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RULE 3. Nouns which end in an accented vowel, or in a consonant,* take es in the plural; as

Alholí, alholies, Granary, granaries
Arbol, árboles, Tree, trees.
Imágen, imágenes, Image, images.

Flor, flores, Flower, flowers. Note a.–Nouns ending in ay or ey take es in the plural; as, rey, reyes ; ay, ayes.

Nouns which do not increase in the Plurai.

Cortaplumas, penknife; sacamuelas, toothdrawer; sacatrapos, corkscrew; bríndis, a drinking toast; Lúnes, Monday; Mártes, Tuesday; Miércoles, Wednesday Juéves, Thursday; Viernes, Friday. The following Nouns are used only in the Plural. Albricias f. a giftt

llares f.

pot-hanger alicates pincers maytines matins angarillas f. hand-barrow modales manners bofes lungs

nonas f. calendas f. calends pechugas f.

the breast of completas f. complin

birds despabila- snuffers

preces f.

prayers deras f.

puches f. pap efemérides f. ephemeris semejas f. similitude erequias f. exequies tenazas f. tongs fasces f. a bundle of tercianas

ague twigs tinieblas darkness fauces f. gullet trébedes f. trevet idus ides vísperas f.

vespers largas f. delays


provisions livianos lights

Nouns which from the nature of their meaning are used in English in the singular only, do not in general admit the plural in Spanish ; as, trigo, wheat; oro, gold, &c.


* If the final consonant be a z, it must be changed into c; as, luz, luces, light, lights; nariz, narices, nuse noses ; lápiz, lápices, pen• cil, pencils.

The reward bestowed on a messenger of good news.

OF THE GENDER OF NOUNS There are two methods of distinguishing the

gen der in Spanish nouns; first by their meaning, and secondly by their termination.

RULE 4. Nouns which signify males, or which denote dignities, professions, employments, &c. applicable to men, are masculine; and those which signify females, or the dignities, professions, &c. generally applied to women, are feminine; as, hombre, man; caballo, horse; emperador, emperor ; monge, monk; sastre, tailor, &c. and muger, woman ; gallina, hen; emperatris, empress; monja, nun; costurera, sempstress, &c.

N.B. Haca, a pony, is always feminine.

Rule 5. Nouns ending in e, i, or y, l, o, u, n, r, s, t, x, and %, are generally masculine; as, talle, shape; aleli, jilly-flower; clavel, pink ; cuello, neck ; espíritu, spirit ; pan, bread; collar, collar ; mes, month; cenit, zenith ; relox, watch ; barniz, varnish,

RULE 6. Nouns ending in a, d, and ion, are generally feminine; as, ventana, window; salud, health; intencion, intention.

Note a.–The names of the alphabetic characters, as well as of the figures of rhetoric, poetry, and grammar, (except metaplasmo, pézonasmo, hyperbaton,) are feminine.

Note 6.—The names of sciences, arts, rivers, mountains, winds, and seasons, follow the rule of their termination : hence Dibuxo, Tajo, Helicon, Norte, Invierno, are masculine; and Teología, Escuta tura, Tamisa, Tramontana, Primavera, are feminine ; except Elna, which is masculine.

Note c.--Nouns, which are used in the plural only, are of the gen. der to which they would belong according to their termination, had they a singular number : thus, viveres, provisions, is masculine; and tenazas, tongs, is feminine, being the genders to which vivere and tenazn would be referred, had the said nouns a singular number : except efemérides, fasces, fauces, llares, preces, trébedes, which are feminine,

Note d.—The names of the musical notes which compose the octave are masculine ; as el re, el mi, el la, el fa, &c.

Note e.- Proper names of kingdoms, cities, towns, villages, &c. are generally of the same gender as the common name to which they belong : thus Toledo is feminine, although it ends in o, because ciudad, the common noun to which it is referred, is of that gender : but as there are some proper names which, contrary to this rule, are, when used alone, of the gender of their termination; and as the knowledge of these names cannot be obtained without considerable practice, I should recommend learners in particular to mention the common as well as the proper noun, by which means the gender will be universally fixed: thus, although we say el Ferrol and la España, when mentioned alone, we express them la ciudad de Ferrol, el reyno de España, when preceded by their common nouns.

Gender of Nouns,

Exceptions from Rule 5.


a fowl


Feminine Nouns ending in e. Aguachirle slipslop

corambre hide alache shad

corriente stream alsine chickweed corte


custom Şpimpernel (a costumbre anagalide

plant) crasicie plumpness

creciente flood tide azumbre a measure


the parting of barbarie barbarity

the hair base basis

cumbre summit calvicie baldness dulceaumbre sweetness calle street

elatine waterwort capelardente a funeral pile enante cariátide caryatides

bastard helleflesh

bore catástrofe catastrophe esferoyde spheroid certidumbre certainty especie species churre grease estirpe race clase class

sclarea la

etiópide clave key

plant) climber (a falange clemátide

phalanx plant)

'fame hunger cohorte cohort fase phases compages a joint


a herb

epipáctide {t







muck frente forehead

nave fuente fountain nieve gente

people noche night hambre hunger nube

cloud helice helix

paralare parallax helicine

mock-moon pellitory of paraselene the wall parte

hemionitis (a patente


wild purslain herrumbre rust of iron pesadumbre grief

plague a


pyramid hojaldre akind of cake pixide pix incertidumbre uncertainty planicie indole temper plebe rabble ingle groin


pus intemperie Sintemperate- | podredumbre rottenness


progeny a species of prole issue lande


quiete quietus landre

oxide of salt* a glandular salumbre swelling

the Salve Re

salve laringe larynx

gina laude praise sangre

blood leche milk

sede legumbre pulse serie

series lente lens

servidumbre servitude liebre hare

serpiente serpent liendre nit


quicksand lite litigation. suerte

chance llave key

superficie superficies lumbre fire tarde

afternoon mansedumbre meekness teame a kind of stone menguante ebb tide techumbre roof mente mind

temperie temperature mole


tittle molicie effeminacy torre

tower muchedumbremultitude trabe beamorgirder muerte death

tripode tripod * A kind of rust which salt acquires by exposure to atmospheric air.





S certain nup


tial rites warp

vislumbre glimmering varix xiride xirys(a

plant) Feminine Nouns in i or y. diocese ley

law Sgratiola (a metrópoli metropolis

herb) palmacristi palmachristi flock

paráfrasi paraphrase.

Diócesi graciadei



[blocks in formation]


Feminine Nouns in n. Arrumazon stowage

S the gilders' fallowing plomazon

cushion barbechazon time razon

reason the second sarten binazon

frying-pan ploughing sazon season cargazon cargo segazon reaping-time clavazon row of nails sien

temple clin or crin

sinrazon wrong desazon uneasiness trabazon splicing imágen image

Feminine Nouns in o. Mano

hand | nao ship.

Feminine Nouns in r. Bezoar bezoar


segur flor flower

zoster shingles. labor


Feminine Nouns in s. Anagiris bean trefoil apoteósis antiperistasis antiperistasis bacaris

apotheosis flea-bane

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