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transactions in India were well-known to the high authorities there, and his valuable services in that quarter had obtained the public thanks of the Court of directors, with other marks of approbation, restitution was made to him of part of the condemned property, amounting to £25,000, out of which £6000 was paid to the captor for his expenses, who also received £12,993 out of proceeds of property condemned as French.

On the breaking out of the war with France, he returned to the regular service, and subsequently distinguished himself at the head of a party of seamen under the duke of York in Holland. Having turned his attention to a plan for resisting any invasion of this country, he proposed the organization of a corps of sea-fencibles,-a suggestion which, in 1798, was carried into execution.

On the 14th of May, 1798, he sailed for Ostend with a small squadron under his orders, having on board a military force, commanded by General Coote. He arrived off his destination on the 19th of the same month, and some of the troops were immediately landed; but after having blown up the sluice-gates of the town, being unable to reimbark, owing to the roughness of the sea, they were forced to capitulate. In 1799 Captain Popham was sent to Cronstadt to superintend the embarkation of some Russian troops destined to assist in the attack on Holland. While on this service he was visited by the Emperor Paul, who presented him with a gold snuff-box of considerable value, and the cross of Malta. In the winter of the same year he was, in conjunction with Captain Godfrey, intrusted with the command of a small flotilla of gun-boats on the canal of Alkmaar in Holland, which was made to afford considerable protection to the flanks of the British. For his conduct on this service he obtained the special thanks of the duke of York, and a pension of £500 per annum.

In December, 1800, he was intrusted with the command of a small squadron. In 1802 he was returned for the borough of Yarmouth, but was soon after threatened with a parliamentary inquiry. The Hon. Charles Kinnaird gave notice of his intention to move for a committee to inquire into certain charges adduced in the report of the navy board. An imprest was laid on his pay and half-pay, and the charges respecting the expenses of the Romney were to be laid before the commissioners of inquiry in naval abuses. A sudden change of administration released him from this danger, and brought him into employment. Through the patronage of Lord Melville, he was appointed to the superintendence of a scheme for destroying a fleet by means never before heard of. The experiment was ludicrously termed the Catamaran expedition; but two vessels were very effectually destroyed by it off Boulogne in 1804. An attack on a larger scale was afterwards attempted at Fort Conge, which disappointed public expectation.

In 1806 he commanded the naval part of the force sent against the Cape of Good Hope. Shortly after, with a body of troops under General Beresford, he proceeded to Rio de la Plata, and captured Buenos Ayres. The enemy, however, soon retook the city; and on his return to England, Sir Home Popham, whose friends had quitted office, was brought to a court-martial, by which he was severely reprimanded, "for having, without any direction or authority whatever, withdrawn the whole naval force under his command at the Cape, for the purpose of attacking the Spanish settlements."

He was, however, shortly afterwards appointed captain of the fleet sent out under Admiral Gambier against the Danes; and on the 8th of January, 1808, he received a valuable sword from the corporation of London, with the freedom of the city. In 1809 he served in the expedition against Flushing. During the peninsular war he was actively employed in the Venerable, on the north-west coast of Spain, and he subsequently conveyed Lord Moira in the Stirling to the East Indies. After having been made a colonel of marines, he was advanced on the 4th of June, 1814, to the rank of rear-admiral of the White, and hoisted his flag as commander-in-chief in the river Thames. In 1819 he commanded on the Jamaica station, and became rear-admiral of the Red. At the time of his death, which took place on the 11th of September, 1820, he was groom of the bed-chamber to the duke of Gloucester, and a fellow of the Royal society.

His scientific acquirements are stated to have been more than respectable. He produced an improved telegraph and code of signals, which, in 1815, was adopted on the coast from the Land's End to Bridport.

Sir David Dundas.

BORN A. D. 1737.-DIED A. D. 1820.


DAVID DUNDAS, a native of Edinburgh, and the son of a merchant, is said to have been originally destined for the medical profession, which, however, he thought fit to abandon. After having been two years a student at the Woolwich military academy, he entered on his military career under the auspices of his uncle, General David Watson, quarter-master-general under William, Duke of Cumberland. officer was an able engineer; he made a survey of the Highlands of Scotland, and planned and inspected the military road through it. To this relation young Dundas was appointed an assistant, and had the further advantage of having for his coadjutor the celebrated mathematician, William Roy, from whom it may be supposed that Dundas derived much information.

