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without a Providence. But that there are su perior beings, and that they regard human events, is beyond dispute."

Τα των θεων προνοιας μέρα. τα της τύχης &χ άνευ φύσεως, ή Cugπλώσεως, και επιπλοκης των προνοια διοικημένων.

ANTON. lib. ii. c. 3.

All is full of the Divine Providence. What is called fortune or chance is not without na ture at the bottom, and that connexion and chain of causes which is ordered by Provi dence."

It must, however, be confessed of the Stoic morality, that much of it is extravagant, and some of it trifling; that it is founded upon too few principles, abounds with repetition, and, perhaps, justly incurs the censure of (I think) Lactantius; that it was calculated for actors on a theatre, and not for men in the world.

The most regular and methodical tract upon ethics, which is contained in the whole scope of classical literature, is the offices of Tully this valuable fragment contains much excellent reasoning, and much sound observation; but, still it appears to me but a fragment. Whether

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the lively and desultory genius of Cicero revolted against the toil of a laboured, methodi cal, scientific production, or whether he was interrupted in the progress of his task, the work is certainly imperfect; there are several useful topics entirely omitted, and even the system itself is left in an unfinished state.

In the other beautiful rhapsodies of Tully, in vain shall we look for any thing like system or method. No man, however, can read his Cato Major, his De Amicitia, his Tusculan Disputations, without moral improvement; his Letters, and all his writings, abound in animating and interesting reflexions, in excellent maxims. There is a point, a force, a climax, too, in his observations, which cannot be too greatly admired, and carries the mind along with it, and which gives a novelty even to what is common-place in itself:

"Et nomen pacis dulce est, & ipsa res salutaris; sed inter pacem & servitutem plurimum interest: Pax est tranquilla libertas, servitus postremum malorum omnium, non modò bello, sed morte etiam repellendum."-Cic. in M. Ant.

"The very name of peace is delightful, and

the possession most salutary; but there is a wide difference between peace and slavery. Peace is the tranquil enjoyment of liberty; slavery is the extreme of evils, not only to be repelled by war, but even by death."

"Sin aliquando necessitas nos ad ea detruserit, quæ nostri ingenii non erunt: omnis adhibenda erit cura, meditatio, diligentia, ut ea si non decorè at quam minimum indecorè facere possimus."--Cic. de Off.

"If sometimes necessity should compel us to what is contrary to our minds, we must exert our utmost care, attention and diligence, that if we cannot do them decorously, we shall at all events do them as little indecorously as possible."

In the writings of the poets, the most useful and beautiful reflexions are expressed with a simplicity which delights, or a force which penetrates the heart; the former is chiefly the characteristic of the Greek, the latter of the Roman muse.

If HISTORY is classed among the sciences, in this the antients cannot be too warmly commended. To their admirable writings we are indebted, not only for the most important facts

in the history of mankind, but for the most perfect models in that species of composition. The antients have indeed scarcely been equalled in this line, and I think I can venture to say, that I have not seen the sweet simplicity of Herodotus-the dignity of Thucydides, the harmony and elegance of Sallust, or the pointed and forcible expression of Tacitus, transferred into any modern language, by their most learned translators.

VII. But whatever was wanting to the antients in science, is amply compensated in taste. Homer and Virgil are still unrivalled, and the latter of them is certainly still untranslated. The pastorals of Theocritus, and perhaps the odes of Pindar, have nothing exactly resembling them in modern languages. The satires of Horace and Juvenal have only been imitated. In every department of prose composition also, we find among the antients excellent models. Without deprecating the merit of our contemporaries, we may truly say that the clear and energetic reasoning of Demosthenes, the full, harmonious, and ornamental periods of Cicero, and the sententious neatness of Sallust, have not been excelled. To form, therefore,

a correct taste, one effectual mode, at least, is by a well directed study of these estimable compositions, and by occasionally comparing them with the excellencies and defects of modern productions.

If in any department of polite literature, which they have cultivated, the antients have particularly failed, it is in the drama; but of this I have said sufficient in the preceding letters.

There are some other branches of literature, in which I think the moderns have excelled, and some which have not at all been cultivated by the antients; but this does not, in any view, militate against the utility of classical literature, since an accomplished person ought to be acquainted with the most perfect produc tions, both of antient and modern times.

From a fair consideration of the real uses of classical literature, some practical conclusions result, which appear of no inconsiderable importance in the education of youth.

Impressed as I am with a full sense of the advantages resulting from a classical education, I cannot help thinking, that an unreasonable and enthusiastic regard has sometimes been

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