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iron Valon,

a Walloon Yerro,


a large bale Hita,

a brad-nail Vaqueta, sole leather Ita, eta Baqueta,

a ram-rod Hojear, to turn over the Varon, a male human beleaves of a book

ing Ojear, to glance at Baron,

a baron Ogear, to start game Varonia, descent by male Hola! hallo!

issue Ola,

a wave Baronia, a barony Hondas, slings Vasto,

extensive Ondas,

billows Basto, Huso, a spindle Vendicion,

a sale Uso,

usage Bendicion, a blessing Rchelarse,

to rebel Veneficar, to envenom Revelarse, to reveal Beneficar, to benefit Ribera,

a shore Venéfico, Rivera,

a rivulet Benéfico, beneficent Sujeto,

subjected Veta, a mineral vein Sugeto, a person Beta,

a rope's-end Valar, to hedge round Volada, the flight of birds Balar,

to bleat Bolada, the act of bowling



Observations on the manner in which Words that cannot be contained in one line are to be divided.

Compound words are to be divided into their two component parts: as ab-negacion, con-cavidad, pre-ámbulo, mal-rotar.

When the second component part of a word begins with s followed by another consonant, the s belongs to the first part; as cons-truir, ins-pirar, pers-picaz.

Two vowels coming together must be parted; as Sa-avedra, le-er, pi-ísimo, co-operar.

A consonant coming between two vowels belongs to the vowel by which it is followed ; as a-mor, pe-na, le-che, ga-llo,* flu-xíon.

* Ch and I are deemed only single consonants

Two consonants coming between two vowels are divided : as al-zar, cas-tor, már-tir.

But should the first consonant be the semivowel f, or any of the mutes, and the second l or r, both the consonants are then joined to the vowel by which they are followed : as azu-fre, ta-bla, co-bre, la-cre, an-drajo. Except at-leta, and at-lante.

When s is preceded by b, l, m, n, or r, and followed by another consonant at the same time, s must be joined to the consonant by which it is preceded : as Ams-terdam.

Four consonants coming between two vowels are equally divided between them : as trans-cribir.

Of some of the Marks used in Punctuation.

Note of interrogation (?). This mark is not only used at the conclusion of an interrogatory; but also placed, inverted, at the beginning, in order to warn the reader, unless the preceding words convey a sufficient warning ; as ¿Qué es lo que vm. acostumbra comer ? preguntó al enfermo.-Gil Blas, b. ii. c. 2.

Ahora bien me preguntó friamente el chalan, quanto pide vm. por su mula ?-Ibid. b. i. c. 1.

Note of admiration (!). This note is also inverted at the beginning of ejaculations, when the preceding words are not sufficient to prepare the reader: as, Mirandome con ternura exclamaba, O qué gracioso eres y que lindo! (Ibid. b. i. c. 5.) ; Pastas dulces y viandas suculentas ! exclamó suspenso y admirado el doctor.-Ibid. b. ii. c. 2.

Diæresis (-). This is used only over the u of ue and ui, when the u is to be sounded, after gor q: as argüir, qüestion.

Circumflex (“). The only use made of this mark is to denote the soft sound of x, and the harsh sound of ch, by placing it over the following vowel; as Auxion, cxáctitud, Melchisedech.

The Accent(). Accent, in orthography, is the mark which is set over some letters to denote the inanner of their pronunciation. In Spanish it is commonly placed over that vowel on which the stress is laidin pronouncing a word, if it cannot be ascertained without it.

(1.) Monosyllables having only one signification are never accented; as cal, pan, coz, mal.

(2.) Monosyllables having more than one signification should be accented when they are more slowly pronounced : as , me; mi, my; , thou; tu, thy; él, he; el, the, &c.

(3.) The vowels á, é, ó, ú, when used either as prepositions or conjunctions, should always be accented: as voy á Londres, padre ó hijo,cruel é ingrato.

(4.) Dissyllables and polysyllables ending in a vowel, may be accented on any vowel (the penultima excepted) whereon the stress is laid ; as cántico, espíritu, santísimo, Bercebú, allá.

(5.) But if to some person of a verb ending in an accented vowel the case of a pronoun should be added, the accent must be continued although it fall on the penultima : as temi, temíle, enseñó, enseñóla, miró, miróme.

(6.) Dissyllables ending in a diphthong are never accented; as indio, Julio, agua, gloria, mutuo, fragüe.

All words which end in y must not be accented; as Paraguay, Rey, Comboy.

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(7.) Trisyllables and polysyllables ending in two vowels must be accented on whichever of the two vowels the stress happens to be laid ; as alegría, puntapié, ganzúa, continué : see No. 9.

Except the first and third persons singular of the imperfect of the indicative, and of the subjunctive ending in ia, which are never accented; as temid, amaria, sufria, &c.

(8.) Trisyllables and polysyllables ending in any of these diphthongs, ia, ie, io, ua, ue, uo, must be accented on any vowel (the penultima excepted) whereon the stress is laid.

(9.) Words ending in ae, ao, au, ea, eo, oa, oe, 00, (not being diphthongs, must not be accented; as pelea, Sarao, albacea : see Prosody, No. 7.

But should these two vowels form a diphthong, the word must be accented on whatever vowel the stress is laid ; as héroe, línea, etérea.

(10.) Words ending in a consonant may be accented on any of the vowels (except the last) whereon the stress is laid; as árbol, virgen, metamorfosis, alférez.

Except the second person singular and third plural of the future indicative, which are always accented on the last vowel; as amarás, vendrán, and surnames ending in ex, which never are accented; as Sanchez, Fernandez, Martinez.

(11.) Verbs or nouns which require to be accented in the singular generally retain the accent, on the same syllable, in the plural ; as vendré, vendremos, salió, salieron, árbol, árboles.

Except carácter, which changes into caractéres in the plural number.

(12.) If to an unaccented person of a verb, consisting only of two syllables, we affix one or more pronominal cases, the first vowel must be then accented; as oye, óyeme, compra, cómpramelo ; but if the person of the verb consist of more than two syllables, its penultima should be then accented ; as entrega, entrégalo, entrégaselo, comuniquemos, comuniquémoslo.

(13.) If an adverb ending in mente be formed from an unaccented adjective, the adverb remains unaccented; as feliz, felizmente, humilde, humildemente ; but should the adjective be accented, the accent continues on the same vowel in the ad. verb; as fácil, fácilmente, difícil, difícilmente, inútil, inútilmente.

(14.) If a dissyllabic word ending in two vowels be increased by the prefixing of a monosyllable, the penultima is then generally accented; as via, desvia, lia, deslía.

The other marks used in punctuation are employed in the same manner as they are in English.

Christian year

List of the Abbreviations used in Writing. A. C. Año Christiano as. arrobas

25 pounds weight Α. Α. autores

authors Admor. administrador administrator Agt. Agosto

August Amo amigo

friend Anto. Antonio

Anthony Appco. apostólico apostolic Arto. artículo

article Arzbpo. arzobispo archbishop B. beato

blessed b. vuelta

turn over bachiller

bachelor of arts B. L. M. beso las manos kiss the hands B. L. P. beso los pies kiss the feet Bmo. Pe beatíssimo lre most blessed Father C. M. B. cuyas manos beso whose hands I kiss C.P.B.

whose feet I kiss Cámra. cámara



cuyos pies beso

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