in Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Chilliwith his felicity of artistic execution, cothe, Steubenville, and New York the poetic genius which his produc- city; and, having visited Europe a tions display. Having for years been number of times, established his repua student of his art, and a warm lover tation, and married a wife, he retired to of his pictures, we propose in the the beautiful town of Catskill, on the present paper to describe and comment Hudson, where he now resides, one of upon some of the imaginative works of the most amiahle of men, the best of this Poet-Painter. First, however, a husbands and fathers, and the most few words about the man himself. talented of living landscape painters.
Thomas Cole was born in England, The number of his imaginative but brought to this country in child- paintings is about twenty, and his hood. As his parents, before his birth, actual views somewhere between fifty had resided in the United States, it is and a hundred. Out of the former, we with the fullest propriety that he is intend to select our especial favorites, called an American painier. At any of which we shall attempt to convey rate, his attachment io this country is the best idea in our power for the beneso strong, that he has been heard to fit of those readers denied the priviremark: “I would give my left arm, lege of access to them-namely, The could I but identify myself with Course of Empire, The Departure and America, by saying that I was born Return, Dream of Arcadia, Past and here." The incidents of his youth Present, and The Voyage of Life. On and manhood, as recorded in “Dun- these alone are we willing to base our lap's History of the Arts of Design,” previous assertion, that no landscape are among the most interesting things painter superior 10 Cole has ever of the kind, and it is with reluctance lived. Of his other productions we that we refrain from inserting them in shall say nothing, only giving the this place. Let it suffice, however, names of those which we have seen, to state that the genius which was by way of making the reader acquaintborn with him, was fostered by inti- ed with the character of his subjects
. male and long continued acquaintance They are as follows: The Architect's
Dream, Paradise, Scene from Manfred, second picture we have the Simple or Expulsion from Eden, Angels appear- Arcadian State of Society. The time ing to the Shepherds, Heroic Com- of day is a litile before noon, and the position, Notch of the White Moun- season early summer. The “untracked iains, Italian Scenery, View of Flor- and rude” has been tamed and softened. ence, View in Rome, Schroon Moun- Shepherds are tending their flocks; a tain, Tornado in an American Forest, solitary ploughman, with his oxen, is Mount Holyoke after a Storm, A Ro. turning up the soil; and in the rude man Aqueduct, Niagara, Mount Ætna, vessels passing into the haven of a Lake George, New England Scenery, growing village, and in the skeleton Distant View of the Catskill Moun- of a barque building on-the shore tains, and a number of smaller views we perceive the commencement of among the mountains.
Commerce. From a rude temple on The Course of Empire is a series of a hill the smoke of sacrifice is ascendfive paintings, representing the History ing to the sky, symbolizing the spirit of a Scene-an epitome of that of Man. of Religion. In the foreground, on the None but a great mind would have left hand, is seated an old man, who, dared to choose so vast a subject, requir- by describing strange figures in the ing the united attributes of poet, philo- sand, seems to have made some geosopher, and painter; and very few could metrical discovery, demonstrating the have accomplished it so successfully. infancy of Science. On the right hand
In the first picture we have a per- is a woman with a distaff, about crossfectly wild scene of rocks, mountains, ing a stone bridge; beside her, a boy woods, and a bay of the ocean, reposing is drawing on a stone the figure of a in the luxuriance of a ripe Spring. man with a sword; and beyond these, The clouds of night are being dissipated ascending the road, a soldier is partly by the beams of the rising sun.