In 1759, when Colonel Elliot, afterwards Lord Heathfield, obtained a letter of service to raise a regiment of dragoons, Lieutenant Dundas was promoted to a troop in it. When the British cabinet determined upon attacking the Spanish foreign settlements, among which the Havannah was the principal, General Elliot was appointed to the staff, and Captain Dundas embarked with him as his aid-de-camp. After the reduction of the island of Cuba in 1762, he returned with the general to England, and remained as aid-de-camp till he received the majority of the 15th dragoons, on the 28th of May, 1770. From that corps he was promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the 2d regiment of horse on the Irish establishment, now the 5th dragoon guards. In February, 1781, he obtained the rank of colonel.

Shortly after the peace of 1783, the great Frederick of Prussia having ordered a grand review of the whole of his forces, the curiosity and attention of military men were excited by so splendid an exhibition. Colonel Dundas applied for leave to be present on this occasion, which

being granted, he repaired to the plains of Potsdam, and there laid the foundation of his new system of military tactics, to be afterwards matured and digested by deliberate observation and diligent consideration. This journey, moreover, enabled him to acquire a knowledge of the German language, so useful to an officer, and a thorough acquaintance with the military etiquette and interior economy of an army. On his return, the leisure hours from his staff-appointment were employed in arranging his system of tactics for the press, from which it issued in 1788, in one volume, quarto, under the title of Principles of Military Movements, chiefly applicable to Infantry.' In the compilation of this work he has borrowed largely from the two following publications :— Essai de Tactique, par M. Guibert,' an officer in the service of France, a very indifferent translation of whose work was published in this country a few years ago; and Elements of Tactics for the Prussian Infantry, by General Saldern,' translated by Professor Landmann of the Royal academy, Woolwich. Simplicity and generality of principle are the distinguishing features of the great Frederick's military system. Columns to the front, or in echelon,-accurate marching in line for his infantry,—and rapid movements for the cavalry, were the principal traits of it.

In April, 1790, Colonel Dundas was promoted to the rank of major-general, and appointed colonel to the 22d regiment of infantry on the 2d of April of the following year, on which he gave up the adjutant-generalship of Ireland. His majesty, to whom General Dundas had dedicated his work, having approved of it, directed it to be arranged and adapted for the use of the army, in June, 1792. It was accordingly printed, under the title of Rules and Regulations for the Formations, Field-exercise, and Movements of his Majesty's Forces,' with an injunction that this system should "be strictly followed and adhered to, without any deviation whatsoever; and such orders before given as are found to interfere with, or counteract their effect and operation, are to be considered as hereby cancelled and annulled." The principles on which these regulations were formed, are, in marching to preserve just distances, particularly the leading of divisions on which every movement depends,-forming good lines,-changing fronts by echelon movements,-wheeling by divisions from column,-and at all times marching either in ordinary or quick time by cadenced steps. A writer, to whom the army is much indebted for the elucidation of General Dundas's work, says, "That till these Rules and Regulations were published and directed to be followed, we never had any general system of discipline ordered by authority to be implicitly complied with; on the contrary, a few review-regulations excepted, every commander-inchief, or officer commanding a corps, adopted or invented such manœuvres as were thought proper. Neither was the manual exercise the same in all regiments met in the same garrison or camp; they could not act in brigade or line till the general officer commanding established a temporary uniform system.' The Rules and Regulations for the Cavalry' were also planned by General Dundas.

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On the commencement of the war General Dundas was put on the

Reide's Treatise on the Duty of Infantry Officers, and the present System of British Military Discipline.'

staff, and, in the autumn of 1793, was sent to command a body of troops at Toulon. While we were in possession of that place, it was determined by Admiral Lord Hood and General O'Hara, to dislodge the French from the heights of Arenes, on which they had erected a battery of heavy cannon, and from whence Bonaparte, who commanded it, annoyed the town and citadel exceedingly. For this service General Dundas was selected, having under his command 2300 British allies. The approaches to the French lines were very strong and intricate; he had a bridge to cross, to march through olive-plantations, and ascend a hill cut in vine-terraces; yet, under all these disadvantages, he succeeded in taking the battery on the 20th of November. The French, however, who were very strong, attacked the assailants and dispossessed them of it, in consequence of which General Dundas was obliged to fall back on the town.

