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Note a.-If these adjectives be followed by an infinitive, the same preposition must be used; as, bueno de comer, good to eat.

RULE 38. Numeral and ordinal adjectives, superlatives, relatives, interrogatives, and indefinites, as well as nouns used partitively, require also their regimen with de; as

Dos de los regimientos,
El primero de los dos,
El mejor de todos,
No sabiendo quien de
ellos hablaba,
¿Qual de las tres vende
vm. ?
Qualquiera de las hijas,

Muchos de los presentes,
Algunos de los oyentes,

Two of the regiments.
The first of the two.
The best of all.
Not knowing which of
them was the speaker.
Which of the three do
you sell?
Any one of the daugh-


Many of those present.
Some of the hearers.

Note a. The preposition de may be often changed into entre or de entre; as, uno de, or entre, or de entre, ellos, one of, or among, or from among, them.

RULE 39. Adjectives denoting fitness or unfitness govern their regimen with para; as

Apto para el empleo,
Impropio para su edad,
Benéfico para su salud,
Util para la patria,
Idoneo para todo,

Fit for the employment.
Improper for his age.
Beneficial to his health.
Useful for the country
Fit for every thing.

Note a.-If these adjectives be followed by an infinitive, it must be preceded by the preposition para; as, bueno para comer, fit to be


Note b.-Compatible and incompatible require their regimen with con; as, compatible con la justicia, consistent with justice; incompatible con el mando, inconsistent with the command.

RULE 40. Adjectives denoting facility or diffi culty require á before their regimen; as

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Note a-Fácil, dificil, separable, and inseparable, have always their regimen with de; as, fácil de digestion, easy of digestion ; inseparable de la virtud, inseparable from virtue.

Note b.-If the regimen of any of the foregoing adjectives be an infinitive, it must also be preceded by the same preposition: as, Vióse pues precisado á ponerme baxo la férula de un preceptor, (Gil Blas, ch. 1.) He saw himself then compelled to place me under the rod of a preceptor. Fácil de digerir, easy to be digested.

RULE 41. Adjectives denoting profit or disprofit, likeness or unlikeness, require á before their regimen; as

Provechoso á la salud, Advantageous to health.
Pernicioso á la juventud,
Semejante á su padre,
Igual á otros,
Inferior á su hermano,
Superior á sus hijos,
Conforme á su dictamen,

Pernicious to youth.
Like his father.
Equal to others.
Inferior to his brother.
Superior to his children.
Agreeable to his opinion.

Note a-Mayor and menor require de before their regimen. See Rule 31.

Note b.-Adjectives implying equality have sometimes their regimen with con; as, igual con otro, conforme con su opinion, &c.

RULE 42. Adjectives denoting proximity generally have their regimen with ά; as

Cercano á la muerte,

Inmediato á ella,

Vecino al palacio,

Junto á la casa,

Contiguo á la heredad,

Approaching death.
Close to her.
Adjacent to the palace.
Adjoining the house.
Contiguous to the estate.

Note a--If these adjectives have an infinitive for their regimen, he same preposition is employed; as, próximo á morir, near dying.

RULE 43. Adjectives generally de before their Distante de la Corte, Lojos de Londres,

denoting distance have regimen; as

Distant from Court.
Far from London

Note a.- -If the regimen be an infinitive, the same preposition must be used; as, Lejos de impacientarme con las prolixas relaciones de mi amo, far from becoming impatient with the tedious narrations of my master. Gil Blas, b. iv. ch. 2.

RULE 44. Adjectives denoting behaviour generally govern the noun to which it is directed with con; as Amoroso con los suyos,

Affectionate to his rela› tions.

Atento con sus mayores, Respectful towards his


Ingrato con los amigos, Ungrateful to his friends.


Many of the foregoing species of adjectives have their regimen with prepositions different from those which have been allotted to them in the foregoing examples, according to the sense in which they are taken : thus, for instance, the adjective áspero may have its regimen with á, de, en, or con; as

Una fruta áspera de sabor, A fruit with a rough (or harsh) taste. See Rule 31.

Un hombre áspero en sus costumbres, A man rough (or blunt) in his manners. See Rule 32.

Una piedra áspera al tacto, A stone rough (or uneven) to the touch. See Rule 33.

Un amo áspero con sus criados, A master rough (or rigid) with his domestics.

See Rule 44.

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N.B. Nosotros, vosotros, and ellos change the last o into a for the feminine termination.


The second person had formerly the termination vos also, which is now nearly exploded, being employed by Spaniards only in their addresses to persons in very exalted stations, or by those persons in their official documents; as, El rey vuestro tio dexará presto de vivir, y cos ocuparéis su lugar, The king your uncle will soon cease to live, and you will occupy his place. Gil Blas, b. iv. ch. 4. Por quanto vos Don Francisco Ximenez habeis executado, &c. Forasmuch as you Don Francis Ximenes have executed.

Place of the Pronouns.

RULE 45. The subject or nominative case precedes verbs which are not in the imperative, nor used interrogatively; as

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Note a. The subject is seldom expressed except when emphasis or the distinction of persons seems to require it; as, hablo, I speak ; leo, I read; saldré, I shall go out; and yo leeré, y tú escribiras, Í will read, and thou shall write; No era yo solo el que habia de caminar con el arriero, I was not the only one who was to travel with the car. rier. Gil Blas, ch. 3.

Note b.-Verbs are placed before their subject when they are used to introduce a quotation, or when the transposition adds to the energy of the sentence; as, Llora, hija, (le decia ella,) llora todo quanto puedas, Weep, child, (said she to her,) weep as much as you can. Gil Blas, ch. 10. No sabía yo que pensar de tal encuentro, I did not know what to think of such a meeting. Ibid. ch. 3.

Note c.-The English pronoun it is never translated before impersonal verbs; as, it rains, llueve; it will snow, nevará; it is impossible to believe it, es imposible creerlo; it will concern many, importará á muchos.

RULE 46. The objective case, when not preceded by a preposition, is affixed to infinitives, imperatives, and gerunds; as




Habiendola amado,

Dales algo,

Habiendoles dicho,

To love her.

Let us love her.
Loving her.

Having loved her.
Give them something.

Having said to them.

Note a. The terminations of the first and second persons plura. of verbs lose their final letter when they are followed by nos or os ; as, levantémonos, let us rise; sentáos, sit ye down.

RULE 47. Verbs which are not in the infinitive, imperative, or gerund, have generally the objective case prefixed; as

El me enseña,
Tú le instruyes,

Yo lo digo,

Ella nos ve,.
Nosotros los oimos,

Vosotros la amais,
Ella les dixo,

He teaches me.

Thou instructest him.

I say it.

She sees us.

We hear them.

Ye love her.

She said to them.

Note a.-The objective case may sometimes elegantly follow, but never when the sentence does not begin by the verb; as, llevóme á su casa quando, he carried me to his house when, &c.; amábame tiernamente entónces, and entónces me amaba tiernamente, he loved me tenderly then.


Note b. When one verb has another in the infinitive for its regimen, the objective case referring to the second verb may be always

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