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exemplified, by a reference to English words, not only the simple sounds which they represent, but almost every variety of sound resulting from position and combination; a novelty which, he would hope, may prove of very considerable utility to all classes of learners.
The total ignorance of the common principles of language, and even of the import of the usual grammatical terms, manifested by many persons desirous of acquiring a grammatical knowledge of the Spanish language, has induced the writer to attempt to remedy the evil, as concisely, and with as little of deterring or repulsive parade and formality, as was possible, in his elementary introduction to the language. This circumstance, however, has compelled him by developing several of the properties or accidents of words, as they result from mutual relation and connexion, rather than according to adry, mechanical analogy, to imitate the example of some modern grammarians of deserved repute, and occasionally to intermix, among the rules of Syntax, remarks and observations, which, he is fully aware, belong, in strict. propriety, to the province of Etymology. But this devi. ation from the more common mode of arrangement, he trusts will be compensated on the score of utility or ex pediency, by a diminution of the interruptions usually occasioned by tedious preliminary definitions and explanations.
The author has attempted to introduce some clearness and simplicity in the declension of nouns, and the conjugation of irregular verbs; he has paid considerable attention to an elucidation of the respective imports and uses of the Spanish substantive verbs. ser and estar, and has endeavoured to remove some of the obscurity in which the nature and use of the Spanish subjunctive mood, especially in its imperfect tense, have hitherto
been more or less involved. But these and similar particulars are not, perhaps, sufficiently important to be entitled to special enumeration.
Throughout the whole work it has been the author's particular aim to lay down the rules of Spanish Grammar as concisely as possible ; and he trusts that they will, at the same time, be found to be stated by him with not less precision and perspicuity than they have generally been in works of a similar description. The prejudicial and perplexing practice adopted by some writers, apparently to diminish the number of their rules, of blending into one, two or more in their nature perfectly distinct from each other, he has been so careful to avoid, that he is not without some apprehension of having fallen into the other extreme; a circumstance, however, which he presumes will be found far less injurious to the learner's clear conception of the various shades and modifications of one general principle.
The Appendix to the Grammar contains a brief explanation of the principles of Spanish Prosody, and of the rules, nature, and different kinds of Spanish Verse;Dialogues with numerical references to the Rules in the Grammar; -a few specimens of Letters and other Commercial Documents; and a summary account of the more common analogies by which several classes of Spanish words are regulated in their derivation from the Latin ; with a short abstract exhibiting the intimate relationship and resemblance subsisting between the Latin and the Spanish, as well as several other modern languages.
However great the respect of the author for the Spanish Academy may be, yet conscious that a strict adherence to the system of that enlightened body would have proved inimical to the peculiar purpose of this
Grammar, ne has occasionally ventured on a few inconsiderable deviations from their decisions; which it is presumed will not be ascribed to any other motive than a wish to add to that simplicity and facility in self-instruction, which it has been his particular aim uniformly to promote.
In a word, a perusal of the table of contents will, it is hoped, evince that the author has some little claim on the notice of the public. He trusts that the inaccuracies or misconceptions of a foreigner will be treated with some degree of lenity; and that, as he has exerted his best efforts to elucidate the principles and rules of the language, -not, he would hope, without some success, his failures will not excite illiberal animadversion, but that the sincerity of the will may in some respects tend to compensate for occasional blemishes in the deed.
The rapid sale of the former editions of this Grammar affords evidence highly gratifying to the author, that his humble endeavours have received a liberal portion of the public approbation. For such encouragement, and particularly for the flattering reception with which the work has been favoured by our most enlightened critics, he feels duly grateful; and begs leave to assure the public, that no pains have been spared to render the present edition as correct as possible, and still more worthy of an extended patronage.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
two cases to Spanish nouns....
Of the Article....
Adjectives, which become defective before their nouns