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version of unbelievers. But that writes, in a work entitled, “ Prinit has never been withdrawn from cipal Navigations :" “ That godly the one Catholic Church is a mat- professor and laborious doctor of ter of fact attested by a cloud of the Indian nation in matters conwitnesses, whose judgment and cerning religion, Francis Xavier, veracity cannot be questioned nor after great labors, injuries, and denied by the most decided enemy. calamities, suffered with much pa“We have been not only taught the tience, departed indeed with all truth of God (says Luther, de In- spiritual blessings out of this life, deis, p. 210), but have seen it con- in the year of the Lord 1552, after firmed by manifest signs and mir- many thousands were by him acles for these last fifteen hundred brought to the knowledge of Christ. years." The Centuriators of Mag. Of this holy man, his particular deburg give us some useful infor- virtues and wonderful works, all the mation concerningone of our saints. latter histories of the Indian reSt. Patrick (say they) was a man gions are full.” Babdeus, another excelling in doctrine and miracles, Protestant, in his Indian history who by his prayers shortly convert says: “If the religion of Xavier ed all Ireland, founded churches agreed with ours, we ought to without number, ordaining preach- reverence bim as another St. Paul; ers, delivering the possessed, rais- yet, notwithstanding the difference ing the dead, to the number of in religion, his zeal, his vigilance, sixty, and baptizing twelve thou. and the sanctity of his manners sand souls. But he had the marks ought to stir up all good men not of Antichrist, for he built many to do the work of God negligently. churches for the increase of popery. For the gifts which Xavier had Witaker, as bitter an enemy as received, to execute the office of a the Church ever had, cries out, minister and ambassador of Jesus “Let not Bellarmine think that I Christ, were so eminent that my despise altogether the miracles of soul is unable to express them. I Xavier, for it may happen that am forced to exclaim, Who is casuch have been and may still be pable like him of these wonderful wrought in the Popish Church." things?" He ends by an apostrophe

” Let us hear a little more of this to the saint, “Would to God, being holy Xavier, and from a Protestant what you have been, you had been minister, Mr. Hackluyt, who thus or would have been one of ours.”


Agnosco veteris vestigia flammæ.

WITHIN a few years there has If one were to inquire why these been manifested a new and strong attempts at improvements in landesire to analyze the English lan- guage have been made, we should guage, to inquire into its origin, probably be told that a subject so and to correct its use. The result important to a people as the means which one would suppose would by which they are to convey ideas naturally present itself has not been for present instruction or future realized, that is, the language has use naturally suggests efforts to not been improved in precision or illustrate and improve those means. force.

Another reason may be offered for this new presentation of the sub- been current.

The rules of gramject of English grammar, from the mar that seemed to have no excepA B C of the child's book to the tion are violated by hasty writers, most laborious rules of syntax, viz., and the present lise, though it that people who must write for the startle the ear at first, soon becomes periodical publications have written familiar, and the binding force of themselves pretty nearly out as it the old rule is forgotten. regards the facts, the logic, and the The ex-preceptor, who in the day policy of events in the great body when his precepts were occasionof national literature; and as they ally enforced with a ratan, would cannot give up their pen without have punished his pupil for putting jeoparding their bread, they are not into his exercises the phrase, “She disposed to examine minutely into wished to speedily return," imthe nerves, ligaments, and joints pressing upon the lad's memory of the language.

and elsewhere the rule without exWe are not prepared to say that ception, " No word must come beeither of the above assigned reasons tween the verb in the infinitive is correct. It may be that gentle- mood and its sign, to,” will now men in the course of their scholas- try to steadily avoid the error." tic studies, and, indeed, in their Our language is deteriorating. It literary pursuits, have found the is losing in force and precision, in existence of certain contradictions, the latter especially; and this is or the appearance of contradictions, greatly due to the public press. in the elements of our language, The editorials of the daily and and in trying to understand their weekly papers are generally well origin have been led to believe that written. The style is good, and benefits would result from a closer the rules of grammar are usually investigation and fuller develop- observed. But a portion of what mentofthe elements of the language, appears in “reports" is often offenwith a view to fix certain points sive to taste, and in violation of the and limit changes, when changes most common rules of syntax and may be allowed. Now we must composition. And these contribuconfess that these efforts to erect tions are those most generally read, some standard for the English lan- and therefore their errors are more guage are not at all premature. The extensively injurious. danger is that so much of error has We sometimes see in “reports” a crept, or been forced, into our every- word either wholly new or of which day uses, that the eradication will the immediate use is new and wrong. be too great a work, and people who Yet in a short time it is repeated, know nothing of language but what and very soon is admitted into full they bear or see in the newspapers, family privileges, at least in the rewill, with some others who know à porters' lexicon. One of the abomilittle more, declare that the English nations that disfigures the newslanguage is that which is spoken paper reports, and has paved its and written to-day, and to-morrow way into colloquial distinction, is it will be that which may be spoken the word resurrect, at first diand written that day, and this de- rectly applied to the stealing of cision will be made without any dead bodies from graves, &c., and reference to those who may speak this use is now so well established, and write.

