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Note a.-When the nouns enumerated are followed by a word which seems to contain them in the aggregate, the article is usually omitted ; as, Africanos, Asiaticos, Americanos, y Europeos todos son hombres, Africans, Asiatics, Americans, and Europeans, are all

men.

RULE 14. Two or more nouns used in apposition* admit the article only before the first; as La ciudad de Londres, The city of London, the

capital de Inglaterra capital of England and y residencia del sobe- the residence of the rano,

sovereign, Jupiter, hijo de Saturno, Jupiter, the son of Saturn.

N.B. Two nouns coming together and denoting the same person, admit the article sometimes before each of them. See note b to Rule 17.

Rule 15. Proper names of persons, places, and months, take no article ; as Socrates,

Socrates.
Roma,

Rome.
Avril,

April, Note a.–The days of the week are very seldom found without the article ; as, el Lunes, Monday ; el Viernes, Friday.

Note b.-Custom has established the uniform use of the article before the proper name of some places ; as, la Coruña, Corunua ; el Ferrol, Ferrol. Note c.

-Casa, when preceded by a preposition, and used in the sense of hume, is seldom found with the article; as, Vamos á casa, let us go home; estoy en casa del conde, I am at the count's; viene de casa, he comes from home; el amo de casa, the master of the house.

Note d.—Nouns adverbially used are not preceded by the article ; as, de corazon, heartily; con paciencia, patiently

RULE 16. Nouns taken in a partitive sense are never preceded by the article ; as

Give me bread.
Dale vino,

Give him some wine.
Danos miel,

Give us honey.
Note a.--Some may be also expressed by algun, alguna, in the

Dame pan,

* See observation after Rule 25

singular, and by algunos, algunas, and unos, unas, in the plural; as, alguna tinta, some ink; unas plumas, some pens.

Note b.- Any interrogatively used is either suppressed entirely, or expressed like some ; as į hay algunas plumas ? or ; hay plumas ? are there any pens?

Note c.-Some before a singular noun is often expressed by ún poco de, a little; as, dame un poco de pan ; un poco de su miel.

Note d. - The article is omitted before adjectives, either of num. ber or of order, when they are preceded by the noun to which they refer; as, Jorge Primero, George the First ; Clemente Catorce, Clement the Fourteenth ; Capítulo decimo, Chapter the tenth ; Tomo quince, Volume the fifteenth. N.B. Numerals only are, generally, used after twenty; as El Papa Juan Veinte y dos, Pope John the Twenty-second; Tomo treinta y cinco, Volume the thirty-fifth.

Note e.-The article is omitted before the titles of books, chapters, paragraphs, &c. when they are not the subject or objective case of a verb expressed, or the regimen of some preposition; as, Gramática Española, discurso preliminar, capítulo once, párrafo segundo, verso quarto ; and, La Gramatica Española se divide, leimos el discurso preliminar, el capítulo once empieza asi, el párrafo segundo es muy largo, en el párrafo tercero del capítulo veinte y quatro dice el autor, &c. Ń. B. When the title of a book relates to a particular individual, it may be expressed with or without the article ; as, Aventuras or las Aventuras de Telemaco; Obras or las Obras de Ciceron ; Cartas or las Cartas de Plinio. It is however improper to use the article if all the adventures, the works, or the letters be not understood.

NOUNS.

RULE 17. When two nouns signifying different things come together in English, their order is reversed in Spanish, and the preposition de prefixed to the second ; as

La naturaleza del hombre, Man's nature.
Cuchara de ,

Tea-spoon.
Columna de mármol, Marble pillar.
El camino de Londres, The London road

Note a.-If the second noun is preceded in English by the prepositions of or to, the order is preserved ; as, The authority of the prince, la autoridad del principe; brother to the duke, hermano del duque. N. B. To, after the words journey, voyage, walk, &c. is not altered in Spanish ; as, Journey to London, viage a Londres ; a walk to the Park, un paseo al Parque.

Note 6.-Two substantives signifying the same thing admit .be between them when the first serves as a species of epithet for the other; as, El tonto del amo, the fool of a master; el pícaro del criado, the rogue of a servant.

Note c.—If the second noun be preceded by of and followed by the sign of the possessive case, ('s) we place the preposition and article before both nouns ; as, Two regiments of the king's, Dos de los regimientos del rey.

Note d.-Some compound nouns in English are translated by a simple one; as, tetera, tea-pot ; molinillo, chocolate-mi'l; cartera, letter-case.

Note e.-The sign ('s) of the English possessive case is rendered by de, even when the noun to which it refers is not expressed after it in English ; as, This house is the ambassador's, esta casa es del embaxador ; Go to the consul's, ve á casa del consul; He was buried at St. Paul's, fué enterrado en la iglesia de San Pablo.

Note f.-When the noun which has the mark of the possessive case is preceded by the indefinite article in English, it admits of two constructions in Spanish: thus, a king's palace may be translated el palacio de un rey, the palace of a king, or, un palacio de rey, a palace fit for a king.

OF ADJECTIVES.

