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CHA P. II.

Means for preventing the future Power of the Roman Pontiff's. And that of

Aufria over the Countries composing the Republics on the North and South of the Po.-Moderation and Lenity of the French Republic to the Non-juring Clergy. At the same Time that their Bigotry and Super

Nilion are exposed to ridicule.-Excessive Rejoicings and Exultations of the French at the Successes of their Arms in Italy.-Jealousy, Envy, and ReJentment, againp Buonaparte.--Who uses Precautions for warding off the Effcêts of thefe, and gaining Popularity and Confidence, not only in France but Italy.---Moderation and Prudence of the Inhabitants of St. Marino.--Munificence of Buonaparte to that small Republic.--Prevalence of Republican Principles in Italy. - Honour paid there to the French and B1onaparte.--- Preparations of Aufiria, for disputing with the French the Empire of Italy.-- The Imperial Army in Italy, commanded by the Archduke Charles.-Attacked by the French, and forced to retreut.-Capture of Gradisca and Goritz.--Municipal Governments settled in both these Towns, on the Republican Plan.The Auftrians defeated with severe Loss near Tarvis.--- Audacious Spirit oj the French Prisoners of War.--The Infection of this Spirit dreaded by the Imperial Ministry.-A Division of the French Army, under Joubert, penetrates into the Tyrol.-Reduces most of the prong Forts of that Country. And gains other signal Ade vantages.-The French obtain Popefion of Brixen. Proclamations of Buonapurte, addrefjed to the Subjects of the Emperor.-The Auftrians obliged to abandon their Head-Quarters at Clagenfurth.-The French cross the Drave.--Farther Successes of the French, under Joubert, in the Tyrol.Remarkable Engagement betwecn the Austrians and French, in the Defiles leading to Newmarck.-The Aufrians continually defeated, but not difcouraged.-Confternation at Vienna.---But invincible Courage of the Auftrian and Hungarian Nobles.- Interesting Letter from Buonaparte to the Archduke Charles.--- And the Archduke's Answer.---Armistice between the Auftrians and French.--Honours and Praises beslowed by the French Directory on the Army.-

Reflections.
FTER humbling, or rather in- of never fuffering future pontiffs to

deed annihilating, in this man- to recover them. It had already ner, the powers and importance made an essential progress in this formerly annexed to the fee of bufiness, by formally approvjpg the Rome, the political views of the re- confederation of Reggio, Modena, public were directed to the means Bologna, and Ferrara. To these

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it now added Romagna, for the necessity of adhering faithfully to it purpose of forming a larger com- by those states that depend on it for monwealth, and assented to the pe- their preservation.

. tition of the people of the Milanese, In addition to these measures, and the other districts of Lombardy, others were taken, pot less conduwho were eager to follow that ex- cive to remove the charge of inhuample, by framing a republican manity against the French governcompact on a similar plan.

ment, than to prove of utility to it The union of intereits, which in other respects among the Italians. would, for many years, indiffolubly As the laws enacted in France connect these two republics, was against the refractory clergy, though the best security that they would condemning them to banishment, make a common cause against the did not forbid their residence in the restoration of either the Austrian or countries conquered by the French, the papal power; both which were Buonaparte, who fought upon all equally inimical to their newly ac- occasions to adopt measures of quired liberties, and would neglect lenity, availed himself of the powno opportunity of re lucing them to ers with which he was invested, to their former yoke. The French go- iffue a proclaination in favour of vernment, having resolved to ac- these exiles. Herein he granted cede to no pacification that should them a formal permission to reside in replace these countries in the por- those parts of the pope's domisession of two such inveterate ene- nions, i hat had been subdued by the mies as Rome and Austria, was armies of the republic. The French equally studious to enable them, by troops were strictly forbidden to iilproper arrangements among them- use, or infult them, and the inhabiselves, to acquire a degree of tants of the country of all descripstrength fushcient to maintain the tions were laid under the same rerepublican government they had ftrictions. These refugees were to erected, against the efforts which be provided with all the necessaries would be made to subvert it by of life, at the expence of the conany Italian power. The population vents appointed for their refidence. of the countries on the north and They were in return enjoined to south of the Po, that composed the take an oath of fidelity to the two republics, was computed at up- French government. wards of four millions. This was mission extended not only to those, amply adequate to their defence emigrant clergymen who had alagainst their neighbours, without ready taken refuge in the papal ter. requiring the aflistance of France, ritories occupied by the republic, which would only be needed to pro-, but also to those remaining in France, tect them from the hostile designs of that were desirous of availing theme Austria ; and in this case they would selves of the like indulgence. thortly be in a condition to cu- This regulation was highly conoperate effectually in refifting ciliatory to those numbers of ecclethem. Thus the influence of France, fiastics, who, though disapproving in Italy, would henceforth be esta- .of the changes effected in politics blithed on the surest foundation, the and religious affairs in France, still

