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qualifications but that of personal respect. Failing in this first atcourage.
tempt to impose upon the religious We have already referred to susceptibilities of the humbler Garibaldi's hostility to religion, classes of the Neapolitans, Gariand mentioned the instance of his baldi learned that on the very next ridiculing the sacrament of the day an opportunity would be afChurch, to show his feelings to- forded for another attempt to dewards Christianity. We might cite ceive. other instances of conduct pro- On the 8th of September, the ceeding from the same motive, but King of the Two Sicilies and royal we prefer to show that with all his family were wont to proceed, with contempt of religion and its ordi- remarkable pomp, from the Royal nances, with all his affected ha- Palace to the Church of the Pie-detred for what he termed priest- Grotto, and, after formal reception craft, he had the hypocrisy to de- by the clergy in a chapel specially sire to exhibit himself as a devotee reserved for His Majesty's use, offer of the Church, and as holding in a prayer and thanksgiving. As there reverential regard what the Church was no longer any king in Naples declares to be a miracle.
(Francesco having left two days On the 7th of September, Gari- previously), it was resolved that baldi came into Naples, accom- Garibaldi should take the king's panied by Don Laborio Romano, place; so at the hour appointed, one of the ministers of King Fran- instead of a double file of soldiers cesco, and such was his desire to extending nearly two miles, from be considered a devout Catholic, the palace to the Church of the that he persuaded Don Laborio to Pie-de-Grotto, a few pedestrians conduct him to the Cathedral, that were seen passing along the Strada he might see and adore the miracle de Chaia, and a little later, a single of the liquefaction of the blood of carriage, containing Don Laborio St. Januarius, in the presence of the Romano and Garibaldi, was driven clergy of the Cathedral.
rapidly along the street. When Don Laborio, though a non-be- the carriage reached the church liever in almost everything that the two gentlemen alighted and constituted a part of a Christian entered the building, but no clergycreed, could not refrain from direct
man was seen, and the door of the ing the coachman to drive to the king's chapel was found locked. Cathedral, and the “Dictator" Don Laborio and Garibaldi returned caused his presence to be announc- in an open carriage, and in a rain, ed, with an intimation that he had which for efficiency could not be come to adore the miracle. The equalled out of Naples. priests in charge of the sacred edi- These two attempts to acquire a fice and of the relics of the sanctu. character for religious feeling sig. ary, were not without some knowl- nally failed, and never since has edge of the extent of Garibaldi's pi- Garibaldi offended public sentiment ety, and especially of his profound by a public profession of regard for respect for the miracle; and they anything that belongs to religion. sent word to the great man, who The baptism above noticed, in which appeared to desire to show his con- Garibaldi officiated as a priest, was descension to the Church of God, professedly performed to show conthat they should not violate con- tempt for the sacrament. science by displaying the relics to What would have been the effect one who came only to insult by on Garibaldi's future conduct tomockery, or to achieve a little popu- ward religion had he succeeded in larity by hypocritical professions of imposing upon the Neapolitans a
belief of his sympathy with them strated his susceptibility to flattery, in their modes of worship, their diminish his chance for acquiring objects and ways of religious re- permanent power. gard, it is not possible to say; but The London Times contained certainly the rebuke which he re- glorious accounts of the immense ceived at the Cathedral and at the popularity of the great general, Church of the Pie-de-Grotto, soured the modern Cincinnatus, the Washhim so much, and influenced his ington of Italy; and it was by some language and action so entirely, said that nothing short of the first that it soon became a principle of place in the nation could be offered those who followed him in efforts to him. It was hinted by many at political revolution, to follow that the ministers of Victor Emhim also in hostility to religion, so manuel had become alarmed, lest that now the revolution in Italy is Garibaldi should, by way of a stepabsolutely stayed, by the difficulty ping-stone to supremacy, find a which a portion of the people have princess willing to take him as a to denounce Christianity and ridi- husband, and thus smooth down culing its forms of expression. This prejudice as it regards birth and difliculty is being gradually re- wealth. moved, and religion is being made And such a fear was better the handmaid of politics.
grounded than many seemed to The success of Garibaldi in think. The people had been made achieving personal popularity was acquainted with the gross immoa great misfortune for him. He ralities of the King, immoralities eould not but see that the situation which seemed to mock what little of public affairs, the disturbance in of public virtue was left, and to be the north of Italy, and the success without the small explanation of of a certain sentiment of disloyalty, gratification of ordinary appetite: were results of action and the con- the habits of royalty there were not sequence of movement in which he merely immoral, they were indehad no share ; but as the public cent. seems always to desire some indi- Undoubtedly Garibaldi at that vidual to represent or be account- time was an object less of hope of able for important results, he was what he would do as an instrument not unwilling to be the object of of Cavour and others than of fear public applause, and to consent to of what he would attempt when he the decision which declared him had orders to accomplish what Cathe 'arbiter of nations and the lib- vour and others were planning. erator of mankind.
