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they (1) of the circumcision which The Gospel. John iii. 16. believed were astonished, as many God so loved theworld, that he as came with Peter, because that (0) gave his (p) only-begotten on the Gentiles also was poured Son, that whosoever believeth in out the gift of the Holy Ghost ; him should not perish, but have 46. for they heard them speak with everlasting life. 17. For God sent tongues (m), and magnify God. not his Son into the world to con. Then answered Peter, 47. “Candemn the world; but that the

any man forbid water, that these world through him might be saved. “ ,

18. “ have received the Holy Ghost is not (r) condemned; but he « as well as we?" 48. And he that believeth not is condemned commanded them to be baptized already, because (s) he hath not in the name (n) of the Lord. believed in the name of the onlyThen prayed they him to tarry begotten Son of God.

19. And certain days.

this is (t) the condemnation, that

(l) v. 45. “They of the circumcision," i. e. “ the Jews."

(m) v. 46. " Tongues,” i. e. “ languages “they never learnt.

(n) v. 48. “Of the Lord, Kupie," i. e. " of Jesus Christ;" but assuredly, not in his name alone, but according to the form he had prescribed, (Matt. xxviii. 19.) “in “ the name of the Father, and of the Son, " and of the Holy Ghost.” See Graves's Trinity, 16 to 19.

(o) v. 16.“ Gave, &c.” God shewed his abhorrence of sin, by requiring such a sacrifice; and he evinced his regard for man's salvation, by furnishing the victim, and accepting the atonement. According to Isaiah lüi. 5. "He was wounded for “our transgressions, he was bruised for

our iniquities : the chastisement of our peace was upon him, and with his stripes

we are healed." So 1 John iv. 9. " In “ this was manifested the love of God to. “ wards us, because that God sent his “ only begotten Son into the world, that “we might live through him."

(p) “Only begotten Son." Him who alone stood in that relation to God the Father in which a human son stands to a human father, of the same nature, and with the same powers.

(9) v. 18. “Believeth on," i. e. “con“ fideth in, trusteth to, relies upon," mise'wv éis, making Christ's atonement, not his own sufficiency, his only ground for hope.

(r) “ Not condemned," i. e. “ escapes “ condemnation; is exempted from the

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“ condemnation to which he would other“ wise have been liable."

(s) “Because, &c." If all have sinned, (and who has not?) if condemnation is the ordinary consequence of sin, and faith in Christ the only condition upon which God will exempt from condemnation, it follows, that he who will not perform the condition (by believing in Christ) must continue in a state of condemnation. This corresponds with what St. Peter says, Acts iv, 12. “ Neither is there salvation in any other: “ for there is none other name under hea

ven given among men whereby we must “ be saved." And “how shall we escape, “ if we neglect so great salvation ? Hebr. « ii. 3."

(t) v. 19. “This is the condemnation," i. e. (perhaps) “ this justifies it, this shews “its propriety and reasonableness, that it “ is sin only that obstructs belief ; who“ever has a good disposition, is ready to “ walk in God's commandments, and to do “ his will, must be convinced : so decisive “are the proofs, it is only where the dis“position to examine and judge is ob“ structed by sinful habits and sinful pro“pensities, that belief can be withheld.” If when our Saviour has put into our hands the power of driving out Satan, we on our parts do not choose to co-operate, but rather prepare ourselves to give him again a welcome reception, we have no right to complain if we are worse off than if this power had not been given. Matt. xii. 45. (See post, -) 2 Cor. iv. 3, 4. See also 1 Till. 29.

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light is come into the world, and The Gospel. John x. 1. (a) men loved darkness rather than

Verily, verily, I say unto you, light, because their deeds were

“ He that entereth (6) not by the evil. 20. For every one that

“ door into the sheepfold, but doeth evil hateth the light, neither

“ climbeth up some other way, cometh to the light, lest his deeds

“ the same is a thief and a robber. should be reproved: 21. But he

“ 2. But he that entereth in by that doeth (u) truth cometh to the

“ the door is the shepherd of the light, that his deeds may be made manifest that they are wrought

sheep. 3. To him the porter in God.

openeth; and the sheep hear “ his voice: and he calleth his

“ own sheep by name, and leadeth Tuesday in Whitsun-Week.

