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See also feminine nouns in s which are used in the

plural only, page 84.

Feminine Noun in u.

phthisis

tos

cough.

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N. B. All nouns ending in ez, and denoting qualities

in the abstract, are feminine; as, estrechez, narrowness; palidez, paleness.

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and all those nouns which by their meaning denote males; as, Jesuita, Jesuit; anacoreta, anchorite; anabaptista, anabaptist, &c. N. B. Although gloria is feminine, its compounds, as, gloria patri, gloria in excelsis, &c. are masculine.

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and all the augmentative nouns which end in ion.

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In addition to masculine and feminine nouns, there are two other species called epicene and common nouns; the first comprehends those nouns which, without varying the article, denote either the masculine or feminine of a class; as, el raton, the he or she mouse; la rata, the he or she rat; el pato, the duck or drake. To distinguish them, it is necessary to add some word descriptive of the sex; as, el raton hembra, the she mouse; la rata macho, the he rat. Common nouns are those which vary the article to show the distinction of genders; as, el testigo, the male witness; la testigo, the female witness; el homicida, the homicide (man); la homicida, the homicide (woman); &c.

* In the plural it is almost always feminine; as, el arte diabolico, or el arte diabolica, the diabolic art; las artes mecanicas, mechanic arts,

When synonymous with command it is feminine,

All the compounds of mar, as, baxamar, &c. are feminine.

Use of the Definite Article.

RULE 7. Nouns taken in a definite sense require

the article; as

El hombre viene,

The man is coming.

Las virtudes de los santos, The virtues of the saints.

RULE S. Nouns used in their most general sense are preceded by the article; as

El hombre peca,

Man sins.

La virtud es amable, Virtue is amiable.

RULE 9. Names of empires, kingdoms, countries, provinces, mountains, rivers, winds, and seasons, generally take the article; as

La Alemania,

La Inglaterra,

El Parnaso,

El Otoño,

Germany.

England.

Parnassus.

Autumn.

Note a.-Empires, kingdoms, countries, and provinces, when pre

ceded by a preposition, are not

unless they are personified; as

El clima de Inglaterra,

Los esfuerzos de la Inglaterra,

usually found with the article,

The climate of England.
The efforts of England.

Note b.-Kingdoms bearing the same name as their capital do not admit the article; as, Nápoles, Naples.

Note c.-Custom has assigned the article under all circumstances to the names of some distant empires, &c.; as, las casas del Japon, the houses of Japan; las calles de la China, the streets of China.

RULE 10. Nouns of measure, weight, &c. when preceded by the indefinite article in English, as an equivalent to each, require the article; as

Cinco duros la vara,
Dos reales la libra,
Ochenta guineas la bota,
Dos veces al dia,

Five dollars a yard.
Two rials a pound.
Eighty guineas a butt.
Twice a day.

Note a.-If the preposition por be used, we omit the article; as; cinco duros por vara, five dollars per yard; dos reales por libra, two rials per pound.

Note b-It is to be observed, that whenever in similar instances the indefinite article may be changed into the numeral adjective in English, it is to be expressed by the same adjective in Spanish; as He sold a pound for fourpence the first day, and the following day

twenty pounds at eight pence a pound. Vendió una libra por quatro peniques el primer dia, el dia siguiente veinte libras á ocho peniques la libra.

RULE 11. Señor, señora, señorito, señorita, when used in the third person of both numbers, require the article; as

El señor Don Juan,

El señor Pacheco,

Mr. John.
Mr. Pacheco.

La señora Doña Catalina Gomez, Mrs. Catherine

La señorita Perez,

Gomez. Miss Perez.

Note a.-Don and Doña must be placed immediately before baptismal names, but cannot be preceded by the article nor used in the plural: as, Don Juan ; Doña Maria; los señores Don Juan Romero y Don Luis Gomez.*

Note b.-When a common noun is immediately placed before the proper name of an individual, (to denote his dignity, profession, &c.) it is generally preceded by the article; as, El rey Jorge, King George; Y me envió al Doctor Godinez, And he sent me to Doctor Godinez; Llámome el Capitan Rolando, I am called Captain Ro.. lando except Santo; as Santo Tomas, Saint Thomas.

:

RULE 12. Numerals, when denoting either the day of the month or the hour of the day, generally take the article; as Ei seis de Enero, El catorce de Mayo, La una, Las onze,

Las tres y quarto,
Las ocho menos quarto,
Las diez menos veinte
minutos,

The sixth of January.
The fourteenth of May.
One o'clock.

Eleven o'clock.
A quarter after three
A quarter to eight.
Twenty minutes before

ten.

RULE 13. The article is generally repeated be

fore every noun enumerated, especially if they

differ in gender; as
La Fé, la Esperanza, y

la Caridad,

Los dias y las noches,

Faith, Hope, and

Charity.

The days and nights.

* See page 133.

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