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a firmer footing for all that is to come after. In the numberless and unexpected emergencies which occur in the relief of diseases of the body and of the mind, in the ever-varying combinations of causes and of character which present themselves, an almost universal acquaintance with nature and art would seem to be demanded. The power of making good observations, a retentive memory, a fixed attention, and the habit of generalising, are among the most important qualities of the physician, and these can only be acquired or strengthened by an early and extensive intellectual education.”
That the great physicians of past times were profound scholars is shown by their writings which have survived so many centuries chiefly because of their clearness in the depiction of morbid conditions, and of the purity of their diction. The masterly books of Hippocrates so justly celebrated for conciseness of language, and the elegant Latin of Celsus, and the pure Attic of Galen are justly ranked as marvels of literary composition. Many more might be cited among the illustrious ancient medical writers, and as many among those of the first half of the nineteenth century in France, Germany, England, and America, whose works are too little perused, unfortunately for the present generation that pays such scant attention to medical history and biography, or to the cultivation of classic lore. The nation will have to look among the young men who are now aspiring to medical honors for subjects worthy of the laurel wreath.
It has been said with truth that the most accomplished
medical scholars and best writers have generally been the cleverest practical physicians, and that no man, in this twentieth century, is likely to attain eminence who was not a classical scholar before he began the study of medicine. The later revival of learning and of classic literature was due, in no small measure, to those medical scholars who effected so well the translation of the works of Hippocrates, Celsus, Galen, and of other ancient writers on medicine.
Only through the highest standard of requirements can an effective medical army be organized for perpetual struggle with disease. The recruits will thus be of a better sort than ever before and more suitably equipped for coping with the enemy. Then, with a reorganized grand army of the republic of medicine on the right basis, there will be, during this twentieth century, an era in the march of the science unparalleled in greatness, for, the scores of prior centuries of labor and strife after knowledge have served mainly as a long recognisance in force to find the devious ways of man's dread and insidious enemy disease, in order that all newly devised engines, designed to relieve suffering and prolong life, may be effectively used in this warfare which will be without end.
The first and second conferences, together with the present, constitute a much condensed statement of a score of conversations such as are profitably held between his sponsor and the aspirant, who shall have learned, from the replies to his queries, something of the history and the nature of the profession, of the mission of the true
physician, and of the fact that great physicians were not only profound scholars but accomplished anatomists. So he will naturally conclude to devote much of his time to the study of the structure and functions of the body. After these preliminary instructions, derived from replies to his queries, the aspirant will be ready to enter his wider field of labor with seeing eyes, hearing ears, and clear perceptions; well prepared to appreciate the teachings of his masters in the medical school of which he shall be a pupil.
THE MATRICULATED STUDENT
Answers to the matriculate's queries-Note taking; its value as an aid to memory, as a guide to reading, as an assurance of accuracy in debate, and as a serviceable adjunct in learning the art of writing with precision and clearness-The attendance of lectures on other than medical subjects—The Class Society-What the student should read besides medical works-Physical exercise, diet, sleep, and social duties of students-Relations of students to their teachers and to each
THE aspirant, after presenting to the Dean of the Faculty suitable credentials, obtained from his sponsor, is admitted to the entrance examination which, if he pass successfully, will entitle him to be received as a matriculate and to become a member of the first year class in the school of medicine. As a skilled inquirer, he begins by asking how much time and attention may be given profitably to the annotation of medical lectures?
He is then told, by all means, to cultivate the habit of taking notes, in his own words as much as possible, of such salient points in his masters' lectures as might be required for future reference, and devote a reasonable time to their revision. He is also told that such annotions will not only serve to impress upon his mind the
wise utterances of the learned, help their retention in his memory, guide him in his reading, make him accurate in debate, and be valuable to him for use in the far future, but will be of very much service toward the beginning of his training in the rare art of writing with precision, brevity, and clearness; bearing in mind the sapient Baconian saying: "Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man." He is further told that such industry will assuredly be crowned with a high reward; and the respondent perhaps cites examples such as the following:
Doctor Parry, one of the lights of English medicine in the second half of the eighteenth century, said that during the first twelve or fourteen years of his professional life, he had recorded almost every case which had occurred to him either in private practice or in the chief conduct of an extensive charity.
One of the most instructive clinical teachers of America began, early in his professional career, the annotation of nearly all the cases of disease that came under his care privately or in hospitals, and continued to do so and to make the best use of those notes, in his lectures and writings, for fifty years when they had filled more than twenty large quarto volumes of several hundred pages each. These admirable examples are well worth following by all who expect to contribute information for the benefit of sufferers.
Should the student attend lectures on other than medical subjects?