Under some noble trees, in the the opposite side of the bay rises a middle distance, are a number of peaslofty promontory, crowned by a singu- anis dancing to the music of pipe and lar isolated rock, which would ever be timbrel. All these things show us that a conspicuous landmark to the mariner. society is steadily progressing in its As the same locality is preserved in march of usefulness and power. each picture of the series, this rock Ages have again passed away, and identifies it, although the position of in the third picture we have a magnithe spectator changes in ihe small ficent city. It is now midday, and pictures. The chase being the most early Autumn. The Bay is now surcharacteristic occupation of savage life, rounded by piles of architecture, temin the foreground' we see an Indian ples, colonnades, and domes. It is a clothed in skin, pursuing a wounded day of rejoicing. The spacious harbor deer, which is bounding down a narrow is crowded with vessels, war-galleys, ravine. On a rock, in the middle ships, and barques, their silken sails ground, are other Indians, with their glistening in the sunshine. Moving dogs, surrounding another deer. On over a massive stone bridge, in the the bosom of a little river below are a foreground, is a triumphal procession. number of canoes passing down the The conqueror, robed in purple, is stream, while many more are drawn mounted on a car drawn by an elephant, up on the shore. On an elevation be- and surrounded by captives and a nuyond these is a cluster of wigwams, merous train of guards and servanis, and a number of Indians dancing round many of them bearing pictures and a fire. In this picture we have the golden treasures. As he is about to first rudiments of society. Men are pass the triumphal arch, beautiful girls already banded together for muiual aid strew flowers in his path; gay festoons in the chase. In the canoes, huts, and of drapery bang from the clustered weapons, we perceive that the useful columns; golden trophies glitter in the arts have commenced, and in the sing- sun, and incense rises from silver cening which usually accompanies the sers. Before a Doric temple, on the dance of savages we behold the germs left, a multitude of white-robed priests of music and poetry, The Empire is are standing around on the marble asserted, lo a limited degree, over sea, steps, while before them a religious land, and the animal kingdom. ceremony is being performed before a
Ages have passed away, and in the number of altars. The statue of Miner
va, with a Victory in her hand, stands The last and most impressive picture above the building of the Caryatides, of this series is the scene of Desola. on a columned pedestal, near which is tion. The sun has just departed and a company of musicians, with cymbals, the moon is ascending the twilight sky “ trumpeis also, and shawms." From over the ocean, near the place where the lofty portico of a palace, an impe- the sun rose in the first picture. The rial personage is watching the proces- shades of evening are gradually sieal. sion, surrounded by her children, at- ing over the shattered and ivy-orowa tendants, and guards. Nations have ruins of that once great city. A lonely been subjugated, man has reached the column rises in ihe foreground, on summit of human glory. Wealth, whose capital a solitary heron has power, knowledge, and taste have built her nest, and at the foot of it her worked together and accomplished the maie is standing in the water, both of highest meed of human achievement them apparently conscious of being a and Empire.
living mockery. The Doric temple Another change—and lo! in the and triumphal bridge may still be idenfourth picture, the Vicious State, or tified among the ruins which are laved State of Destruction. Behold the con- by the waters of the tranquil sea. But sequences of luxury, in the weakened though man and his works have perand debased condition of mankind. A ished, the steep promontory with its savage enemy has entered the once isolated rock, still rears itself against the proud and happy city; a fierce tempest sky, unmoved, unchanged. Time has is raging; walls and colonnades are consumed the works of man, and art lying in the dust, and temples and is resolving into its elemental nature. palaces are being consumed by the The gorgeous pageant has passed, the torch of the incendiary. The fire of roar of batile has ceased, the multivengeance is swallowing up the devoted tude has mingled with the dust, the city. An arch of the bridge over which Empire is extinct. the triumphal procession had before The first, second and last of these passed, has been battered down, and paintings are considered the best of broken pillars, ruins of war-engines, Mr. Cole's productions, not only in the and the temporary bridge which has poetry they portray, but in their execu. been thrown over, indicate that this tion. The style is more varied and has been the scene of direst contention. natural, and has less the appearance Now there is a terrible conflict on the of paint than in many of his late producbridge, whose insecurity accelerates tions. As to the third and fourth the horror of the conflict.' Horses, and paintings, the couception of both is exmen, and chariots are precipitated into ceedingly fine and poetical, but deficient the raging waves. War-galleys are in execution. The architecture is ad. contending; others in flames; and mirably done, but the numerous figures others still, sinking beneath the power which it was necessary to introduce of a superior foe. Smoke and flames are poorly drawn and arranged. It ate issuing from the falling and pros- would be, perhaps, too much to ask trate edifices; and along the battle that an artist should be a great painter ments and in the blocked-up streets the of scenery and also a master of the conflict is dreadful indeed. The fore- human figure. As a whole, the Course ground is strewed with the bodies of of Empire is a work of art worthy of the dead and dying. Some have fallen any nation or any painter of woman into the basin of a fountain, tinging the born. These pictures were painted for water with blood. One female is sit- the late Luman Reed, at a cost of ting in mute despair over the dead eight thousand dollars. Surely it were body of her son ; another leaping over a blessing to the Fine Arts in this a battlement, to escape the grasp of a country were such patrons a little more ruffian soldier; and other soldiers drag frequently found. a woman by the hair down the steps The Departure and Return exhibit that form the pedestal of a mutilated a poetical representation of the Feudal colossal statue, whose shattered head times. The Departure represents early lies on the pavement below. A bar- morning in spring. As you look upın barous enemy has conquered the city; the picture, you can almost hear the Carnage and Destruction have asserted fall of waters, and feel the pleasant their frightful Empire.
