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Quarterly Review but this, if it meant anything more than an attempt to be civil in a conversation where an American was present, doubtless had reference to political rather than to literary aversions. Wordsworth's attitude toward American literature and his ignorance of American affairs toward the close of his life make it improbable that he knew much of earlier attempts. Like Coleridge, he had met and admired. Allston, and frequently referred to him in his letters, but never as a writer.

Campbell was partial to America, where he had several relatives. The choice of a subject in Gertrude of Wyoming gives evidence of this, and it is well known that he more than once made plans for emigrating to America. In 1798 he wrote to James Thomson:

In all probability at that very time when-were I permitted to stay here we might be seated at this humble but hospitable fireside, I shall be crossing the Ecliptic, or mooring in the mouth of the Ohio [sic]! I have engaged to go to America; and in all human probability, must sail in six weeks!

Nothing indicates that his knowledge of American literature was greater than that of American geography.

Rogers in his old age was one of the lions whom literary Americans visiting London were always taken to see, but apparently he made no recorded comment on American writings before 1815. His Voyage of Columbus, published in 1813, shows, however, his early interest in America.

A few scattered anecdotes connect Scott with American literature. At one time he planned a tale or a poem-probably a poem-with an American setting, and American Indians among the characters. When he abandoned this he gave to Henry Brevoort, then a student at the University of Edinburgh, the collection of books and pamphlets which he had gathered to aid him in creating local color. As a return cour

'Knight, Life of Wordsworth, III: 269-70.

Beattie, Life and Letters of Thomas Campbell, I: 192.

tesy Brevoort sent him, in 1813, a copy of the Knickerbocker's History of New York. Scott wrote in acknowledgment:"

I beg you to accept my best thanks for the uncommon degree of entertainment which I have received from the most excellently jocose history of New York. I am sensible that as a stranger to American parties and politics I must lose much of the concealed satire of the piece but I must own that looking at the simple and obvious meaning only I have never read anything so closely resembling the stile of Dean Swift as the annals of Diedrich Knickerbocker. I have been employed these few evenings in reading them aloud to Mrs. S. and two ladies who are our guests and our sides have been absolutely sore with laughing. I think too there are passages which indicate that the author possesses powers of a different kind and has some touches which remind me much of Sterne. I beg you will have the kindness to let me know when Mr. Irvine [sic] takes his pen in hand again for assuredly I shall expect a very great treat which I may chance never to hear of but through your kind


This letter Brevoort sent to Irving. Scott is also reported to have asked Brevoort about Freneau's poem of Eutaw Springs, from which he once consciously or unconsciously adapted a line, and to have said, "The poem is as fine a thing as there is of the kind in the language." He is also quoted as saying, about 1824 or 1825 that Charles Brockden Brown was America's greatest novelist up to that time; but there is nothing to show whether he read Brown's novels on their first appearance, or afterward. Even before 1815 Scott was beginning to meet Americans of literary interests-as he met Brevoort in 1812-13, and as he met so many later. Very likely some of these trans-Atlantic visitors recorded other remarks regarding American writings, but it may be doubted if many of the master's comments became generally known in America. It would be interesting to have evidence whether Scott read the American parodies of his poems, especially those of Paulding.

Mackenzie, R. S., Life of Scott, p. 258 et. seq.; Letters of Henry Brevoort to Washington Irving, I: 99; II: 203.

'Mackenzie, R. S., Life of Scott, p. 144.

Chance threw in Byron's way Dunlap's Life of G. W. Cooke, to which Byron refers in a letter to Moore in 1813.9

There is an American Life of G. F. [sic] Cooke, Scurra, deceased, lately published. Such a book!-I believe since Drunken Barnaby's Journal, nothing like it has drenched the press. All green-room and tap-room-drams and the drama-brandy, whiskey-punch, and, latterly, toddy, overflow every page. Two things are rather marvelous,-first, that a man should live so long drunk, and, next, that he should have found a sober biographer. There are some very laughable things in it, nevertheless;-but the pints he swallowed, and the parts he performed, are too regularly registered.

In his Journal for 1815 he notes, apropos of a passage in the same book:10

Dallas's nephew (son to the American Attorney-General) is arrived in this country, and tells Dallas that my rhymes are very popular in the United States. These are the first tidings that have ever sounded like Fame to my ears to be redde on the banks of the Ohio! The greatest pleasure I ever derived, of this kind, was from an extract, in Cooke the actor's Life from his journal stating that in the reading-room at Albany, near Washington [sic] he perused English Bards, and Scotch Reviewers. To be popular in a rising and far country has a kind of posthumous feel.

