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tal and physical suffering. It is ennobling to its votaries who practice it intelligently and conscientiously and strive to surmount the many difficulties which so often arise in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. These practisers of the noble art are further ennobled by their devotion to the sick, by their self-sacrifice, by their contributions to the advancement of the science and art, and by the many dangers they brave in more ways than can be dreamed of by the laity.

The second clause "but owing to the ignorance of those who practise it, and of those who, inconsiderately form a judgment of them, it is at present far behind all the other arts"-proclaims a lament which is equally vented in these days. In ancient times the practice of medicine was in the hands chiefly of ignorant pretenders who would not, even if they could, advance the art; hence it was far behind all the other arts. Although the learned have since increased numerically, the crafty pretenders have never proportionately decreased, and still continue to prey upon public credulity, chiefly because the people has never been properly enlightened by the profession as to the real nature and aims of legitimate medicine and as to what constitutes the true physician. Even in these days, when a charlatan is characterized as a cheat, an imposter, the populace is wont to heed the rogue's plaint of persecution, and to attribute any denunciation of his evil deeds to professional jealousy, for the uninformed make no discrimination between the true and the spurious; all having or assuming the title of doctor

in medicine being the same to the thoughtless, one as good or as bad as the other. The masses are always dazzled by what, in their faulty judgment, they regard as marvelous and believe the mendacious, however grossly absurd may be their pretentions and promises of cure, or extravagant and dangerous their means of treatment. Hence it is that charlatanism prevails as it has always prevailed and thriven among the unthinking and unknowing who are in the immense majority on this earth. It is therefore incumbent upon each loyal member of the profession to give proper information, on medical morals, to all his clients, particularly on the reciprocal relations of physicians and their patients, and the public, and thus help to diminish the number of wrong believers.

The second sentence is to the following effect: "Their mistake appears to arise principally from the fact that in the cities there is no punishment connected with the practice of medicine except disgrace, and that it does not hurt those who are familiar with it." The meaning of this seems to be that even a simple reproof may be regarded as a punishment by the sensitive physician for a first offense, but that all chronic offenders are so insensible to censure, so hardened in mind, as to shamelessly disregard the condemnation of their acts as disgraceful.

The offenders are pictured in the third sentence as follows: "Such persons are like the figures which are introduced in tragedies, for they have the shape, and dress, and personal appearance of actors, but are not actors, so also physicians are many in title but few in reality."

The second, third, fourth, and fifth sections relate to the requirements for entrance upon the study of medicine, and are well worthy of special examination not only on account of their intrinsic value, but of the simplicity, conciseness, clearness, and quaintness of the language and of the similes used throughout.

The latrium was the physician's office, corresponding to "The Surgery" in England. In it were kept medicines and all necessary implements for the treatment of office patients. Of the book bearing this title, the first section alone will be cited because therein the Master tells of the best means of accurate diagnosis, effected by the trained senses and clear perception.

"It is the business of the physician to know, in the first place, things similar and things dissimilar; those connected with things most important, most easily known, and in any wise known; which are to be perceived in the sight, and the touch, and hearing, and the nose, and the tongue, and the understanding; which are to be known by all the means we know other things."

In the remaining sections, to the twenty-fifth and last, are the minutest details of the physician's conduct, especially in cases of injuries.

The truly great book of aphorisms likewise contains excellent rules of conduct of the practicing physician. The first aphorism, though so well known to all readers, will nevertheless be quoted for the benefit of the young.

"Life is short, and the art long; the occasion fleeting; experience fallacious, and judgment difficult. The phy

sician must not only be prepared to do what is right himself, but also to make the patient, the attendants, and externals coöperate."

This brief exordium warns the beginner of the gravity and great responsibility of his undertaking. It first contrasts the brevity of life and the prolixity of the art, then enjoins prompt decision in beginning treatment, "the time being urgent," and tells of the difficulty of judging correctly owing to the fallaciousness of experience. Besides which it suggests reciprocity in the form of exacting coöperation, and also obedience to directions, on the part of patient, attendants, and externals, such as members of the family. This should always be the chief condition on which the physician undertake the treatment of the sick.

The Master's precious book on prognostics, in twenty-five paragraphs, and several of his other books, are also filled with admirable principles of medical conduct. Only the first sentence of the first paragraph of "Prognostics" need be quoted, it is substantially as follows:

"It is an excellent thing for the physician to cultivate prognosis; for, by foreseeing and foretelling, in the presence of the sick, the present, the past and the future, and explaining the omissions of patients, he will be the more readily believed to be acquainted with the circumstances of the sick; so that men will have confidence to intrust themselves to such a physician."

There could be no better plea than this for the early cultivation of the art of prognosticating, on modern lines, of course.

Thus it is apparent, from these five books of Hippocrates as well as from other parts of his works, that enough wholesome precepts could have been extracted and so arranged as to form an excellent system of morals; but his successors were contented, during many centuries, to grope through those writings for information respecting particular lines of conduct. The Salernum school, the early French schools, the English College of Physicians, all had their special moral statutes, but these divers incomplete documents were designed for the government only of members of the local institutions, not for the general profession of medicine.

The statutes of the College of Chirurgery of Paris were written in the year 1268 by Jean Pitard. Among these statutes are some which may be of interest to the present generation of physicians, as:

The sixth statute which is to the effect that each master in chirurgery shall aid those masters who have become indigent.

The twentieth provides that the degree of master in chirurgery shall be conferred only after the recipient shall have taken an oath to observe these statutes.

The twenty-eighth relates to the prosecution of charlatans and all others who may attempt to practise without due authorization.

The thirty-ninth condemns the frequentation of charlatans and of other people in bad repute.

The forty-second forbids advertising, to the public, special skill in treatment, orally, by placards, or by any other means.

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