breeze of the hour and season. In the
distance is seen a church, whose spire impossible to treat it in an entirely is gilded by the beams of the rising original manner, but no one can deny sun; and in the foreground is a mag. that the conception of the painter dis. nificent castle, looming to the sky, the plays a high and rare order of poetical seeming lord and guardian of the world. power. Coming forth from one of its massy In the first we behold the dawn of a gates is a band of mounted cavaliers, summer morning. A translucent who are going to the wars, full of life stream is issuing from an unknown and hope and gladness. The leader, source out of a deep cavern in the side in a splendid dress, is mounted on a of a mountain. Floating gently down noble charger, whose flashing eye and the stream is a golden boat made of extended nostrils show that he is im- the sculptured figures of the Hours, patient for the fight. Turn your eyes while the prow is formed by the present away, and they are gone.
hour holding forth an emblem of Time. Imagine that months have passed, It is filled with flowers, and on these a and look upon the Return. It is now little child is seated, lossing them with evening, the season autumn, but the his upraised hands, and smiling with same section of country. The castle new-born joy, as he looks upon the is now in the distance, and the church unnumbered beauties and glories of in the foreground. Toil-worn, a few this bright world around him; while a only are returning home by a wood- guardian angel is at the helm, with his land path; and their leader, dying or wings lovingly and protectingly exwounded, is conveyed home upon a lit- tended over the child. Love, purity ter carried by men. His steed, with and beauty emanate like incense from heavy step, is following behind. As the sky, the earth and water, so that they approach the church a party of the heart of the gazer seems to forget monks are seen coming out, and are this world and lose itself in a dream of taken by surprise, to meet the small heaven. remnant of brave warriors just return A few fleeting years are gone, and ed from a long and tedious campaign. behold the change! The Stream of
How simple and yet how complete Life is widened, and its current strong is the story here revealed! As these and irresistible, but it flows through a are among the artist's early pictures, country of surpassing loveliness. The they are distinguished for their truth Voyager, who is now a youth, has and unmannered style; and as composi- taken the helm into his own hands, tions, are unsurpassed.
and the dismissed angel stands upon The “ Dream of Arcadia” is the per the shore looking at him with “ a look fect personification of the sweetest made of all sweet accord," as if he dream of poetry and romance. It is said in his heart, “God be with thee, composed of temples, vine-clad moun- thoughtless mortal!" But the youth tains, streams, cascades, trees, shep. heeds not his angel, for his eyes are herds and minsirels, everything in fact now riveted by an airy castle pictured which poets have described as making against the sky, dome above dome Arcady the most beautiful land under reaching to the very, zenith. The the sun.
phantom of worldly happiness and The “Past and Present” consists of worldly ambition has absorbed the two pictures. The first is a tourna- imagination and the eager gaze of the ment near a castle. The second is the wayward voyager, and as he urges his same spot, but with the castle gone to frail bark onward, he dreams not of the decay. On the field where we beheld dangers which may await him in his the brave deeds of chivalry, a single way. To the boat, only a few flowers shepherd boy is tending his sheep. are now clinging, and on closer obserThe first of these we think poorly vation we perceive that the castle in managed, but the last is without a sin- the air, apparently so real, has only a gle fault,-it is superb.
white cloud for its foundation, and that The “Voyage of Life" is a series of ere long the stream makes a sudden fine pictures, allegorically portraying turn, rushing with the fury of a madthe prominent features of man's life, dened steed down a terrible ravine. viz., childhood, youth, manhood and The moral of the picture it is needless old age. The subject is one of such for us to attempt to elucidate. universal interest, that it were almost Another change, and lo! the verge of