We have said that Garibaldi's Those who were using the influ- movements in the north of Italy ence of Garibaldi among the people, were specially reported in the Lonand allowing him the reward of tem- don Times by an English lady, busy poral glorification for events which and noisy about Turin, and aiding they had planned, lost no opportu- in keeping up the vanity of Garinity to make him ridiculous, and baldi. This lady seemed to have esto show his inability to sustain a pecial care of the liberator's public position that required thorough affairs and to have borrowed someplans and kuowledge of execution. body's dictionary of glowing epiAmong the triumphs of the profess- thets. It was announced that an ed friends but real enemies of alliance between the great man and Garibaldi, was a successful effort of a certain noble lady was about to a few Piedmontese to entice the take place, and preparations for the liberator into a marriage, which event were detailed with wonderthey knew would, while it demon- ful precision. At length it was announced that the greatest of ed to incite him to action that must great men had that very morning enure to their benefit, while they led to the hymeneal altar the treat him with contempt whenever lovely and accomplished Countess he has accomplished that part of
- Such a upion, of course, his work which completed all their allayed the apprehensions of the schemes. government, and Garibaldi, who Garibaldi was, it appears, the had once enjoyed the domestic idol of the Piedmontese governblessing of an accomplished sympa- ment when he was at work to prothizing woman, whose highest title cure the Two Sicilies for the king; was to be the wife of Garibaldi, but before he had accomplished was left without any such comfort. what he appeared to think was his It was a terrible misfortune, but it great work, Cavour steps in with was the natural result of his new his other tool, Victor Emmanuel, association with the artful and and shows that Garibaldi was interested Piedmontese govern- merely employed to draw the ment, and the coaxing blandish. chestnuts from the fire. Those ments of an English woman, that who saw the convulsion of Naples could in no other way so effectu- at and after the departure of Franally gratify a bad feeling. The cesco, cannot fail to recall the countess, it is said, returned—but bitter disappointment of Garibaldi not to Garibaldi.
at discovering that his task was Garibaldi is now, or was a few performed before his work was finmonths since, meditating upon his ished; nor can they doubt that he future,-learning, perhaps, that left Naples to escape association Cavour and others took advantage with Victor Emmanuel, whose of a zeal not according to knowl. orgies were offensive to a man like edge, and an influence that might the liberator, who, whatever were be badly employed. He offers bis his political errors, seems to have services now to assist in almost any maintained domestic and social revolutionary movement, but the proprieties. The pertinacity with offer is respectfully declined. The which Garibaldi has adhered to political world seems to be suffici- what he regards as popular rights, ently unsettled for the highest and his efforts to revenge popular wishes of Garibaldi, but unfortu- wrongs, insured for him an envianately for him his irreligious feel- ble consideration among the reaings are not satisfied with the ostra- sonable. That he has not been cism of priests and the persecution able to do much for himself, or of the Catholic Church. His anti- by himself, for the greatly wronged, religious sentiments include oppo- is not due to any want of cause for sition to religion of any kind, as his hostility to tyrannical governhis plans of political disorganiza- ment, but rather to his want of tion included every kind of govern- ability to sustain a position which ment that implies restraint.
circumstances provided for him, He has satisfied himself with and to his lack of self-knowledge. aiding or commending any effort We concede to Garibaldi an that tended to pull down; he seems
ardent love of liberty and a strong to have no scheme for building up. desire to assist—to lead (especially
Another most mortifying discov- to lead) in any enterprise which ery the liberator has been compell- shall enlarge the political liberties ed to make, a discovery that the pro- of others. fession of confidence and approval We concede to Garibaldi entire which certain governments have sincerity in his professions of intermade toward him were only intend- est in the great work of human freedom. And that honesty, perhaps, confidence of the lower class. But descends even to his hostility to we have shown that he lacked miliChristianity!! else would he not be tary knowledge to handle an army so persistent.
