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RULE 3. Nouns which end in an accented vowel, or in a consonant,* take es in the plural; as

Alholi, alholies,

Arbol, árboles,
Imágen, imágenes,

Granary, granaries
Tree, trees.

Image, images.

Flower, flowers.

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Flor, flores,

Note a.-Nouns ending in ay or ey take es in the plural; as, rey, reyes; ay, ayes.

Nouns which do not increase in the Plurai.

Cortaplumas, penknife; sacamuelas, toothdrawer; sacatrapos, corkscrew; brindis, a drinking toast; Lúnes, Monday; Mártes, Tuesday; Miércoles, Wednesday, Jueves, Thursday; Viernes, Friday.

The following Nouns are used only in the Plural.

Albricias f. a giftt

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despabila- snuffers

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deras f.

puches f.


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Nouns which from the nature of their meaning are used in English in the singular only, do not in general admit the plural in Spanish; as, trigo, wheat; oro, gold, &c.

*If the final consonant be a z, it must be changed into c; as, luz, luces, light, lights; nariz, narices, nuse noses; lápiz, lápices, pencil, pencils.

The reward bestowed on a messenger of good news.


There are two methods of distinguishing the gen. der in Spanish nouns; first by their meaning, and secondly by their termination.

RULE 4. Nouns which signify males, or which denote dignities, professions, employments, &c. applicable to men, are masculine; and those which signify females, or the dignities, professions, &c. generally applied to women, are feminine; as, hombre, man; caballo, horse; emperador, emperor; monge, monk; sastre, tailor, &c. and muger, woman; gallina, hen; emperatris, empress; monja, nun; costurera, sempstress, &c.

N.B. Haca, a pony, is always feminine.

RULE 5. Nouns ending in e, i, or y, l, o, u, n, r, s, t, x, and z, are generally masculine; as, talle, shape; aleli, jilly-flower; clavel, pink; cuello, neck; espíritu, spirit; pan, bread; collar, collar; mes, month; cenit, zenith; relox, watch; barniz, varnish.

RULE 6. Nouns ending in a, d, and ion, are generally feminine; as, ventana, window; salud, health; intencion, intention.

Note a.-The names of the alphabetic characters, as well as of the figures of rhetoric, poetry, and grammar, (except metaplasmo, pionasmo, hyperbaton,) are feminine.

Note b.-The names of sciences, arts, rivers, mountains, winds, and seasons, follow the rule of their termination: hence Dibuxo, Tajo, Helicon, Norte, Invierno, are masculine; and Teología, Escultura, Tamisa, Tramontana, Primavera, are feminine; except Etna, which is masculine.

Note c.-Nouns, which are used in the plural only, are of the gender to which they would belong according to their termination, had they a singular number: thus, víveres, provisions, is masculine; and tenazas, tongs, is feminine, being the genders to which vivere and tenaza would be referred, had the said nouns a singular number: except efemérides, fasces, fauces, llares, preces, trébedes, which are feminine.

Note d. The names of the musical notes which compose the octave are masculine; as el re, el mi, el la, el fa, &c.

Note e.-Proper names of kingdoms, cities, towns, villages, &c. are generally of the same gender as the common name to which they belong: thus Toledo is feminine, although it ends in o, because ciudad, the common noun to which it is referred, is of that gender: but as there are some proper names which, contrary to this rule, are, when used alone, of the gender of their termination; and as the knowledge of these names cannot be obtained without considerable practice, I should recommend learners in particular to mention the common as well as the proper noun, by which means the gender will be universally fixed: thus, although we say el Ferrol and la España, when mentioned alone, we express them la ciudad de Ferrol, el reyno de España, when preceded by their common nouns.

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* A kind of rust which salt acquires by exposure to atmospheric air.

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