Doubtless Byron knew Paine's writings at a far earlier date, but his quatrain was not written until 1820:11

In digging up your bones, Tom Paine,

Will Cobbett has done well;

You visit him on earth again,

He'll visit you in hell.

In a letter to Murray of August 7, 1821, he describes some Frenchman by comparing him to William the Testy in Irving's Knickerbocker's History.12 It is probable, however, that like many other Englishmen Byron learned of the Knickerbocker's History only after the Sketch Book had won popularity for its author. He frequently mentions Irving's

Works of Byron, ed. by Frothero, II: 249.

10 Ibid., II: 360.

11 Ibid., VII: 65.

12 Ibid., V: 341.

name in letters and journals of this time, but not in those of earlier date.

Moore visited America in 1803-4, and succeeded, if we may believe American comment at the time, in creating the impression that he was delighted with what he saw. The choice of American subjects for The Dismal Swamp and some other poems was considered an especial honor, and some of his complimentary phrases were often repeated. His privately expressed opinions were less flattering. He wrote from New York of the "barrenness in intellect, taste, and all in which heart is concerned" throughout America,13 and in another letter refers to Philadelphia as "the only place in America which can boast any literary society." While he was discreet enough to disguise his feelings in the face of the homage that was paid him, he seems to have been disgusted with everything in America but the scenery. It is surprising, in view of this early journey, how few references to America and American literature are to be found in his later writings.

Since Peacock published his memoir of Shelley in 1858 his statements regarding the influence of Charles Brockden Brown on the poet have been often quoted.15

He was especially fond of the novels of Brown-Charles Brockden Brown, the American, who died at the age of thirty-nine...... Brown's four novels, Schiller's Robbers, and Goethe's Faust, were, of all the works with which he was familiar, those which took the deepest root in his mind, and had the strongest influence on the formation of his character....Nothing so blended itself with the structure of his interior mind as the creations of Brown. Nothing stood so clearly before his thoughts as a perfect combination of the purely ideal and possibly real, as Constantia Dudley.

There must have been some foundation for these assertions, but it is significant that they rest on the authority of Peacock alone. Medwin, Hogg, and other writers who give recollections of Shelley make no mention of Brown's name. It may be that Peacock, who was himself evidently a great ad

13 Memoirs, Journal and Correspondence of Thomas Moore, edited by Lord Russell, I: 159.

14 Ibid., p. 164.

Peacock, Memoir of Shelley, edited by Brett-Smith, pp. 35, 36.

mirer of Brown, at some time joined with Shelley in enthusiastic discussion of the American novelist, and that the enthusiasm was greater and more lasting in his case than in that of Shelley. After all, since no utterance of Shelley himself is on record, the question is hardly pertinent here.

It would be expected that a man of Shelley's revolutionary temper would show some interest in the nation that was regarded as the chief exponent of democracy. Medwin tells us that in youth Shelley "swore by" Franklin. In Laon and Cynthia (The Revolt of Islam), Canto XI, sc. xxiv, is a reference to America as the home of freedom. Still, there is nothing that bears directly on American authors, and nothing that shows any great knowledge of America. Harriet, writing in 1812 says, "We know an American," as if the factor the American-were curious.16

Aside from some protestations of dislike for Franklin, Leigh Hunt has nothing to say of American writers in his Autobiography.

Landor's position was that of a man who loved English conservatism less rather than America more. He wrote an Ode to General Washington at 19, while still at Oxford. In 1812, when his country was on the verge of war with America, he proposed to dedicate his Commentaries on Trotter's Life of Fox to President Madison, and defended himself with spirit against Southey's protests.17 At the same time he wrote:18 "I detest the American character as much as you do, and commerce as much as Bonaparte does; . . . But the Americans speak our language; they read Paradise Lost." And again, "I do believe with you that Franklin formed the American character as we now see it." In connection with this last remark it may be noted that years afterward, in Imaginary Conversations, Second Series, he makes Franklin and Washington discuss American affairs, and Franklin presents the dangers likely to arise from too great learning and elegance of manners.

18 Letters from Shelley to Elizabeth Hitchener, p. 261. Foerster, Life of Landor, I: 358.

Ibid, p. 364.

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