" them out. 4. And when he

putteth forth his own sheep, he For the Epistle. Acts viii. 14.

goeth before them, and the When the apostles which were sheep follow him: for they at Jerusalem heard that Samaria “ know his voice. 5. And a stranhad received the word of God,

ger will they not follow, but they sent unto them Peter and “ will flee from him: for they John (r): 15. who, when they " know not the voice of stranwere come down, prayed for them,

6. This parable spake that they might receive the Holy | Jesus unto (c) them: but they Ghost: 16. (for as yet he was understood not what things they fallen upon none of them; only were which he spake unto them. they were baptized in the name 7. Then said Jesus unto them of the (y) Lord Jesus.) 17. Then again, “ Verily, verily, I say unto (3) laid they their hands on them, you, I am the (d) door of the and they received the Holy Ghost. sheep. 8. All (e) that ever

“ gers.”


(u) v. 21. “ Truth,” or “the truth," Tony koduay — with the article - i. e.“ Righteousness, the Gospel duties." (1) v. 14. “John," i.e. "the Evangelist." (y) v. 16. “Of the Lord.” See ante, 170. note on Acts x. 48.

(z) v. 17. “ Laid, &c.” This was a point in which the apostles could not be deceived.

(a) A continuation of our Saviour's reproof to the Pharisees, after he had restored to sight the man that was born blind. The Pharisees had been questioning the man: and upon his inferring from the miracle that Jesus must be of God, had cast

“ God, whose works are such as God “ would never sanction. On the contrary,

as he who enters in by the door is rightly

supposed to be the shepherd, so if my " works are such as none but one who “ came from God could do, you ought to “ be convinced I really did come from " God.

And I not only enter in by the “ door,' (that is, do these works,) but I am the door itself, (verse 7.); it is

through me alone that any can enter. “ See infra, verse 7."

(c) v. 6. “ Them," i. e. “ the Pharisees.”

(d) v. 7. “ The door.” Advancing one step farther. No other way to salvation but through him. So he says, (John xiv. 6.) “I am the way, and the truth, and the “ life; no man cometh unto the Father, “ but by me."

(e) v. 8. “ All, &c.” i. e.“

him out.

(6) v.1. “ Not by the door, &c.” i. e. as a clandestine intruder ; one who does not come in openly, or by the ordinary entrance, is naturally concluded to be a conclude, that he does not come from

« tors.”

“ came before me are (8) thieves heard was as it were of a trumpet “and robbers: but the sheep did talking with me; which said, “ not hear them. 9. I am the door: “ Come up hither, and I will shew “ by me if any man enter in, he “ thee things which must be here“ shall be saved, and shall go “after.”

“ after.” 2. And immediately I “ in and out, and find pasture. was in the (h) spirit : and, be“ 10. The thief cometh not, but hold, a throne (*) was set in hea“ for to steal, and to kill, and to ven, and one sat on the throne.

destroy: I am come that they 3. And he that sat was to look might have life, and that they upon like a jasper and a sardine“might have it more abundantly." stone: and there was a rainbow

round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald.


round about the throne were four The Collect.

and twenty seats: and upon the Almighty and everlasting God,

seats I saw four and twenty elders who hast given unto us thy ser- sitting, clothed in white raiment; vants grace, by the confession of and they had on

on their heads a true faith to acknowledge the

crowns of gold. 5. And out of glory of the eternal Trinity, and the throne proceeded lightnings in the power of the divine Ma- and thunderings and voices: and jesty to worship the Unity; We

there were seven lamps of fire beseech thee, that thou wouldest burning before the throne, which keep us stedfast in this faith, and are the seven Spirits of God. evermore defend us from all ad

6. And before the throne there versities; who livest and reignest,

was a sea of glass, like unto crysone God, world without end.

tal: and in the midst of the Amen.

throne, and round about the

throne, were four (k) beasts, full For the Epistle. Rev. iv. 1.

of eyes before and behind. 7. And AFTER this I looked, and, be the first beast was like a (1) lion, hold, a door was opened in hea- and the second beast like a calf, ven: and the first voice which I and the third beast had a face as

(g) “ Thieves, &c.” Coming to serve themselves at the expense of others.

(h) v. 2. “In the spirit,” i. e. “in a « vision, or trance ;" – “spiritualized.”