that it is employed to denote the The language changes slowly, revival of theories, rumors, &c. We and people do not, in general, no- are told that men were detected in tice the introduction of new words, resurrecting a dead body, and we or the omission of those that bave see also in papers, that not content

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with reports of present or recent should entertain, in that solemn misdeeds, these people have resur. service, the same feeling which they rected an old calumny, &c. We find would have experienced had they no good use of “ resurrect." But been assisting at the awful sacrifice we have no security against its on Calvary." being thrust into the next dic- That did very well in Italian and tionary.

French, but when it is found in Another word has great authority, English, and the word assist is rebut is not legitimate-enact, to act, tained, it certainly does not convey to perform a part. Shakspeare put the same idea that is presented in such a word into the mouth of old the French and Italian. Polonius, and it is used in a sense The feelings of the devout worsomewhat like that in one of the shipper at certain parts of the Mass historical plays. Spenser also uses are not and ought not to be like it. But readers will notice that for those which animated the persons a long time the word has not been that helped, aided, and assisted in in good use. A dramatic critic the awful sacrifice of Calvary. sometimes strengthens a sentence Demand is another word which by the use of enact, but it bas the has recently been used in our lanappearance of small pedantry, and guage in the French and Italian scarcely any reader sees the word sense, so that we see in the papers, in such use without thinking of Po- and hear in good company (that is, lonius.

good with the exception of its lanThere has only recently crept guage), that certain persons have into our language the use of the demanded contribution and alms. verb assist, to signify being pres- In Congress we hear a member ent at, to assist, that is, to be demand the previous question, when at the opening, &c. Assist comes "to call " for it is all that he has a to us, of course, from the Latin, right to do. When difficulties arose through the Italian and the French, between the government of the with the signification in those lan- United States and that of France

guages which we are condemning relative to some money settlement, · when used in the English. The and information was then “long a

word is found in almost every no- coming,” General Jackson asked of a tice of church service, a social Senator what was the nature of the meeting, a ball, or an excursion, dispatch from France? “Why,” which is reported in a French said the Senator, “ France demands paper. The bishop, the king, the an early settlement of the account.” mayor, the ladies, and witnesses “ Demands," said the old hero of are all said to assist in these several New Orleans, “ France demands a meetings, though perhaps no one settlement, does she? By the eterhad a part therein except as a spec- nal, she shall have her demand antator. But the English, and still swered at the mouth of the cannon." more the Americans, getting hold When the dispatch was translated, of this French use, try to force it and it was found that the request into English use, and the careless- of France was quite in the way of ness of general readers as well as business, there was peace at the the vanity of others, help, aid, and White House, and peace between assist in foisting it upon us. Ital- France and the United States. ian and French books, now lying The French and the Italians say before uș, contain some excellent I demand of God, when their petiadvice as to the mode of hearing tion should be translated into EngMass, and in both languages it is lish "I humbly ask of God." recoinmended that "worshippers The Gentleman's Magazine of a hundred and twenty or thirty years we know, has adopted the familiar back gives the text of a tripartite style of "you" for its second person treaty into which England, France, singular; nor in addresses to the and Holland had entered, and Deity do we hear you used. among other provisions set forth But in the Italian prayer-book was one that Holland should men- you is used instead of “thon,” and age the navy of Great Britain. God and the Saints are approached The document was translated with that pronoun which,

in our from the French into English, with language, is considered quite too the exception of the few words which familiar for such purposes. The were considered wholly diplomatic. French have long been following Of that kind was the word menage; the example of the Italians, and and in the midst of the jubilation we, especially the Catholics, suffer of London at the settlement of a from this abuse of words, because vexed question, which had disturbed those who have undertaken to commerce and threatened greater translate into English the beautiful evils, the word menage was discov- prayers which enrich the devotional ered. Forthwith John Bull roared books of France and Italy, do not lustily and shouted, “ Never, translate the pronoun and verb into never, would the British people con- solemn English. sent that Holland should manage the When, for example, in Italian the British navy. Perish the treaty,– words “Oh Deo di bontà voi venlet it be burned by the common ite" are rendered by translation hangman, and let the same execu- “Oh God of goodness you come.tive gentleman do his amiable office the translation is verbally correct; upon the ministry that would give but the ear of a pious English-readup the management of the wooden ing person must be pained by the walls of England to the Dutch or use of you for God. Yet such the French

errors mar a large portion of the After some time the tempest was devotional works translated into staid, and the multitude appeased our language. We have no objecby the solemn statement that the tion to the use of you in the singumenage

