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elected by pledging themselves to observe cause, by permitting the seizure of the it.
property of the citizens of the Confederacy It soon became evident to the Confeile- at Paducah by the Federals;. by voting rate authorities that their enemies had no men and money, through her members of . intention to respect the neutral rights of the United States Congress, to carry on Kentucky, and intended to use her soil as war against the South; by allowing the the most convenient base of their invasión Federal government to cut timber from her of the South. It was, moreover, evident forests, for the purpose of building armed that her own government either could not boats to invade the Southern States; and or would not prevent these movements. by permitting not only her own people, Honce it became necessary to anticipate but the people of other States, to be en: them. Brig. Gen. Felix K. Zollicoffer, of listed in her 'territory, and armed by the Tennessee, on the 14th of September, oc- Federal government, for offensive warfare cupied the mountain passes at Cumber. against the Confederates. These causes land, and the three long mountains in fully justified his movement. But, with Harian and Knox counties, Kentueky, the utmost fairness, Gen. Polk made a disthrough which an invading column of tinct offer, that he would withdraw the Federals had been threatening for weeks Confederate troops from Kentucky, and to march from Hoskins' cross-roads. And pledge the faith of his government that on the 3rd of September Gen. Leonidas they would not again oceupy her soil, proPolk advanced with part of his forces, and vided that Kentucky.would agree that the took possession of Hickman, Chalk Banks, Federal troops should be withdrawn siand the town of Columbus, in Kentucky. multaneously, with a similar guaranty that Columbus lies immediately on the Missis. they should not be allowed in the future to sippi, just above Wolf Island, and not enter or occupy any part of the State.a more than eighteen miles below Cairo, This honest offer, like the touch of the being, in fact, iinmediately on the direct spear of Ithuriel, unmasked the Kentucky road of penetration to the North Western Legislature. They had already, by a for. region of Tennessee. His move was not mal vote, sanctioned the entrance of a moment too soon. The Federal General, Northern troops into Frankfort.b These 'Ulysses S. Grant, lest Cairo to seize Padu- were commanded by Robert Anderson, cah before Gen. Polk occupied Columbus, the same Kentuckian who had surrcnand in taking possession of that town, the dered Fort Sumter. He was now a BrigaConfederates anticipated, by only one kour, dier General. The Legislature, at the *an intended move of their enemies. to time that they invited an armed force to seize the same point.a
take possession of their capital, enacted Nearly at the same time with this move the farce of declaring that no person: ment, tbe Legislature of Kentucky met in should be touched in bis life, liberty or Frankfort. One of their first acts was the property, on account of his political opinpassage of resolutions, by the Senate, to ions. Yet, on the same day, Federal ascertain the facts as to the occupation of agents seized the presses, types and pathe State by the Confederate and Federal pers of the Louisvillo Courier, for no other forces. In answer to enquiries accompa. offence than the brave advocacy of Southnying a copy of these resolutions, General ern rights by the editor.c And within Polk replied that the Confederate States three days thereafter, many prominent would have been bound by their own citizens of Kentucky were arrested and principles to respect, and would have re- hurried to Northern prisons, while others spected the neutrality of Kentucky, had were compelled to leave their homes and her own government maintained it. But fly to the friendly asylum of the Confedethey had not done so. They had departed rate States, to avoid the horrible tyranny from it, to the injury of the Southern now set up by the Northern government,
a General Polk's letter to John M. John.. a Address of Hon. J. C. Breckinridge to son, Chairman, &c., Sept. 9, 1861. the people of Kentucky, October 8, 1861. b Resolution of Sept. 8, Wkig, Oet. 19.
c Breckinridge's address, Oct. 8..
aided by their own faithless representa- longer deterred by policy, the Northern tives.
