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Observations on the use of the numeral adjective uno as a sub-

stitute for the English indefinite article .. .. .. .. ..

100

Syatax of comparatives and superlatives..

102

Government of adjectives...

105

Syntax of personal pronouns

111

Syntax of possessive pronouns ....

116

Observations on the cases wherein the definite article is used

instead of the possessive pronoun

118

Syntax of relative pronouns. uro...

1:20

Syntax of interrogative pronouns

124

Syntax of demonstrative pronouns..

125

Observation on the different import of esse and aquel to express

the demonstrative pronoun that in English....

126

Syntax of indefinite pronouns..

Of the manner of addressing persons in Spanish.

133

Of the different import of the verbs ser and estar

135

Of the difference between haber and tener.......... 140

Observation on the peculiar manner of construing to be by tener 141

A view of the inflections of the regular verbs.......

142

Observations on such of the regular verbs as require a change in

the root.....

144

of the formation of the passive voice

145

Of the three classes into which irregular verbs are divided.. ib.

Paradigms of the irregular verbs.....

147

An alphabetical list of all the irregular verbs numbered according

to the paradigm to which they refer........

177

An alphabetical list of verbs having an irregular participle..... 186

View of the conjugation of impersonal verbs......

188

Observation on such of the personal verbs as are sometimes con-

jugated impersonally..

193

Of defective verbs

194

Of the use of the tenses of the indicative .

195

subjunctive.

204

Observations on the imperfect and pluperfect of the subjunctive 207

On the different import of the preterimperfect and the imperfect

future of the subjunctive in denoting a future action........ 212

Of the use of the tenses of the infinitive..

214

Agreement of verbs.....

215

Government of verbs

217
Page.

PART THE FIRST:

AN

INTRODUCTION

TO

SPANISH GRAMMAR.

SPANISH GRAMMAR is the art of speaking and of writing the Spanish Language according to certain established rules. It is divided into OrthoGRAPHY, PROSODY,* ETYMOLOGY, and Syntax.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

ORTHOGRAPHY treats on letters, and shows their sound, power, and proper combination, in order to forın syllables or words.

A letter is the least division of a word.

The Spanish alphabet is composed of the following characters :

A, B, C, CH, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, LL, M, N, Ñ, Ó, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, X, Y, Z.

* This is generally reckoned the fourth division of grammar; but as what will be observed concerning it will materially assist beginDers, it has been thought expedient to introduce it before Etymology.

B

Łetters are divided into vowels and consonants,

Vowels are those letters which contain a perfect sound in themselves.

Consonants are those letters whose sound cannot be uttered without the assistance of the vowels.

The Spanish vowels are A, E, I, O, U; and the rest are consonants.*

Consonants are divided into Mutes and Semivowels.

The Mutes are those the sound of which begins with themselves, that is to say, when their sound is exhibited in writing, the vowel is placed last. They are B, C, CH, D, G, J, K, P, Q, T, V, Z.See names of the letters.

The Semivowels are those consonants, whose sound begins with the vowel; or, in other words, those letters, the sound of which cannot be shown in writing without placing the vowel before. They are F, H, L, LL, M, N, Ñ, R, S, X.--See names of the letters.

e.

B,

A Key to sound the Names of the Letters. art, ăcre, even, idiom, obey, oozy, charm, ham,

thank. Characters. Names. Characters. Names. A, a.

I, bà.

hotā.
C, thă.

.
CH,
chở.

L,

ălă. D, .

LL,

allia.
E,
å.

M, ămă.
F,
ăfă.

ănă.
G, .

ănnia. H, âchă.

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• The letter Y is sometimes a vowel and at others a consonant. In general it is a vowel when it follows another vowel, and a consonant when it precedes it.

00.

e.

Characters. Names. Characters. Names.
P, på.

U,
Q, koo.

V.

. R ără or årră. X, åkis. S, åsså.

Y T, .

Z, thătā. Explanation of the Key. The Italic characters of the key comprise the sound of the vowels, as well as the power of the consonants, which are employed to utter the names of the Spanish letters; therefore, by a correct reference to the key, the letters may be easily named. Example : suppose the name of h is required; by comparing the letters acha,descriptive of its name, with the same letters in the key, it will be found that the first a sounds as in art, that ch has the same power as in the word charm, and that the last a has the sound which is heard in acre. Again, by comparing hota, the name of J, in the same manner, it will be perceived that the h is aspirated as in ham, theo long as in obey, and the last a as heard in art. Those consonants which are not in Italics in the column of names are to be sounded as in English. On the Sound of the Letters.

A. A, as before observed, sounds as in the word art ; as ama, nata.

B. B always preserves the same sound that it has in English ; as bata, bala. In sounding this letter the Spaniards do not press the lips hard, but only join them close; see also V.

C. C (1.) sounds as k where it does so in English; as cabo, cola, cutis, clara, craso.

(2.). When in English it has the sound of s, it sounds in Spanish like th in thanks; as cebo, cinco.

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