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small settlement at Cape Town, principal wealth and means of subwhich in process of time increased sistence consist in their numerous in numbers, in extent of territory, herds of cattle. The females also and in persistent and methodic cultivate pretty extensively maize, persecution and extermination of millet, watermelons, and a few the natives around it. The Hot- other esculents; but they are detentots were a pastoral people, of cidedly a nation of herdsmen—war, a mild and indolent disposition, hunting, barter, and agriculture and herded great numbers of cattle. being only occasional occupations." Under the pretence of trading with – Pringle, page 413. them, the Dutch boors were accus- The same system of robbery and tomed again and again to proceed murder adopted by the Dutch in armed parties into their terri- boors against the Hottentots was tory and violently deprive them of directed against the Kaffirs. Says their herds. Retaliation ensued, Mr. Pringle again, speaking of the and at the time the English cap- murder of some natives by one tured the Cape, in 1797, what Hot- Cornelius Vandernest: tentots remained had been civilized "I would not willingly give the or converted" into slaves or wan- impression that he is a mere savdering robbers.
age ruffian. On the contrary, he “Having descended from the is really one of the inost respectpastoral to the hunter state, the able of these frontier boors; and is Bushmen (the remnants of the Hot generally, and I believe justly, contentots) have, with the increased sidered as a decent, good-natured, perils and privations of that mode well-disposed person. The fact is, of life, necessarily acquired a more that even the very best of these ferocious and resolute character. men have been trained from their From a mild, confiding, and unenter- childhood to regard Bushmen and prising race of shepherds they have Kaffirs with nearly the same feelbeen gradually transformed into ings as they regard beasts of prey, wandering herds of fierce, suspici- only with far more rancorous anious, and vindictive savages. By mosity; so that they can scarcely their fellow-men they have been be brought to view even the treachtreated as wild beasts, until they erous slaughter of them as a crime.” have become in some measure as- - Pringle, page 456. similated to wild beasts in habits This treatment of the natives, inand disposition."*
augurated by the Dutch boors, and The Kaffirs described as tolerated by the government of Holhaving been "originally a much land up to the time of the capture finer and bolder race than the Hot- of Cape Colony by the English in tentots."
1797, was allowed to continue under “ The Kaffirs,” says Mr. Pringle, English governors down to so late care a tall, athletic, and handsome
a period as 1836, and British offrace of men, with features often cers and soldiers were frequently approaching to the European or called upon to assist the marauders. Asiatic model, and exhibiting few Thus the Kaffirs were provoked into of the peculiarities of the negro retaliation, and a war ensued which race. Their color is a clear, dark- resulted in their expulsion from the brown; their address is frank, colony. cheerful, and manly; their govern- "It is difficult," says Mr. Moodie, ment is patriarchal; and the privi- an old settler, in answer to the Parleges of rank are carefully main- liamentary Commissions of Inquiry, tained by the chieftains. Their "to account for the cruel measure * Pringle's African Sketches, 1834.
of driving out so many of these un
fortunate people who had lived for treme, and thinking that collecting many years with the inbabitants; them into schools and preaching to who had forgot their savage habits them, while they are half starved, and even their language; who had through interpreters who do not unacquired babits which made them derstand us themselves, will do dependent upon the colony.” ... them the least good. I am a strong “ This people have,” he continues, advocate for missionary institutions "come into actual contact with us; among the Bushmen. I strongly they have tasted some of the ad- urged Dr. Philip and Rev. Mr. vantages as well as the evils of our Whitworth to settle missionaries vicinity to them. Numbers have close on our borders; but then I lived in the colony and proved the consider these worthy men in the most useful and faithful servants. outset more as protectors than as They are a people living under the teachers, at least to the present control of their chiefs, and they grown-up race of Bushmen."-Parl. have fixed habitations and cultivate Papers, part 1, p. 118. the ground; they seem, in short, to But it may be said forty years be on the very verge of civilization, nearly have elapsed since then, and and instead of doing anything to great changes have occurred. Will assist them, we drive them rudely J. Pope Hennessy, C. M. G., Goverback, even from the point to which nor-General of the Bahama Isles, they had attained without us; we and formerly Administrator-inreduce them to the nomad state, to Chief of the West African settlethat precise condition in which they ments, be kind enough to come are most dangerous to us.” Such upon the stand? According to the then is the manner in which British New York Herald (1873), his laws shielded the lives and proper- opinion is, that “at present Christy”of the Hottentot and Kaflir popu- tianity has no force or power among lation of Cape Colony, and with but the natives, either coast or interior. little change for the better, still Islamism has more attraction for shields and protects them.
