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motives derived from the highest and noblest sources to bring back the criminal to repentance.
Individuals addicted to the vice of intemperance, in attempting the work of their own reformation, do not stand upon equal ground with those who have transgressed in any other way. With regard to most vicious habits, the temptation to indulge in them is occasional, it attacks at distinct periods, after certain intervals, and requires for its resistance repeated but single efforts. Strong etforts no doubt and difficult to make, but still only occasional. On the other hand, the temptation of the drunkard arises, not from the accidental suggestion of the means of indulgence, not from the occurrence of a favourable opportunity, not from the excitement, at particular times and seasons, of the desire of gratifying bis palate with the taste of liquor, but from a deeper cause and a cause which is always operating. It consists in a physical necessity for constant stimulus which has been created by a continual indulgence-a craving and gnawing appetite which can only be appeased by liquor, and which if not so appeased creates feelings of despondency and desperation that make existence itself a burden. Deprived of this stimulus, the drunkard is the most miserable and pitiable of mortals. His nerves are unstrung, his fibres have lost their tone, his spirits flag, and all elasticity, whether of mind or body, is completely lost. His system, so long used to depend upon artificial excitement for its tone, its capability of action, sinks so soon as it is withdrawn; as a steed always accustomed to be driven with whip and spur, falters at once in his pace if they cease to be applied.
Now in the drunkard this animal sensation is constantly present, It is not an affection of the mind, but of the body; it is not therefore subject to mental exertion like the propensities to other crimes, but continues its influence in spite of it. When the votary of a different vice has overcome a temptation that assailed him, he is relieved at once; he is made happy by the success of the effort, he feels, that he is a better man, that he has taken one step towards virtue; but the intemperate man has none of this encouragement. His temptation does not proceed so much from moral obliquity, as from a physical want, and this is always present. He is dispirited and heartless. Though he exerts himself to the utmost and religiously resists every opportunity of indulgence; the effort brings with it no' relief to that feeling which constitutes bis principal danger. The same wearing, sinking sensation still remains, which only one thing can alleviate, and that but for a moment.
The resolution then required to enable a man to correct a habit of intemperance, is different in its nature, from that which
is required in most other cases. It must be constantly, equally, and powerfully under exercise. It must be always screwed up to the highest pitch ; and that not only because the temptation is always present, but because the means of indulgence are ordinarily so also; it is seldom when the disposition exists that the means cannot be found. Any moment of weakness, therefore, may be the ruin of the drunkard, who is attempting reformation; but not so with offenders of other kinds. With them the mo. ment of weakness, of irresolution, of flagging resistance, may occur, but without opportunity; or the opportunity may occur, and find the mind firm and steady in resistance. The two circumstances must fall together to make the wreck certain. But with the drunkard the moment of weakness, come when it will, always finds the means ready and at hand.
It arises from this circumstance, I conceive, that we so seldom hear of those who have successfully attempted to reform from habits of intemperance; that instances of recovery from this, are so much more rare than those from any other vice. And having thus pointed out the cause of the greater difficulty attending the effort in this case, the remedy must be sought for in something which shall protect against the consequences of the occasional weakness, which so often prostrates the best hopes of reformation. This remedy cannot be found in any internal principle of resistance; this can seldom, very seldom be depended upon as permanent; it must be sought for in some external précautions, which by constantly operating, shall guard against the danger at every avenue where it
threaten. This would be the purpose of a Retreat for the Intemperate. The subjects of it should never be left entirely to themselves ; they should always be under a certain degree of controul, but this controul limited to one particular; in every other respect, they should be free to act and live as they pleased. So far as the appetite is concerned, they ought to be brought within certain rules of the most rigid temperance; and those rules be most inviolably enforced. The advantages of this plan would be, first, to prevent the opportunities of indulgence, and thus forcibly secure a continued abstinence ; and secondly, as a consequence of this abstinence, effect the gradual removal of that state of the animal system upon which the strong propensity of drunkards depends.