Their Feminine Termination. Role 18. Adjectives which end in o, an, or on, have their feminine termination in a. Those terminating otherwise are common to both genders ; as

El muchacho holgazan, The idle boy.
La muchacha holgazana, The idle girl.
El hombre ruin,

The mean man. La muger ruin,

The mean woman. El dia feliz,

The happy day. La hora feliz,

The happy hour. Note a.-Adjectives iu o change it into a in their feminine termination : as, santo, santa, holy; bueno, buena, good ; sabio, sabia, wise,

Note b.-Adjectives derived from the names of countries, kingdoms, provinces, &c. ending with a consonant, admit an a in their feminine termination; as, Español, Española, Spanish ; Saxon, Saxona, Saxon ; Andaluz, Andaluza, Andalusian.

Note c.—The last-mentioned species of adjectives are generally expressed by the name of the country, with the preposition de prefixed, when the adjective serves to qualify articles of commerce, &c. as, manteca de Irlanda, Irish butter ; cerveza de Inglaterra, English beer ; vino de España, Spanish wine.

Note d.—The same construction often takes place when the adjective is applied to persons; as, El anbaxador de España, the Spanish ambassador ; el cónsul de Inglaterra, the English consul.

Plural of Adjectives. RULE 19. The plural of adjectives is formed like the plural of substantives ; as, santo, santos, Saxon, Saxones, holgazan, holgazanes, haragana, haraganas, ruin, ruines, feliz, felices. See Rules 2 and 3.

Place of Adjectives. Rule 20. Adjectives, and participles used adjectively, are generally placed after their nouns; as

Operaciones difíciles, Difficult operations.
Generales vencidos, Conquered generals.
Soldados heridos, Wounded soldiers.

Agreement of Adjectives. RULE 21. An adjective agrees with its noun in gender, number, and case; as

Argumento ridículo, Ridiculous argument.
Conclusiones falsas, False conclusions.

N.B. Adjectives are always put in the masculine when they qualify the feminine noun nada ; as, nada es tan cierto como la muerte, nothing is so certain as death. Nouns common to both genders vary the adjective; as, el homicida fué castigado, la homicida fué castigada, the homicide was punished,

Note a.-Adjectives are generally prefixed in the three following instances : Ist, When they denote the inherent property of the subject; as, sobre el duro mármol, upon the hard marble. 2d, When used as epithets; as, el ambicioso Alexandro, the ambitious Alexander. 3d, When they are accented on the antepenult; as, un intrépido gefe, an intrepid chief: bence all superlatives in ísimo are generally prefixed; as, atrocísima maldad, most atrocious wickedness.

Note b.-Mucho and poco should precede their noun ; as, muchos enemigos, many enemies ; pocas tropas, few troops.

Note c. Cierto when not meaning indubitable is placed before ; as, ciertas propuestas, certain proposals.

Note d. -Cardinal numbers, not used to translate ordinal numbers, are prefixed ; as, doce dias, twelve days ; el dia doce, the twelfth day.

Note e.-Adjectives may be either prefixeil or postponed when & verb intervenes ; as, difíciles eran las operaciones, los enemigos eran

F

muchos, heridos estaban los soldados, soldados habia muehos, viveres tenian pocos.-N. B. Some adjectives vary their signification with their place; as, buena vida, luxurious life ; vida buena, virtuous life; papeles varios, papers on various subjects; varios papeles, sundry papers ; habitacion nueva, dwelling newly built; nueva habitacion, new habitation ; mortal herida, dangerous wound; herida mortal, mortal wound, &c.

Note f.-Toilo should precede the noun; as, todo hombre ha nacido para morir, every man is born to die; toda accion debe encaminarse al bien de la sociedad, every action ought to be directed to the welfare of society.-N. B. If the noun be in the plural, it ought to be immediately preceded by the article ; as, todos los hombres han nacido, &c. todas las acciones deben, &c.

Rule 22. Two or more nouns in the singular require their adjective in the plural; and in the masculine termination if they differ in gender; as El palacio y el templo The magnificent palace magníficos,

and temple. La torre y la casa derri- The tower and house budas,

overthrown. La iglesia y el hospital The church and hospital

edificados por él, built by him.

Note a.-An adjective prefixed to two nouns singular agrees, generally, with the nearest ; as, the intrepid valour and resistance of the patricts, el intrépido valor y resistencia, la intrépida resistencia y valor de los patriotas.

RULE 23. An adjective agrees with the nearest of two or more plural nouns, which differ in gender; as, los efectos y riquezas preciosas, las riquezaz y efectos preciosos, los preciosos efectos y riquezas, las preciosas riquezas y efectos, the invaluable riches and effects.

Note a.-An adjective of two terminations is improper to qualify two nouns which differ both in gender and in number; as, la antrepidez y los esfuerzos eran estupendos, the intrepidity and efforts were wonderful. It is better to use an adjective of one termination for both, or a distinct adjective for each noun; as, la intrepidez y los esfuerzos eran admirables, or lu intrepidez era maravillosa y los esfuerzos estupendos.

Nute b. -Adjectives when connected by a verb to a title do not agree with it, but with the individual to whom it is given; as, su magestad Saxonu ha estado malo, his Saxon majesty has been ill; su excellencia está indispuesto, his excellency is unwell ; sus señorias

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