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merits and claims of the good old colony of Massachusetts Bay. In his statement of religious opinions, he is singularly candid, and is full of charity towards opposing sects. "Let us study," says he, "for peace, and to promote mutual love among Christians of every denomination. We should love all of Christ we see in them." (p. 166.) Again; "It is a grief to a Christian, as it is a scandal to the whole world, to see Christians (so called) full of envy and malice, hating and reviling one another, and smiting with the fist of wickedness. This, when all is said and done, is a more full and just argument, that such have no part in Christ, than any supposed orthodoxy of opinion can be of their interest in him." (p. 168.) And in another place he says, "It is certainly a reproach to Christians, that they can be so zealously affected about the things which are peculiar and distinguishing to each sect respectively, and yet be so cold and negligent of those wherein they all agree. It is reasonable to suppose those doctrines and duties, which all agree in, are the most important and essential." (p. 170.)
Upon the whole, the volume, with its accompanying documents and illustrations, is well worthy of perusal, and deserves a place in every library of American history.
In the establishment of the Kentucky Historical Society, we are glad to welcome a new laborer into the common field; and, from our knowledge of the youthful ardor and perseverance of some of its associates, we anticipate, in coming years, a rich harvest of antiquarian and historical information. We hope, that it will meet, in the great valley of the West, with the cooperation and encouragement which so useful and commendable an enterprise deserves.
7. Statistical Tables, exhibiting the Condition and Products of certain Branches of Industry in Massachusetts, for the Year ending April 1st, 1837. Boston. 8vo. pp. 212.
THIS pamphlet is the fruit of the first systematic attempt, which has been made by the government of Massachusetts, to ascertain the annual amount of the products of manufacturing industry within the State. It embraces also the products of two or three other branches of industry, viz. wool, which is usually classed among the products of agriculture; and fish, and oil, the products of the fisheries. The other productions of agriculture, and of the collateral branches of labor, such as the dairy, and many household manufactures, and those of navigation and commerce, are not included. The fruits of the various me
chanic arts employed in building, the labors of the saw-mill and grist-mill, and various other branches of productive industry, are also excluded from the enumeration. It therefore falls far
short of affording a full view of the productive industry of the commonwealth; but, as far as its professed scope extends, it appears to be full, and nearly complete.
This interesting addition to the statistics of the country, consists of an abstract of the official returns made by the assessors of the cities and towns of the State, in conformity with a prescribed form, in obedience to a special law assigning to them this duty. The returns having been made to the Secretary of State, John P. Bigelow, Esquire, the abstract and digest of the mass of materials has been prepared and published under his direction, in a very clear and satisfactory form. The example of this publication, both in its object and mode of execution, is deserving of imitation by the other States.
The most extensive branch of industry in Massachusetts, and that which employs the greatest number of hands, is undoubtedly agriculture. The fruits of this branch of labor are appropriated, in the first place, to the subsistence of those immediately employed in it; and the greater part of the surplus is demanded for consumption either within the immediate neighbourhood of its production, or for the supply of the large towns within the State. Large quantities of beef and pork, and considerable quantities of certain other kinds of agricultural produce, have heretofore been exported from the State, and the export has not yet entirely ceased. Large quantities of grain and flour are annually brought into the State for consumption; and, of the latter article, a very large proportion of the farmers themselves obtain their supplies from abroad; but of most of the other species of agricultural produce, for which the climate is adapted, the State of Massachusetts produces nearly an adequate supply for the subsistence of all its inhabitants. Large quantities of these productions, however, are brought from the neighbouring States, but, at the same time, large quantities are exported. Of the extent and productiveness of this great branch of industry, the amount of capital invested in it, the number or proportion of the population which it employs, the amount of its produce demanded for home consumption, or of the surplus which is exchanged for the other means of living, this volume affords us no information. These are statistics which the Legislature did not attempt to obtain, probably from the difficulty, and perhaps impossibility, of obtaining them with accuracy.
The next important branch of industry in Massachusetts is its navigation. The statistics of this branch, being accurately
furnished by the reports of the National Treasury Department, derived from the Custom House returns, it was not necessary to embrace them in the inquiries ordered by the State government. It appears from these sources, that the amount of shipping owned in the ports of the State of Massachusetts, is 490,588 tons; of which 214,093 tons are employed in foreign trade; 104,323 in the whale fishery; 96,095 tons in the coasting trade; and the residue, in nearly equal proportions, in the cod and mackerel fisheries. Of the whole tonnage of the United States, employed in the foreign trade and whale fishery, more than a third part is owned in Massachusetts; and of the whole tonnage, Massachusetts owns more than a quarter part.