(i) “ A throne, &c.” This seat, and those of the twenty-four elders, &c. &c. correspond exactly with the form of the encampments in the wilderness. See infra, note on v.7. The throne answers to the tabernacle, the elders to the Levites and priests, and the beasts to the four camps of Israel. Mede, 37.

(k) v. 6. “ Four beasts." These represent the Christian churches through the four quarters of the world. Mede, 35.

(1) v. 7. A lion, &c.” The Israelites

had four standards, that of Judah, Ephraim, Reuben, and Dan, and there were three tribes under each ; Judah had the ensign of a lion, Ephraim that of an ox, Reuben that of a man, and Dan that of an eagle. In their encampments and marches in the wilderness, (according to Numb. ii.) Judah was to take the east, Ephraim the west, Reuben the south, and Dan the north; and the tabernacle and Levites were to be in the midst. Mede, 31, 32. So in Ezek. i. 10. the four living creatures which came from the north had the faces of a man towards the south, of an eagle towards the north, of a lion on one side, and of an ox on the other.

a man, and the fourth beast was “ glory and honour and power ; like a flying eagle. 8. And the “ for thou hast created all things, four beasts had each of them (m) “ and for thy pleasure they are six wings about him; and they “ and were created.” were full of (n) eyes within : and

The Gospel. John iii. 1. they rest not day and night, say, ing; " Holy, (o) holy, holy, Lord There was a man of the Phari“God Almighty, which was, and sees, named Nicodemus, a ruler “ is, and is to come.” 9. And (p) of the Jews : 2. the same came when those beasts give glory and to Jesus by (9) night, and said honour and thanks to him that sat unto him, “Rabbi, we know that on the throne, who liveth for ever 66 thou art a teacher come from and ever, 10. the four and twenty God; for no man can do these elders fall down before him that “ miracles that thou doest, except sat on the throne, and worship “ God be with him.” 3. Jesus him that liveth for ever and ever, answered and said unto him. and cast their crowns before the Verily (r), verily, I say unto throne, saying, 11. “ Thou art “thee, Except a man be born “worthy, O Lord, to receive “ again (s), he cannot see the


(9) n. 8. “ Six wings,” to fly about every where to fulfil God's commands.

(n) “Of eyes,” i, e. “ sharpsighted,” to understand God's mysteries. Mede, 36.

(0) “ Holy, &c.thrice repeated, as Is. vi. 3. Not, says Chrysostom, once or twice, or four times, but thrice, to manifest the one and equal glory of Father, Son and Holy Ghost. 3 Chrys. 909, 910. De Trini. tate Sermo.

(p) v. 9. “ When, &c.” i. e. “when the "churches perform their services, the " elders fall down, &c." Mede, 36.

(9) v. 2. “ By night,” therefore probably " secretly, for fear of the Jews.

(r) v. 3. “ Verily, &c." An intimation to Nicodemus that a secret acknowledgment was insufficient ; a public avowal, and an open service required : that he must be born again, come under new relations, and undertake new duties: that he must be born of water by receiving baptism from Christ, and so publicly enrolling himself into his service, and putting off all carnal habits; and that he must be born of the Spirit by sacrificing all temporal views, disregarding all temporal dangers, and embarking with all his heart in the cause of Christianity. See ante, 163. And this is agreeable to Matt. X. 32. & Luke xiv. 26. " Whosoever shall “confess me before men, him will I als “confess before my Father which is in

“ heaven : but whosoever shall deny me “ before men, him will I also deny before "my Father which is in heaven;" and “ If any man come to me, and hate not, “ (in comparison to my service,) his father " and mother, and his wife and children, “ and brethren and sisters, yea, and his 6 own life also, he cannot be my disciple.”