" did not mean to lar number for any person or being, direct or manage, but the provision were he even an emperor, but let it of the treaty was that the Dutch not be applied to objects of worwould "respect" the English navy. ship. "Render unto Cæsar the

The pronoun “you," in our old things that are Cæsar's, and unto grammars, never was regarded as God the things that are God's." of the singular number; and hence A few lines above we spoke of we have thou lovest, you love." translating the pronoun and verb But long colloquial use commended into solemn English. It will be the employment of you in the sin- noticed that if thou is given instead gular number to bookmakers, so that of you,” in the present tense of the now many of the grammars conju- indicative mode, the verb has an gate the verb so as to make it agree equal change. “You believe” is the with you, in the second person sin. familiar style; thou believest is the gular. And one or two of them solemn style; and when the solemn appear to regard the use of "thou," style is adopted for the second perand its agreeing verb, “lovest,” son singular, it must be used in the useless, and art as obsolete; and third person singular also. Thus, indeed, with a few exceptions, they familiar style, he believes; solemn are so. But we still retain thou in style, he believeth ; and it must be the solemn style. No translation borne in mind that this use of eth of the Holy Scriptures, so far as (believeth, loveth) is peculiar to the

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singular number; it can never ex- Sincere, sine cere, without was, tend to the plural number. One was the name given to boney from may not say “ James and John be. which the honeycomb, the wax, and lieveth,” though a few instances of other coarse particles had been that kind of error are found even strained. in the James's translation of the " New-born babes desire the sinBible. Scott and most of the pop- cere milk of the word,” says the ular writers not only use you Scriptures in the earliest translafor thou, and “s” for th, but they tion. contrive in a single paragraph to As late as the time of Queen confound the solemn and the fa- Anne of England, an act of Parliamiliar without change of circum- ment was passed to secure . sincere stance or speaker.

tar” for her majesty's navy. At Directly is a word

which, in present, “sincere” denotes moral its primary sense, would intimate quality alone. straight movement, not in a wind- Persecule, “persecution," &c. ing course. But it has also a sig. This word, “persecute," has of nification of time; "he will return late settled down into a simple directly," that is, “ very soon.” idea,—that of wrongfully inflicting

In its character as an adverb of fines, penalties, severe dealing, &c. time, it was, twenty years ago, em- Thus, Nero persecuted Christians ployed falsely; but its novelty by inflicting imprisonment and tickled the eye or ear of some

death. But the meaning was origiAmerican writers, and forthwith nally and for a long time far more the periodicals adopted the error, extensive. following, it is thought, Bulwer, Some years since, when persons who says, in more than one place, were stirring up the public inind "directly he was seated," instead against the Catholic Church, a of as soon as he was seated." writer seems to have tried his hand

Immediately sometimes is misap- or his invention on what be called plied in the same manner. Warren, - the bishops' oath.” This oath, in his “ Ten Thousand a Year,” it was said, was taken by all supplies an abundance of evidence bishops who received investiture, that he does not understand the and it included in translation the English, especially in his frequent promise, “I will persecute all hereuse of "directly" for "as soon as. tics.” So, according to the writer,

There are certain words in our each bishop was bound to inflict language that have been under- pains and penalties which he knew going a change of signification for to be unjust, if "persecute” had many years. In this class are “pre- the same signification then as it vent," "sincere," "persecution."

has now.

We do not often hear of Prevent now is used almost an official solemnly pledging himinvariably for “to hinder," "to self to do any act which he recstop;" and in theological works it ognizes as unjust. Now, if any often retains its original significa- such oathis were taken by the bishtion "to go before,” “to meet,” ops, it was when they were necessary &c. So that while in one class to civil or political power as governof works--prayer-books-the word ors of a city. But, whatever may "prevent” really intimates guid- bave been required of them, it is ance, assistance, in other and gen- scarcely supposable that they would eral, it denotes entire stoppage. pledge themselves to injustice.

Sincere, which started with an Yet it is said, and perhaps with entire physical signification, has truth, that they pledged themselves come to denote a moral quality. by oath to persecute a certain class

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