them. Isolated missionaries are of But the missionary is with them no avail towards evangelizing the now, and the Bible has been trans- natives. Trade and religion must lated, and “scores of them have work together.” been made new creatures,” and “the But, Mr.J. Pope Hennessy, trade great truths of Christianity have and religion unfortunately do not found power over the lowest Kaffir work together; and for every five mind in Africa, and hence the re- missionaries that England has sent sult.” And what result? Well, as to her millions of heathen colonists, early as, and previous to, 1826 she has sent to their ports thousands many missionaries were in South- of sailors, and in addition has plantern Africa, and Captain Stocken- ed in their midst colonies of abanstrom, whom the Westminster Re- doned convicts, who have not only view (October, 1836) considers “a maltreated and robbed them, but first-rate authority,” gives this as have introduced among them the his opinion of the Christianizing vices and diseases of Europe, witheffect of their labors:
out conferring any benefit upon “I can appeal to the government, them whatever, and thus their civimy fellow-servants, the boors, the lization has become the cause and savages themselves, as to how I means of their destruction. have felt and acted with respect to India presents another remarkthe latter, and defy the minutest able instance of unreliability of scrutiny; but I am far from run- statements concerning missionary ning blindly into the opposite ex. successes. This country, like Cape Colony, bas passed under the Eng.' and courteous as those in correlish yoke; like it, its native popu- sponding stations of life among ourlation have been made to feel, and selves; as having houses larger and, now feel, the character of the foster- according to their wants and cliing care and protection with which mate, to the full, as convenient as British laws, civilization, and re- ours, and with an architecture as ligion “shield" their lives and elegant." These people has the property. As a missionary field it benign influence of British civilihas always been regarded by Protes- zation and rule reduced to a contants with pride because of the won- dition little better than the slaves, derful successes which were said to if it be so good, and, though living bave crowned the labors of their in a land of remarkable fertility missionaries. It is not our purpose and productiveness, to such utter to present, as we could easily do, indigence and want that their wail quotations from the grandiloqnent of starvation is sounding even now reports which are to be found in in our ears as we write. missionary papers, and in the lives No wonder that the Bengali, an and works of Ward, Martyn, Jud. Indian newspaper, in an issue of son, Newell, and others. Suffice it no later date than last year, comto say that for the conversion of menting upon some proposed “ rethe natives of no country have forms" touching that country, more missionaries been employed, speaks of British missionaries and more Bibles and tracts printed and British civilization in the following distributed, more schools establish- words of scorn and derision: ed for the education of rising gen- "The missionary and the brandyerations, and more treasure expend- bottle are held to be the pioneers ed. And with what results? of a certain kind of civilization,
In the reign of Queen Elizabeth and our country has had enough of the East India Company was char- both these precious commodities. tered, which inserted in India the The desire to be like our betters is first and opening wedge of English so strongly implanted in the human aggrandizment and power. Blow mind, that we feel almost inclined after blow was struck upon it by to overlook the beastly conduct of England until, by this intrigue and several of our educated countrythat, the native princes were in- men on whom wine and spirits have volved in jealousies and quarrels, been fatal poisons." and, disuniting them in policy, she Do we desire, in addition to the opened a door for her own med- above, testimony regarding the dling interference. On one pretext means by which the conversion of and on the other, for the protection the natives has been effected, the of this interest and of that, British character of their conversion, and arms were interposed; one after the the impression made upon them by other the native princes were hurled contact with “self-sacrificing” Protfrom their thrones, their provinces estant missionaries? If so, the made subject to the British crown, evidence is at hand. Prof. James and finally the lion of England Forbes, an English Protestant, succeeded in pawing the whole ter- having visited India, gives this as ritory, population and all, into his a portion of his experience. He voracious mouth. And the inhabi- says the Hindoos would say to him, tants, whom Bishop Heber, in his “You call yourself Christian, so work on India, describes as being do the Roman Catholics who abound deficient in no “essential feature of in India. They daily frequent their a civilized people," as possessed churches, fast and pray, and do "of manners at least as pleasing many penances; the English alone appear unconcerned about an event India ; but when all is done the of the greatest importance." He Brahmin beats us out and out, and also records that he had “been will till education has done much asked by many natives of India more than we can yet foresee." whether we really believed the Mr. Moncure D. Conway, an Eng. truths of our own Scriptures." In lish correspondent of the Toledo full corroboration of the above, a Gazette, relates that at a late meetcorrespondent of the Church Her. ing of the British Association in ald in India chimes in as follows: Brighton," he heard Mr. Kaimes,