agents made daily arrests, and soon it was · It is romarkable, that at the time that felt that no man who intended to act or these scenes were passing in Kentucky, speak for the South was safe. Prominent the Federal military were seizing all the among those arrested was George W. members of the Legislature of Maryland Morehead, Ex-Governor of the State: who were suspected of sympathy for the Many of the noblest and best of her citiSouthern cause. No criminal aets were zens, the vonerable and the gifted, leit charged against them. Fear of what they Kentucky, and by cireuitous routes might do was the pretext of the tyrant. reached the Confederacy, hunted at nuThey were seized as: fast as they arrived merous pcints by the spies and agents of in Baltimore, on their way to Frederick, the Federals. Among these tefugees was and consigned to Fort Warren or Lafay- Judge Thomas B: Monroe, who for thirty ette. Many were arrested after their arri- years had been United States District val.at the place of meeting. Simon Came- Judge in Kentucky, venerated for his ron, the Northern Secretary of War, issued learning and furity, and who now left his the order for this despotic out ge in the office, his support' and his bome, because following terms:
he loved liberty and right more than all War DEPARTMENT, Sept. 11, 1881. other things. His sons were in the SouthGeneral—The passage of any act of se
ern armies. John C. Breckinridge, Humcession by the Legislature of Maryland phrey Marshall, Geo. W. Johnson, Robert must be prevented. If necessary, all, or Moore, William F. Sims, H. C. Burnett, any part of the members, must be arrested. William Preston, and a host of others, left Exercise your own judgment as to the their State at the same period, but only to time and manner, but do the work effec- consult and band together in the resolve tively.
that they would neither lay down arms. Very respectfully,'
nor cease their efforts until Kentucky was Your ob'd't serv't,
disenthrallod. Messrs. Breckenridge and SIMON CAMERON,
Marshall came to Richmond-were apSecretary of War. pointed Brigadier Generals in the ConfedTo Major General N. P. BANKS, erate service, and speedily returned, to
General's McClellan, Banks and Dix all lead, in the armies o the South, men who zealously co-operated in urging forward were battling for independence. their subordinates to this work.à Thus a
On assuming his now position, General free Legislature in Maryland was broken Breckenridge issued an address to the peo. up, while á slavish Legislature in Kentucky ple of Kentucky, parts of which present was kept organized to do the despot's bid the facts of the times so vividly, that Hisding.
tory adopts them. He said : “ The FedeMany members of the Kentucky Senate ral government-the creature-has set itand lower House, true to the South, left self above the creator. The atrocious dec. their homes, and became exiles with other trine is announced by the President, and patriots. But enough remained to make a acted upon, that the States derive their quorum. They threw themselves and allpower from the Federal government, and of their State that they could infuence may be suppressed' on any pretence of into Lincoln's arms. They passed a reso
military necessity." “Everywhere the lution peremptorily requiring the Confede- civil has given way to the military power. raté troops 'to withdraw from their soil. The fortresses of the country are filled They enacted a law of pains and penal. with victims seized without warrant of ties, denouncing death, imprisonment, for- law, and ignorant of the cause of their im. feitures and fines against all who should prisonment. The legislators of States and.. oppose the Federal government.
No other public officers are seized while.in
the discharge of their official duties, taken a Examiner, Sept. 23. The whole cor- beyond the limits of their respective respondence and proceedings appear in States, and imprisonod in the forts of th. the Sentinel, Oct. 20, 1863,
Federal government. A subservient Cor
gress ratifies the usurpations of the Presi-, languish in some Federal fortress during dent, and proceeds to complete the de- the pleasure of the oppressor." struction of the Constitution. History will “Witness the fate of Morehead and his declare that the annals of legislation do Kentucky associates, in their distant and not contain laws so infamous as those en- gloomy prison.” 6. He is a citizen and acted at the last session. They sweep native of Kentucky. As a member of the away every vestige of public and personal Legislature, Speaker of the House, Repreliberty, while they confiscate the property sentative in Congress from the Ashland of a nation containing ten millions of peo- District, and Governor of the State, you ple.” “ The great mass, of the Northern have known, trusted and honored him, people seem anxious to sunder every safe. during a public service of a quarter of a guard of, freedom; tliey eagerly offer to the century. He is eminent for his ability, his government what no European monarch amiable character and his blameless life. would dare to demand. The President Yet this man, without indictment, without and his Generals are unable to pick up. warrant, without accusation, but by the the liberties of the people as fapidly as orders of President Lincoln, was seized at they are thiown at their feet.”