Another important branch of industry in Massachusetts, is commerce. Of the number of persons and amount of capital employed in foreign commerce, in commerce with the other States, and in the various branches of domestic trade, there are no means of forming an accurate estimate. The amount of capital employed in the trade between one foreign country and another, and in importing foreign products for reëxportation, is less than at some former periods. Our domestic manufactures have absorbed a portion of the capital formerly thus employed, and the state of universal peace which has prevailed for many years, has afforded less opportunity for American enterprise abroad, than was presented to them during the long previous period of European war. Still, a very large amount of capital is employed in foreign commerce, and the trade with the other States of the Union is every year increasing. The capital and industry thus employed, and that employed in the strictly domestic trade, is not embraced within the scope of the present volume.
There is another description of industry, embracing the manufacture of a variety of articles for the immediate use, either of the manufacturers or their employers, a great part of which appears not to be embraced in the returns in this volume. The products thus manufactured do not become articles of merchandise, and are not produced in such quantities, as to be readily made the subject of an accurate general estimate. They nevertheless constitute, in the aggregate, a large amount of valuable products of industry, which, in an accurate estimate of the whole productive labor of the State, ought not to be overlooked.
With these exceptions, the volume now under consideration embraces an enumeration, with the estimated quantity, of the various fruits of labor in the State of Massachusetts; with the number of persons employed, and the amount of capital invested in producing it; the quantity of the several articles in each
city and town being distinctly specified. Of this enumeration and estimate the following is a condensed general statement, the articles being classified for the sake of brevity.
Anchors, chains, axes, scythes, iron
ware, lumber, organs and pianos, window-blinds, wooden ware, &c.) Candles, soap, cordage, drugs, combs, brushes, beer, &c.
Clothing, bonnets, hats, caps, umbrellas, and upholstery,
Boots, shoes, leather, and saddles, Cotton goods, cotton printing and batting,
Woollen goods and wool,
Fisheries, whale, cod, and mackerel,
Oil, salt, spirits, refined sugar, snuff, cigars, and varnish,
Books and stationery, paper, types, and stereotype plates,
Stone, glass, gunpowder, lookingglasses, gold leaf, spectacles, India rubber, engravings, &c.
$86,289,011 115,521 $54,870,747
The last item, ship-building, is given as the average of five years. The rest are stated as the produce of the year ending April 1, 1837. A like return of the succeeding year would exhibit a sad decline, many of the manufactures having been suspended, or the work greatly reduced, in consequence of the failure of demand for the articles produced.
The number of persons employed in these branches of industry, according to the return, was 115,521. Had the returns been as complete in this particular, as in the amount of produce, the number would have amounted to probably 120,000. Of this number probably near 50,000 were females, although only about 35,000 are designated as such in the returns, leaving 70,000 for males. Of the females, 14,757 are returned as employed in the cotton manufacture, 3,611 in the woollen, 15,361 in the manufacture of shoes, and 605 in that of paper. The number of 50,000 may be considered as embracing nearly the whole number of females, who are employed in the various branches of productive industry, exclusive of those which are
strictly domestic, and connected with the duties of the household. The 70,000 males embraced in the above estimate, probably constitute about a third part of the industrious male population of the State, including men and boys past the age of attending on the schools. On this supposition, there are 140,000 male persons in the Commonwealth, employed in other branches of productive industry than those embraced in these
8.-History of Kennebunk Port, from its first Discovery, by Bartholomew Gosnold, May 14th, 1602, to A. D. 1837. By CHARLES BRADBURY. Kennebunk: James K. Remich. 1837. 12mo. pp. 301.
THIS is the largest and most important town history that has appeared in Maine, with the exception of Willis's "Portland," and Folsom's "Saco and Biddeford." It appears to be the result of much original investigation, and minute and laborious research; and its execution is highly creditable to the author. Although the records of the place, for nearly a century after its first settlement, are lost, yet Mr. Bradbury has been enabled, from the observations of early travellers and journalists, and the scattered notices in the colonial and provincial records, to compile a chronicle abounding with incidents full of interest to the citizens of that State, and which will be of essential service to any one who shall presume, after the excellent History of Judge Williamson, to write its annals. He has also gathered many facts from the fading memories and vanishing traditions of the oldest inhabitants, and gleaned much from time-worn and almost illegible manuscripts. The work was originally prepared and presented to his townsmen in a series of lectures; and they have given the strongest proof of their sense of its correctness and value, by authorizing the selectmen to subscribe for five hundred copies of it, to be distributed among the families of the place.
Mr. Bradbury is of opinion, that Bartholomew Gosnold, who discovered New England, and named Cape Cod, in 1602, first made the land near Cape Porpoise, which was the original name of Kennebunk Port. This, however, is mere conjecture, unsupported by any evidence. He also says, that the name of Cape Porpoise was given to it, in 1614, by the famous John Smith, "probably, from seeing a shoal of porpoises in its neighbourhood." This assertion, too, we regret to say, is wholly gratuitous. Captain Smith makes no mention of any such cape, either in his "Description of New England," or in his "Ad