" The Roman Catholics are the F.S.A., in the presence of a very only powerful body I have not no- large audience, denounce the whole ticed. Their work certainly thrives. missionary system, and declare that There are no nobler schools in India the Christian missionary rarely posthan the Jesuit and the Convent sessed so good a religion as the school. The head of the missions people he went to convert;" and Mr. in India is Archbishop Steins, a Kaimes, instead of being replied to scholar respected for his abilities, and hissed, was vehemently applauand more than respected for his ded by his English audience. genial and loving character. The Nor is it much wonder that Mr. Roman Catholic services, too, are Kaimes should denounce the whole attended by different races invari- missionary system, and have so low ably—the Church' will have no an opinion of Protestant missiondistinctions of races within her aries, if they carry on their operafold ; whereas the Protestant ser- tions everywhere as they are said vices are often confined to Euro- to do in India. The methods by peans in one place and natives in which the “ conversion" of the beanother. There are many Protes- nighted natives of that country is tant places of worship in which secured are detailed in the followyou do not see a native face. In a ing extracts, the one from the Pall Roman Catholic Church (I was in Mall Budget of June 1st, 1872, the one at High Mass on Christmas other from the report of a lecture day) you see the native and Euro- delivered before the Young Men's pean kneeling side by side, and I Christian Union of Boston, in Nothink it has a wonderful effect on vember, 1873, by the Rev. Mr. Althe people. The Protestant con- drich, who at one time was himself gregations have great trouble with a missionary in India. Says the their native preachers, who claim Pall Mall Budget: equality. .... Such, in general "The promoters of the Baptist terms, is the state of religious par- mission in Delhi have arrived at ties in India at the present time. the conclusion, which they set forth • We certainly are educating the in their annual report, that the people—whether we are christian- expenditures of mission funds on izing them or not I do not know.' native catechists, preachers, conIf you educated a young native for verts, and inquirers, is doing more “the Church' the chances are that to hinder the progress of Christihe would run away to more remu- anity in India than all the active nerative employment. .... The opposition of Hindoos and MohamRoman Catholics have an immense medans put together. It appears advantage in the Portuguese and that there is a large and active class French • East Indians' who adhere of natives who obtain a decent steadfastly to their Church. The maintenance by living in a state of Protestants, on the other hand, are chronic conversion, transferring often connected with. ruling men— themselves with a facility gained a great temptation to a native in by long practice to and from the
communions of Presbyterians, higher and the better class of peoMethodists, Baptists, High Church, ple. Then advantage was taken of or any church, provided they are hunger and want, and as an instance properly paid for so doing.'” of this, he stated that an English
Mr. Aldrich fully corroborates bishop bought up several hundreds the above. We are told “he con- of starving people, and thereby sidered that there was a vast amount caused much joy among the religiof corruption and fraud in mission- ous population of England when ary work, and that its general ten- the report of so much good done at dency was to impede rather than to one stroke arrived there." advance the cause of Christianity. It was our intention to have conOn the whole, it was a work of cor- trasted several accounts from ruption rather than of regenera- Protestant sources regarding the tion. Converts were bought for social and religious condition of small sums of money, and when he the Sandwich Islanders, and also first landed he was rather surprised several in relation to Chinese and to find a man ready to be baptized Japanese missions. We have said and join his church for two-and-a- enough, however, and more than half dollars a month, which was enough, to make good the lines fifty cents more than he had been with which we began this paper. receiving from another minister of We lay down our pen, and as we the Gospel. He afterwards found do so, the conviction forces itself hundreds of the lower class of peo- upon our mind that in whatever ple who were ready to do the same proportion Protestant missions and thing, and also found missionaries Protestant civilization have obready to buy them up in order to tained influence over a nation, in increase the statistics of their work that proportion have they invafor home perusal. Of course this riably deteriorated and debased its. had a very bad effect upon the people.
did not tell me the latter part of the I THINK it might have been about story till a sad night afterwards, three months after all this, that my though if she had, without any exmother came in, weak and weary- planation, it would only have inI had sorrowfully noticed her grow- creased my bewilderment. Eugene ing weaker every day—and told me . came in after awhile, and she had with trembling, excited voice, and fallen into a quiet slumber, so in face lit by color not natural there, whispers he gave me his version of of the incident in the Park. She the story, wondering at her interest used to always tell me of anything in watching as she did. I said: strange that happened her, and I "That is easily explained, for was always interested in her ac- the little beggar girl is a neighbor count of her day in the outside of ours, a poor orphan living with world. It grieved me to the heart wretched people, who abuse her to see her so weak, and I made her dreadfully. It was she who gave lie down and rest, wondering all me my plant. She picked up the the time what excited her so. She potato out of the gutter near a