midnight in his own house, and in the
midst of his family was led through the “General Anderson, the military Dictator streets of Louisville, as I am informed, of Kentucky, announces, in one of his with his hands crossed and pinioned beproclamations, that he will arrest no one fore him; was carried out of the State and who does not act, write or speak in oppo-district, and now lies a prisoner in a forsition to Mr. Lincoln's Government.' It tress in New York harbor, a thousand would have coṁpleted the idea if he had miles away.” “I would speak of these added, or think in opposition to it. Look things with the simple solemnity which at the condition of our State under the rule their magnitude demands, yet it is difficul of our new protectors. They have sup- to restrain the expression of a «just indig pressed the freedom of speech and of the nation while we smart under such enorpress. . They seize people by military force mities. Mr. Lincoln has thousands of sol. on mere suspicion, and impose on them diers on our soil, nearly all from the North oaths unknown to the laws. Other citizens and most of them foreigners, whom he they imprison without warrant, and carry employs as his instruments to do these them out of the State, so that the writ of things. But few Kentuckians have enhabeas corpus cannot reach them. · Every listed under his standard, for we are not day foreign armed bands are making yet accustomed to his peculiar form of seizures among the people. Hundreds of liberty." a citizens, old and young, venerable magis. Assured that the people of Kentucky trates, whose live's have been distinguished were no longer now represented by her by the love of the people, have been com- false and slavish Legislature at Frankfort, pelled to fly from their homes and families her patriot'leaders took measures to call a to escape, imprisonment and exile at the Sovereignty.Convention of Delegates from hands of Northern and German soldiers all counties who would elect'or appoint * under the orders' of Mr. Lincoln and his them. This Convention met at Russellmilitary subordinates. While yet holding ville, in Logan county, on the 19th of Noan important political trust, confided by vember, and on the 20th adopted a ProviKentucky, I was compelled to leave my sional Government for the State, asserting home and family or suffer imprisonment the fraud and faithlessness of the State and and exile. If it is asked why I did not Federal Legislature, declaring the State meet the arrest and seek a trial, my an absolved from all allegiance to the former swer is, that I would have welcomed an Union, and possessed of the right to estabarrest to be followed by a-Judge and Jury,lish any government which she might deem but you well know that I could not have secured these constitutional rights. I wonlu a Address to the people of Kentucky, have been transported beyond the State to Oct. 8. Whig, Oct. 19.
best adapted to preserve the lives and, City, and the skill-and address with which liberty of her people, providing for a Gov. he conducted a difficult enterprize, largely ernor and Legislature, and making Bowling increased his fame. a 'When the war comGreen the seat of Government. Goorge menced between the North and South he W. Johnson was unanimously elected Gov. was in California, but when he learned the ernor, and Messrs. Burnett, Preston and progress of the revolution, he resigned his Sims were appointed commissioners to commission and set out from San Fran." negotiate with the Confederate States for cisco' to penetrate by land to Richmond, a the admission of Kentucky to their league. a distance of two thousand three hundred These gentlemen came to Richmond, and miles. A cortege of faithful friends acon the tenth day of Docember, 1861, the companied him. Such an expedition was Confederate Congress, by an act approved in itself a high proof of his devotion to the by the President, received their new sister, South. and her senators and representatives were Even as he approached through the immediately welcomed to their seats in plains and mountain passes of the Arizona her counsels. 6
Territory, victory welcomed his advance. While these events were in progress, a
Western Texas consists of a wide sweep military chieftain was en route from the fof country; varied with some hilly ranges, extreme West, who was deservedly high though generally flat and covered with in the confidence of President Davis, and the rich grasses on which thousands of was soon to take command of the Con- cattle are fed. This region is yet sparsely federate forces operating in Kentucky and peopled by whites, and is subjeci to inTennessee. Albert Sidney Johnston was roads of hostile Indians, which have ren. born in Mason county, Kentucky, in 1803. dered it necessary to dot it all over with He graduated at West Point in 1826; was forts, bearing the names of McIntosh, Dun. commissioneà -as Lieutenant of infantry; can, Clark, Inge, Ewell, Merrill, Martin served in the Black Hawk' war with dis- Scott, Territt, Mason, McKavett, Chadtinction ;. resigned and settled in Texas in bourne, Belknap and others. Many of 1836. He volunteered as a private in her these were without garrisons, and others armies soon after the battle of San Jacinto. had been surrendered by the Federal troops His merit soon raised him from the ranks, and were held by Texans. The one nearest and he was appointed Senior Brigadier the Western boundary was Fort Bliss, comGeneral, and succeeded General Houston manded by Lieutenant Colonel Baylor, and in the command of the Texan army. In garrisoned by a small Confederate force. 1838 he was appointed Texan Secretary of Just above the Northern boundary of Texas War, and in 1839 organized an expedition in Arizona Territory, was Fort Fillmore, in against the hostile Cherokees, in which he Mesilla Valley, on the Rio Grande, opporouted them completely in a battle on the site to the town of Mesilla, and not more river Neches. He warmly advocated the than twenty miles North of the proposed annexation of Texas to the United States, route of the Southern Atlantic and Pacific and after this union was effected, he took Railroad. This fort was held by a Federal part in the Mexican War. His services at garrison of some six hundred men, under. the siege of Monterey drew upon him the Major Lynde, who sought, by all the means public favor and the thanks of General in his power, , to oppress the Southern Butler. He continued in the army, and in sympathies plainly manifested by the peo1857, was sent by President Buchanan as ple of the Mesilla Valley. Colonel Baylor Commander-in-Chief of the United States determined to attack him. army to subdue the Mormons. His suc. On the 24th of July, 1861, he approached cessful advance to the Great Salt Lake Fort Fillmore at the head of about three
| hundred men, consisting of Stafford's and a Report of Convention; Whig, Nov. 30., Hardeman's mounted rifles, Bennett's See Whig, Nov. 22.