Shortly after his return the general was sent to the continent, to serve under the duke of York. In the action of the 10th of May, 1794, at Tournay, General Dundas distinguished himself greatly. During the unfortunate retreat through Holland he bore a very active part, particularly on the 30th of December, in taking Tuyl, where the French were strongly posted. In December, 1795, he was removed from the command of the 22d foot to that of the 7th dragoons. He was also appointed governor of Languardfort. On the resignation of General Morrison, from ill health, General Dundas was nominated quartermaster-general of the British army in 1797. When the army embarked on another expedition to Holland in 1799, Dundas was one of the general officers selected by the commander-in-chief, and in all the principal engagements in that strong country he had his full share, particularly those of Bergen and Alkmaar, on the 2d and 6th of October.

On the death of Sir Ralph Abercromby, General Dundas succeeded him in the command of the 2d or North British dragoons. He also succeeded him in the government of Forts George and Augustus, in North Britain. In the summer of 1801 he was second in command under the commander-in-chief of the grand army which was formed on Bagshot heath.

On the 12th of March, 1803, he resigned the quarter-master-generalship, and was put on the staff, as second in command under the duke of York. His majesty was pleased also, as a particular mark of his royal regard, to invest him with the order of the Bath.

On the resignation of the duke, Sir David was appointed commanderin-chief, and held this important office until the duke's restoration to his military honours. In 1813 he was appointed colonel of the 1st or king's regiment of dragoon guards, but thenceforth took little share in military affairs during the remainder of his life, which terminated on the 18th of February, 1820.

The reputation of Sir David Dundas rests principally on his abilities as a tactician. He was much respected by the army, and esteemed in private life.

Henry Grattan.

BORN A. D. 1750.-DIED A. D. 1820.

THIS eloquent and patriotic statesman was born in the year 1750. His mother was a sister of the witty Dean Morley. His father, who was an Irish barrister, and recorder of Dublin, had derived from his talents and reputation for integrity a competent share of practice in his profession; but he was not rich, and young Grattan had been early taught to depend, for his future fame and fortune, on the exertion of his own powers.

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At the usual age he was entered a student of Trinity college, Dublin, where he was soon distinguished as the powerful competitor of two class-fellows whose good fortune and talents afterwards raised them to the highest situations in the state,—Mr Fitzgibbon, chancellor of Ireland, and Mr Forster, speaker of the house of commons. He afterwards resided in the Temple in London, and was intimately acquainted with Hugh Boyd, and Mr Eden, afterwards Lord Auckland. said to have been so straitened for money at this time that, in order to afford himself the means of purchasing books, he was compelled frequently to content himself with a scanty allowance of food. He was indefatigably industrious, and so anxious not to lose a moment in sleep which ought to be devoted to study, that he contrived a singular apparatus to rouse him regularly at day-break. A small barrel, filled with water, was placed over a basin which stood on a shelf immediately above his pillow, and the cock of it was sufficiently turned to fill the basin by day-light; so that, if he did not then rise, the water flowed over upon his person.

After taking a degree, Mr Grattan was, in 1772, called to the Irish bar, and for a few years attended the four courts with an empty bag, and a mind too elastic to be confined to the forms of pleading, and too liberal to be occupied by the pursuits of a mere lawyer. Disgusted with a profession in which he thought he could never rise but by habits to which he could not crouch, he retired from the bar; but it was not long before he was made known to Lord Charlemont. By his lordship, who had always shown equal sagacity in discovering and zeal in promoting genius, he was returned to parliament for his borough of Charle


Entering into the legislature under such auspices, it was natural to expect that Mr Grattan would become the advocate of his then suffering and dependent country. Ireland, indeed, at that time, was in a state of perfect humiliation, being considered merely as a province to the sister country. Her legislature was a petty council incapable of originating laws, and her courts of justice subordinate to those of England, and incompetent to a final decision; destitute of foreign commerce, from which she had been excluded by British monopoly, her manufactures were crushed, and the industry of her people checked for want of encouragement; in short, discontent, bankruptcy, and wretchedness, covered the face of the country. To evils of such magnitudewhich the calamities brought on by the unfortunate contest with America

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