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could not avoid feeling for their their enemies that thirst of revenge
country, and being defirous of its could produce.
welfare and reputation. Though There was, however, a circum-
it had banished them, through ap- stance that diminished the satif
prehensions of danger from their faction, enjoyed by the people, at the
principles, yet the prefent measure triumphs of the French armies. It
shewed that it had not divested it was in the contemplation of many,
self of all consideration for them. to beltow upon the commander-in-
The priests did not forget the ser- chief such a remuneration, as might
vice thus rendered them. However conspicuously perpetuate the re-
ayerse to the system established in membrance of his victories. This
their country, they still evinced, on

was to conser upon him the title of several occafions, an attachment to Italicus, in imitation of the preceits interests, and a readiness 10 for- dents in ancient Rome, and in some ward them as far as their conici- modern states. All parties agreed in ences would permit.

acknowleriging the extraordinary But while Buonaparte was intent nicrit of Buonaparte, and the wonon mitigating the rigour exercifed on derful acions he had performed. the non-juring clergy, the French di- But there was also a party, which, rectorv took no lels care to lay before though it did not deny the greatnes the inspection of the public, fundry of his exploits, did not however coobjects of the fuperftitious veneration incide in the propriety of such a reof those ignorant and creduleus mul- compense. They either thought, titudes, over whoin they fill re- or preiended to think, it inconiift. tained so much influence. Thoté ent with those maxims of fimplicity objects were the principal relice con- in rewards, that had hitherto diftina tained in the church of Loretto. guilled the republican government. They were transınitted to France, in This furmise was deemed, by a great order to be exposed to derifion, and part of the public, to be founded in to lefen, by their evident abfurdity, envy more than in truth, and proo the respect and credit of the Romiili ceeding from the royal rather than clergy, as abettors, either through the republican party. The hopes bigotry or hypocrisy, of those of those that longed for the return equally hameful and ridiculous im- of monarchy were fo enfeebled by pofitions,

the events of the campaign of In the mean time, the rejoicings Italy, that they could not disguise and exultation of the French, at the their grief. It was not from them capture of Mantua, and the con- the author of these events could extinual successes of iheir arms in pect to be rewarded for what they Italy, filled every part of the French would have been better pleased republic. The speeches that were thai he had never performed. , pronounced on this occasion, in the Thus a distinction, which the macouncil of five hundred, and in that jority of people asserted he had of the ancients, contained all the highly deserved, was withheld from applause of their soldiers and com- him, through relentment and envy, manders that enthusiasm could in- by the intrigues of the enemies to {pire, and all the reprobation of the republic, under pretence of

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acting conformably to its princi-' among the French, but among the ples.

Italians, who had hitherto experiThe indifference testified on this enced little of that condescension, and on some preceding occafions, at especially from the Germans, whe the successes of Buona parte and his feldom studied to make their authocompanions in arms, produced both rity acceptable among the ratives. in him and them a luspicion, that T French commander never malevolent deligns were harboured omitted any opportunity of ingratiagainst the republic; and that, not- ating himself either in his private withstanding the warmth expressed or public intercourse, for either of by the numerous majority in its fi- which he was equally qualified, by vour; a secret party was forming his education and the politeness ofhis that consisted of men equally artful

manners. The infiuence he had acand persevering, who would em- quired, by these means, poffibly was ploy every pollible method of de- not inferior to that which he had preciating the services rendered to obtained by his exploits. These it, and who were at the fame time made him dreaded, but the others so thoroughly determined to effect procured him efteem and attachtheir purposes, that no obstacles ment. The folicitude he had mani. could weary out their patience in lested, in effecting and consolidating striving to compass them.