mounted artillerists, Coopwood's spy comb Acts and Resolutions, 4th Session Provisional Congress, page 7.
a New Am. Cyclop., Vol. 10, 37.
pany, and volunteers from Mesilla and El night-fall the Federals retreated to . Fort Paso. He had no cannon. He intended Fillmore. a surprise, and would have succeeded, but At one o'clock on the morning of the a deserter warned the garrison, and finding 27th, Major Linde evacuated the fort, after them on the alert, Baylor changed his destroying a large quantity of hospital plan. With great promptness he crossed stores, medicines, furniture, ammunition the river at day-light and captured San and arms, leaving, however, unharmed, Tornas, driving out ty
two Federal compa- commissary stores and other property nies, making eight prisoners and securing valued at several thousand dollars. The a considerable quantity of provision, am- Federals retreated towards Fort Stanton. munition and supplies. At ten o'clock the The whole Southern force followed them Confederates entered the town ef Mesilla. with vigor. The road lay over the table The people received them with vivas and land and mountains, to a pass in the Orevery sign of joy, and supplied them with garos chain. Few water .springs were forage, a An attack by the Federal troops on the line ; the weather was warm. Soon was expected every hour. It was, indeed, evidences of disorder, guns, cartridgethe only course promising safety to Major boxes,' clothing, were seen scattered along Lynde, for his garrison was without pro- the way. Stragglers were overtaken. The visions, and he could get none except from two howitzers were captured. For six Mesilla. ::.
miles before reaching the St. Augustine At 5 o'clock in the evening of the 25th Springs, the Confederates made a succesof July, the enemy crossed the river and sion of charges upon the rear of the faadvanced upon the Southern end of the tigued and discouraged foe, and captured town. Baylor here stationed all his force, nearly half his infantry before coming up some on the tops of the houses, others be with the main body. Near the Springs, hind the “corrals," or stockade enclosures Major Lynde formed his forces for battle, for cattle, common in that country, while but when the Confederates advanced, he Coopwoo l's men remained mounted. Major raised a flag of truce. Negotiations were Lynde drow up his force in line of battle, commenced, and soon resulted in an unwith two howitzers in the centre, sup- conditional surrender of the whole Federal ported by infantry, and cavalry on each force. Thus were six hundred regular wing. He sent a flag of truce with a de troops, four pieces of artillery, two hun. mand for the “unconditional surrender" of dred cavalry horses, two hundred and the town. Colonel Baylor replied, “if sevonty head of beef cattle, besides mules, you want the town, come and take it.” wagons, arms and equipments, capturell Without further notice, and in violation of by a body of three hundred Southern the usages of 'war, Lynde immediately troops, not one of whom was either killed opened a fire of shells upon the houses. or wounded.a Many women and children were in Mesilla, On the 3ist of July, General Albert but happily none were hurt. After firing Sidney Johnston arrived at Mesila, ac. several rounds, the enemy threw forward companied by twonty-three citizens of his cavalry to a charge on a corral held by California, and seven officers lately re-Hardeman, but was 'received with a sharp signed from the Federal service. He was fire, under which eight fell and the rest welcomed by the people, and conferred retreated in confusion. Major Waller, of with Col. Baylor as to the proper measures the Southern force, displayed much cool- to be adopted. The Federal authority in ness and energy. Coopwood maneuvred the Territory being rtow substantially dehis men with skill, showing them some stroyed, and nearly all the feople being times mounted, sometimes on foot, now Southern in origin and sympathies, it was among the corrals, now between the houses, deemed best at once to declare Arizona to so as to produce the impression on the be a termitory of the Confederațe States. enemy that the Confederate force
was Accordingly, on the first day of August, largé. Disheartened by their repulse, at
a Narrative from Mesilla Times, a Mesilla' Times Extra, July 29th. Whig, Aug. 28.