of more than a thousand men, and We concede to Garibaldi a re- that he was remarkably deficient markable absence of all desire to in all the primary knowledge of profit pecuniarily by any position a military officer, which would which he may occupy, a degree of enable him to seize upon a favordisinterestedness which has had a able position on which to place his very important agency in securing cannon for offence or defence, and, to him the confidence of the people. still worse, had accident or necessity
We concede to Garibaldi an un- suggested a right position, he was usual success in winning the favor wholly unable to charge or disand confidence of the lower class charge his guns. of society. It may be said that he His want of any qualities for civil had also the confidence of the upper leader was shown when he acted classes—and so he had ; but the as "dictator" to Naples. The confidence of the lower classes was wildness of his schemes for benefit. perfect and unlimited. They de- ing the people was really ridicu. pended on his plan and his thorough lous. The project to erect whole execution thereof. The confidence streets of palaces for the poor, at a of the higher class was founded cost of at least fifty millions of only on his sympathy with the lower dollars, served to open the eyes of class, and to his ability to call some who had believed that a love them into action. The Piedmon- of the people would be better manitese government never trusted Gar- fested by some scheme that would ibaldi beyond the first steps of ag- not ruin the city. gression. The ministry watched his Those who are acquainted with movements and checked or super- the streets of Naples will confess seded him in military positions the folly of a scheme announced by whenever it became possible for Garibaldi as dictator, viz., that he him to appropriate his success to would cut a broad avenue (Strada) the cause of popular government. from the Albergo dei poveri (the
The British government willingly almshouse) diagonally through the aided to discomfit the Neapolitan city to the lower part of the Mariking and assist Garibaldi in invad- nella, and erect on each side splening Sicily and pursuing victory on did palaces for the lazaroni and the the peninsula, but it had no confi- working-people. There were other dence in his ability to secure the schemes equally as impracticable, benefits of any success, and only or if practicable, ridiculous and incountenanced the movement of 1860 jurious. to weaken France and to cater to a The sudden appearance of Ca. religious prejudice at home. Of the vour put an end to the schemes of consequence of weakening France Garibaldi, and added to his wishes Great Britain can now judge better to leave his residence at the head than she could when she assisted of the Toledo. the invading Sardinian troops to His deficiency in qualities that land at Marsalla, and assisted with distinguish our great statesmen and counsel on board of her own ships warriors will, in time, place Garithe invasion of Palermo.
baldi in the list of those who, seizWe have conceded to Garibaldi ing upon public agitation, did some personal courage, honesty of pur- good even among the great evils pose, and indifference to pecuniary they promoted, and whose lives and results, and a power of securing the conduct show that they seek an end
by unjustifiable means, and fail to Sicilies. He was like the lion sustain themselves or their cause harnessed to draw the car of an old for want of power to influence a Roman, more from fear what he people when the excitements of re- might do than love for what he was bellion, invasion, or convulsion doing. In his progress from Meshave passed.
sina to Naples, and his residence in Garibaldi is now a disappointed or near Naples, he was the conman, and he now sees that while he tinual object of espionage; and the thought he was accomplishing a follies which he committed near work of his own design he had been Capua were blazoned in a way to only the tool of others; and his affect injuriously his relations with personal insignificance was felt the people, and excuse the governmore by the consciousness that his ment for withholding its confidence. work was checked when half per- Garibaldi felt all that, and taught formed because it was his work. his sons to seek for an oppor
It was evident to lookers-on in tunity of revenge. The wound Italy in 1860-1
Garibaldi was which Garibaldi received in his watched with a vigilance that foot from an Italian gun at a later manifested on the part of the rulers day, while leading a small detacha determination to encourage the ment, was the blunder or the unman only so far as his influence was skilfulness of the Italian officers. to aid the Piedmontese govern. It was not the foot, but the heart of ment, and when by any means the the great agitator that was to feel work of rupture had reached a the ball. point at which convulsion and in- Garibaldi's love of popular rights vasion were to produce revolution, grew and overspread most other Garibaldi was disposed of in some qualities. He is now perhaps a way to mortify his personal vanity Communist, and may persist, like and separate him from his friends the more illustrious Anello, who, in the army. He was treated with in his frenzy to show his contempt an appearance of consideration for religion, betook himself to the while he was apparently leading a pulpit and came down a raving force against the Neapolitan govern- maniac. What will become of the ment, but when a certain point was liberator we cannot tell. We do gained he was made to understand not foresee what is to be the extent that it was necessary to settle some of the revolutions in most parts of matters of government, and that Europe; but certainly nothing more his services having been accepted than temporary destruction can only for disturbance, he should re- cheer his age. The first object at turn and make room for a class of which he aimed, the destruction of military men who had been pur- the Catholic religion and of conchased with ducats, and who were servative political principles, will willing to witness without protest not be attained in his day; and or efforts at remedy, the ends which while he mourns the general failure were consequences or a part of their of his plan, he has to feel the deep own disloyalty.
sting of the bitter ingratitude of Garibaldi never had the affection those who have profited by his of the Piedmontese government labors, and have left him in his old nor of the new Italian govern- age to sigh over blighted hopes and ment; he was watched and guarded be anathematized by those whom during the trouble that preceded he has clothed with power to opthe conquest of Naples and the Two press him.