the federal union between the reFrom this persuasion of their com- publics, of which he had encoumander-in-chief and his officers, raged the foundation, had, more than arose the repeated aflurances of in- any other circumstance, railed his violable attachment and fidelity to fame and credit among the Italian the existing government. They politicians, who had long withed for thought them neceflary to impose a

the revival of luch systems in their restraint upon its opposers, and to country, recollecting how much it deter them from the attempts they had formerly flourished under them. might be meditating, by letting

In compliance with this dispothem see how refolutely and ef. fition, which was now become very lectually they would be refifted. general in Italy, and to give it

In order to conciliate the minds every poflible countenance and enof all people to the republic, Buona- couragement, the French command. parte had been particularly folicitoas, er, while on the papal territories, ever fince his appointment to the availed himself of that opportunity supreme command of the French to take respectful notice of the little army in Italy, to distinguish hin:self but ancient commonwealth of St. Maby a punctual observance of all those rino, tituated in the dutchy of Urmaxims, on which the zealous and bino. He deputed thither citizen fincere republicans chiefly prided Monge, one of the commissioners of themselves. He cautiously avoided arts, and a member of the national all oftentation, and in his personal inftitule, a man of genius and knowdemeanour readily put himself on ledge. The commissioner made a a footing of perfect equality with {peech to the people of St. Marino, all perfons of decent situations in which seemed to be intended as an fociety. Hence he had made him- address to all Italy, and indeed to all lelf a number of friends, not only Europe. He observed that liberty,

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which had transformed the ancient clined those offers of addition to Greeks and Romans into heroes, and their small territory, which had had, in latter ages, revived the arts been made by the French com-' and sciences in the republics of Italy, miffioner, telling him, that fimhad, while nearly banished from the plicity of manners, and the enjoyface of Europe, ftill existed in ment of liberty, were the best inSt. Marino, where, by the wifom of heritance transmitted to them by the

government, and the virtue of their ancestors; and that, content. the people, it had been preserved with their mediocrity, they dreaded for centuries. The French tvo, he aggrandisement, as dangerous to said, after a whole age of know. their freedom. The only request ledge, had at length perceived their they would make was the protection own flavery, and asserted their free- of France. dom. But the powers of Europe, The moderation and prudence of fhutting their eyes to the interest of the inhabitants of this little repubmankind, had confederated against lic was juftly rewarded by the muthe liberty of France, and thought nificence of the French commander. to partition it among them. The He presented it with four pieces of French were assailed on all their cannon, in the name of the French frontiers; and what most aggravated ropublic. He exempted their poftheir calamities, many of their own sessions in the Romagna, from all countrymen united with the enemy contributions, and refused the tento distress them. But they stood der of payment for a considerable firm in the midst of all dangers, and quantity of corn, of which he gegradually overcame all their ene- nerously made them a donation. mies. Some were glad to relinquish Buonaparte had not only figna, the confederacy, and others were lized himself by feats of arms: he compelled to sue for peace. Jea. had equally succeeded in that object Jousý, pride, and hatred, kept to- which was requisite for the comgether their remaining foes. The plete attainment of the purposes of French had, in the course of the his expedition. These were to represent campaign, destroyed four volutionize the minds of the Italians, Austrian armies; but the enemy still the better to fit them for those rejected peace. The commissioner changes in their various govern-. then allured the people of St. Ma- ments, that would assimilate them kino of peace and friendship on to the system established in France. the part of France. Were any of Republican principles had taken their possessions to be disputed, or any forcible root in many, if not of most adjacent territory necessary to their of those places fubdued by the well-being, they might freely apply French, or rather torn from their to the good offices of the republic. former owners, for the emancipa· The answer to this address was tion of the nations, to speak the respectful and temperate. After ex- language of thefe as well as of the pressing those sentimenis of admira- French themselves, who boasted cion, at the valour and heroism of that, contrarily to the practice of, the French general and his army, to crowned heads, they conquered for which they were juftly intituled, the the benefit of mankind at large, and citizens of St. Marino modestly de fought no other emolument from

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