This would necessarily be a work of time, and an entire reformation would after all require a good deal of voluntary exertion, a long continued caution and watchfulness, after the subject was released from the immediate constraint of the retreat. means of this seclusion the grand difficulty would have been
But by overcome, the chain of bad habits would have been broken, and a man would mingle with the world again under great advantages for continued good behaviour. The effort of resistance would become every day comparatively easier. He would feel some of the happiness and satisfaction of virtuous resolution. His temptation instead of being constant, would be only occasional, like that to other vices. He would not carry it hanging round him, like a curse to every moment of his existence.
How many are there around us, and among us, to whom such a method of treatment might be the means of saving from utter and irretrievable ruin. How many, whose characters, before their indulgence in this one fatal vice, possessed much that was good and estimable and might again be brought back and made worthy members of society. How many, whose rank and standing now give, in some degree, a sanction to the vice in which they indulge, might be thus brought to exert as great an influence in the cause of virtue, by the example of their reformation. This plan could of course extend to but few in number, and would only be successful in those, who in addition to the means of seclusion and restraint are possessed of a considerable share of resolution. But these few would be of a class whose bad example is most pernicious, and whose reformation when it occurs has the most effectual and beneficial influence.
HERESY OF THE COPERNICAN SYSTEM.
The following curious notice is contained in a late German
HE journal (Algemeines Repertorium, Leipzig. 1820, B. i. $ 396.)
"At Rome, permission to print Professor Settele's Course of Astronomy has been denied, because it directly teaches the Copernican System, and does not merely assume it as a bypothesis ; as was permitted by a bull of Benedict XIV. [Benedict XIV. was chosen Pope in 1740.] The high Censor at Rome is the master of the sacred palace, now P. Anfossi. A decision on the subject is now expected from the Congregation of the Holy Office and of the Index.'
We doubt whether many of our readers were aware how slowly the Copernican System had made its way in the world.
A QUESTIONABLE SERMON.
JAMES The First, on hearing a sermon, in which there was more of politics than religion, asked Bishop Andrews what he thought of it, and whether it were a sermon or not. • Please your Majesty,' replied the bishop," by very charitable construction it may pass for a sermon.'
Steward's Anecdotes, vol. iii. p. 257.
CORRECTIONS OF MRS. BARBAULD'S THOUGHT ON DEATH. We have seen a corrected copy of this beautiful little poem, furnished by the authoress for the [English] Monthly Repository, in the number for November last. There are some variations from that which appeared in the Disciple, vol. iii. p. 440. Line 1, for,
When life in opening buds is sweet Read
When life, as opening buds, is sweet. Line 5. For borrowed' read valued.' And transpose the two concluding stanzas. We confess we hardly think this last change an improvement.
Every Christian will feel the simplicity and piety of the following hymn; though he may not be able to adopt all its language as his own.
AN EVENING HYMN.
By Bishop Kenn. Glory to thee, my God! this night, For all the blessings of the light; Keep me, o keep me, King of Kings, Under thy own Almighty wings. Forgive me Lord! for thy dear Son, The ills that I this day have done ; That with the world, myself and thee, 1, ere I sleep, at peace may be. Teach me to live, that I may dread The grave, as little as my bed; Teach me to die, that so I may With joy behold the judgment day. O may my soul on thee repose ; And may sweet steep my eyelid close, Sleep that may me more active make, To.serve my God, when I awake. When restless, in the night, 1 lie, My soul with heavenly thoughts supply ; Let no ill dreams disturb my rest; No
powers of darkness me molest.
Let my blest Guardian, while I sleep,
EPITAPH ON MR. THACHER. The following epitaph on the late lamented Mr. Thacher, has not,
we believe, been before published. It is inscribed on his monument at Moulines.
Reverendi Samuelis Cooper Thacher, In Novanglia, apud Bostonienses, olim Christi ecclesiæ ministri ; Qui officiis ejus sacris dum sedulo fungeretur,
1 Quid verum atque honestum eloquentiâ et silentio docuit : Miti sapientiâ, moribus suayissimis, caritate erga omnes,
Ingenio disciplinis exculto,
Sed duos annos per mare et terras jactatus,
Fratres et soror ejus moerentes H. M. P.