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sscritos, The written names; En las obras impresas, In the printed works.
Spanish verbs have two participles, called the present participle, and the past participle. The latter, from its being used to form passive verbs, has obtained the name of the passive participle.
All verbs have not a present participle, and in many verbs it retains only its adjective property. The present participle ends in ante for the first, and in iente for the second, or third, conjugation.
The passive participle for the first conjugation ends in ado, and for the second or third in ido. Those which end otherwise are called irregular participles.
OF ADVERBS. An Adverb is a part of speech which, being joined to verbs, serves to modify their signification; as, Habla concisamente, He speaks concisely.
Adverbs are also joined to an adjective, or to a substantive used adjectively, or even to another adverb, in order to express some circumstance, degree, quality, or manner of its signification; as, El juez es muy severo, The judge is very severe; El es muy niño, He is very childish; Lo digo muy seriamente, I say it very seriously; nas despacio, more slowly, &c.
Adverbs formed from adjectives, or from other adverbs, by the addition of a word or syllable, are called compound; and those adverbs from which others are formed are termed simple : thus the adverbs fácilmente, easily; felizmente, happily; are compounds of the adjectives fácil, easy ; feliz, happy; and from the simple adverb mas, more, is formed the compound ademas, besides ; &c.
Adverbs are divided according to their meaning into several classes. Their chief divisions are into adverbs of place, time, manner, or quality, quan
tity, comparison, order, affirmation, negation, and doubt. The following are some of those which belong to each of the foregoing classes.
thither. Abaro, down. Allá, yonder. Delante, before. Cerca, near.
Detras, behind. Léjos, far.
Encima, upon. Donde, where. Debaro, under. &c. Adonde, whither.
Jamás, Ahora, now.
Ya, already. Luego, presently. Amenudo, often. Tarde, late.
Antes, before. Temprano,
Despues, after. &c.
N.B. To this class belong almost all the adverbs which end in mente.
Harto, sufficiently. &c. Demasiado, too much.
* To these may be added una vez, once ; dos reces, twice; tres veces, thrice; quatro veces, four times. &c.
+ See the author s Synonyms, page 31.
Of Comparison. Mas, more.
worse, Menos, less.
very Mejor, better.
Of Order. Primero, first.
| Despues, after. &c.
Of Afirmation. Aun,
Of Negation. No,
neither. &c. Ni,
Of Doubt. Acaso, perhaps. | Probablemente, probably.&c.
There are also many expressions which, from their having the same import as adverbs, have obtained the name of adverbial moods or expressions; such as hacia allí, towards there, or towards that place ; despues de mañana, after to-morrow; sin duda, indubitably. &c.
PREPOSITIONS. A Preposition is a part of speech which serves to show the relation which one word bears to another; as, En el país de los enemigos, In the enemy's country.
The following are the principal prepositions in Spanish : A, to or at. Hácia,
towards, Ante, before. Hasta,
till. Con, with. Para,
for. Contra, against.
by or for. of or from.
Segun, according to. Desde, from.
without. En, in.
Sobre, upon. Entre, between.
A Conjunction has been defined to be that part of speech which connects words and sentences together; as, La justicia y la misericordia son atributos divinos, Justice and mercy are divine attributes; Iré á verle, y se lo preguntaré, I shall go to see him, and will ask him about it.
The Spanish Academy has distributed conjunctions into the following classes :
Conjunctive :-as, y,* and; ni, nor ; que, that. Example, Pedro y Juan, Peter and John; No salieron ni Pedro ni Juan, Neither Peter nor John went out. N.B. When the sentence begins with no, the first ni may be left out.
Disjunctive :-as, 0,* or, either; as Vendrá el hombre ó la muger, The man or the woman will
Conditional :-as, si, if ; como, as; con tal que, provided that. Example, Si aspiras á ser docto, estudia, If thou dost aspire to be learned, study.
Causal :—as, porque, because ; pues, puesque, since. Example, No puedo ir, porque estoy coxo, I cannot go, because I am lame; Pues me lo preguntas, te lo contaré, Since thou askest me about it, I will relate it to thee.
Continuative:—as, pues, then; puesto que, since. Example, Digo pues que salió de aquel peligro, I say then that he came out of that danger.
Comparative :-as, como, as; así, so; así como, as. Example, Blanco como la nieve, White as snow ; Así como lo digo, así lo aprendi, As I say it, so I learned it.
* é is substituted for y when the word following the conjunction begins with i, or with hi ; as, malicia é ignorancia, Padre e hijo. We also exchange ó for ú, when the word following begins with ano: as, ondas ú olas ; corderos u ovejas.
Adversative :-as, mas, pero, but; aunque, though. Example, Quisiera ir, mas no puedo, Í should like to go, but I cannot; Es rico, pero no dichoso, He is rich, but not happy.
Objective :as, paru que, that, or in order that ; afin de que, to the end that; Example, Te lo digo para que se lo escribas, I tell it thee that thou mayst write it to him.
Those conjunctions which contain only one word, as, como, pero, &c. are called simple ; and those which are formed with different words, as, asi como, para que, &c. are denominated compound conjunctions.
OF INTERJECTIONS. An Interjection is a part of speech which expresses some emotion of the mind; as, ola! holla! chito ! hush ! ay ! oh! &c.
The ten parts of speech which have been explained, comprise all the different species of words of which the Spanish language is composed : every word therefore in the language must necessarily be referred to some one of these ten divisions : but as words are always attached to these ten classes according to their import in the sentence, a word may be made to vary its class according to the various manners in which it is used: hence el and tú (the and thou, the one an article and the other a pronoun) may both be made to stand in the place of nouns; as is the case in the following sentences : No puedo pronunciar el bien, I cannot pronounce the well; No sé el accusativo de tú, I do not know the accusative of thou. The same word may be also found as an adjective or adverb according to the manner in which it is employed: thus, in un hombre baxo de cuerpo, a man low in stature, low is in both languages an adjective; but, in hable vm. baxo, speak low, the adjective becomes