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A practical vocabulary
Of Spanish versification .
PART THE FIRST:
SPANISH GRAMMAR is the art of speaking and of writing the Spanish Language according to certain established rules. It is divided into OrthoGRAPHY, PROSODY,* ETYMOLOGY, and Syntax.
ORTHOGRAPHY treats on letters, and shows their sound, power, and proper combination, in order to forın syllables or words.
A letter is the least division of a word.
The Spanish alphabet is composed of the following characters :
A, B, C, CH, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, LL, M, N, Ñ, Ó, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, X, Y, Z.
* This is generally reckoned the fourth division of grammar; but as what will be observed concerning it will materially assist beginDers, it has been thought expedient to introduce it before Etymology.
Łetters are divided into vowels and consonants,
Vowels are those letters which contain a perfect sound in themselves.
Consonants are those letters whose sound cannot be uttered without the assistance of the vowels.
The Spanish vowels are A, E, I, O, U; and the rest are consonants.*
Consonants are divided into Mutes and Semivowels.
The Mutes are those the sound of which begins with themselves, that is to say, when their sound is exhibited in writing, the vowel is placed last. They are B, C, CH, D, G, J, K, P, Q, T, V, Z.See names of the letters.
The Semivowels are those consonants, whose sound begins with the vowel; or, in other words, those letters, the sound of which cannot be shown in writing without placing the vowel before. They are F, H, L, LL, M, N, Ñ, R, S, X.--See names of the letters.
A Key to sound the Names of the Letters. art, ăcre, even, idiom, obey, oozy, charm, ham,
thank. Characters. Names. Characters. Names. A, a.
ălă. D, dă.
ănnia. H, âchă.
• The letter Y is sometimes a vowel and at others a consonant. In general it is a vowel when it follows another vowel, and a consonant when it precedes it.
Characters. Names. Characters. Names.
vă. R ără or årră. X, åkis. S, åsså.
Y T, tă.
Z, thătā. Explanation of the Key. The Italic characters of the key comprise the sound of the vowels, as well as the power of the consonants, which are employed to utter the names of the Spanish letters; therefore, by a correct reference to the key, the letters may be easily named. Example : suppose the name of h is required; by comparing the letters acha,descriptive of its name, with the same letters in the key, it will be found that the first a sounds as in art, that ch has the same power as in the word charm, and that the last a has the sound which is heard in acre. Again, by comparing hota, the name of J, in the same manner, it will be perceived that the h is aspirated as in ham, theo long as in obey, and the last a as heard in art. Those consonants which are not in Italics in the column of names are to be sounded as in English. On the Sound of the Letters.
A. A, as before observed, sounds as in the word art ; as ama, nata.
B. B always preserves the same sound that it has in English ; as bata, bala. In sounding this letter the Spaniards do not press the lips hard, but only join them close; see also V.
C. C (1.) sounds as k where it does so in English; as cabo, cola, cutis, clara, craso.
(2.). When in English it has the sound of s, it sounds in Spanish like th in thanks; as cebo, cinco.