(s) “ Born again," i. e. “ regenerate: “ putting off all

carnal habits and disposi« tions, and putting on spiritual ones.” “ Putting off, (according to Eph. iv. 22.) “ the old man, which is corrupt, and put

ting on the new man, which after God “ is created in righteousness and true ho6 liness." The expressions of “ being

newed,” “ putting off the old inan,' and “ putting on the new man,” or “ put

ting on Christ,” are not unfrequent. Thus, Eph. iv. 23. post, St. Paul tells the converts to put off the old man, and put on the new, and “ to be renewed in is the spirit of your mind.” So (Col. iji, 9. 10.) he speaks of them as having put off the old man with his deeds, and

having put on the new man, which is re“ newed in knowledge, after the image of “ him that created him, (viz. God.)' In Rom. xii. 2. he tells them to be " trans“ formed in the renewing of their mind.” And Rom. xiii. 14. he exhorts them to " put on the Lord Jesus Christ, `and not


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“ kingdom of God.” 4. Nicode- “ bloweth where it listeth, and thou mus saith unto him, “ How can “ hearest the sound thereof, but “ a man be born when he is old ? “ canst not tell whence it cometh, “ can he enter the second time “ and whither it goeth : so is every “ into his mother's womb, and be “ one that is born of the Spirit.” « born ?" 5. Jesus answered, 9. Nicodemus answered and said

Verily, verily, I say unto thee, unto him, “How can these things

Except a man be born of water “ be?" 10. Jesus answered and “ and of the Spirit, he cannot said unto him, “ Art thou a mas“ enter into the kingdom of God. “ ter of Israel, and knowest not “ 6. That which is born of the flesh “ these things ? 11. Verily, verily,

(t) is flesh; and that which is “I say unto thee, We speak that “ born of the Spirit is (t) spirit. (2) we do know, and testify “ 7. Marvel not that I said unto " that we have seen; and ye re“ thee, “Ye must be born (u) “ ceive not our witness.

again.” 8. The (r) wind (y) “I have told you earthly (a)

12. If

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6 the lusts thereof." In Gal. iii. 27. he reminds them, that “ as many of them as « had been baptized into Christ, had put on Christ.And Gal. vi. 15. he says, “ In Christ Jesus neither circumcision “ availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, “ but a new creature." And 2 Cor. v. 17. “ If any man be in Christ, “ he is a new creature.” So in the Old Testament, Ezek. xi. 19. “ I will give them one heart, "and I will put a new spirit within you : “ and I will take the stony heart out of “ their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh.And, Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 26. “I “ will sprinkle clean water upon you, and

shall be clean, &c. a new heart also “ will I give you, and a new spirit will I “ put within you.” So, Ps. li. 1o. “ Make « me a clean heart, O God, and renew a “ right spirit within me.

.." Persons admit. ted proselytes into the Jewish church were considered as putting off all their former relations, so that they who were before of kin to them were no longer to be considered so, and they were looked upon as “ new born.”

(t) v. 6. “ Is flesh,” i. e. “ is carnally “ disposed." “ Is spirit," i. e. “ is spiritually disposed.” So Gal. v. 17. “ The “ flesh lusteth against the spirit, and the “ spirit against the flesh.” And Rom. viii. 5. “ They that are after the flesh, do “ mind the things of the flesh, but they “ that are after the spirit, the things of “ the spirit; for to be carnally minded is « death."

(u) v. 3. & 7. “ Again,” or “ from above,”

árontey. Our Lord might intentionally use a word which would admit of both senses.

(*) v. 8. “ The wind,” or “ the Spirit.” It is the same word (aveõpe) as at the end of the verse and in verses 5 & 6. is rendered “Spirit." The French translation, (Mons edit. 1672,) is “ l'Esprit souffle."

(y) “ Bloweth, &c." The meaning probably is this: " Inability to account for a “ thing, is no conclusive proof it does not “ exist. You cannot account for the wind:

you know not whence it cometh, or “ whither it goeth; yet its existence, its

power, its operations, are plain. You “ cannot account for the Spirit, yet are “ its effects and influences clear; and if

you cannot account for a man's being “ born again, or being born of the Spirit, “ do not conclude he is not so born. He " has powers which prove he is. The exist“ence of things depends upon God's will, “ not upon man's apprehension.”

" The “ effect," says Paley, “is obvious, though “ the mode of producing it is not. Pal. “ Serm. 381."

(z) v. 11. " That we do know, &c." Not upon conjecture, or with doubt; we have the assurance of knowledge and sight, and therefore speak with perfect confidence.

(a) v. 12. “ Earthly things," i. e. (perhaps) “ things to which you have some“ thing on earth that bears a resemblance:" as the notion of “being born again," prevailed upon the admission of a proselyte, and might therefore in this instance also be understood.

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