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had no difficulty in assenting, though ciation the fonction of its vote. perhaps he would not agree with But it seems the French will be enihe minister as to the extent to couraged if this ho:fe should interwhich that principle might be car- fere and didate to the executive goried. The present question was vernment. Will they really think nut, whether any minifier, under worse of your energy, if they find any circumstances, thould have the that you are determined to take your confidence of the house, during a own affairs into your own lands, negociation, but whether the pre- inftead of confiding to the present fent minifter, under the prefent ministers. Will they really expect circumstances, thould poffefs that to make better terms of peace with confidence? A motion was made the people of England, speaking to for peace, by an honourable gen- them through the medium of repretleman (Mr. Wilberforce) two years fentatives, than with the present ago. What was the language then? executive government? Do they ex“ Do not vote for this propofition, peci more real care of the interest of blit trust in me.” He prevailed the people of England from a reignwith this house to do then what he ing faction, than from the people alks you to do now; to confide in themselves, speaking through the mebis fincerity. After a considerable dium of their representatives? I aplapse of time, a negociation was at prehend the contrary; and that, as last attempted, through the medi- we should expect more justice from um of Mr. Wickham, and after- the French people themselves, than wards carried on by the embassy of we do of any faction among them, so lord Malmesbury. This negociation would they from the people of Great became a subject of discussion in Britain; and, in that view, I nould this house, which was told, after hope, that neither the republic of every means had been made use of France would be hostile to Great Brito evade all measures that could lead tain, nor the limited monarchy of this to any serious negociation, that there country be hostile to the just claims was not a heart in England so “pro- and true interests of the republic of fligate as to wish, nor a hand fo France. I will to know what betdastardly as to sign, nor a man to be ter pledge you could give of sincerifound fo degenerate, as to be the ty to France, in your desire for peace, courier of a commission to be sent than to tell them, by a vote of the to France, to stipulate for peace.”

house of commons, that you are We have tried our executive go- willing to negociate: and' what is vernment enough, said Mr. Fox, to more likely to lead to a restoration be confident we can do no good to of tranquillity, upon a solid and perour country, by trying such means manent loundation? any longer. Let us now try means Colonel Fullarton observed, that that we have not tried. My opinion the prefent question, stripped of all is, that, let who will be the negocia- diplomatic ambiguity, food exactly tors for peace, certainly, still more thus: is this country prepared to if the present ministers are to be admit, that Belgium ihall not be rethe negociators, the chance of ob- ftored to the emperor, and that the taining it will be infinitely increased, Rhine shall be the boundary of if parliament should give that nego- France? If not, the French will

answer, OF EUROPE. (175 answer, come and take Belgium. Auftria and England. If the French These are not times for entrusting lofe all hope of detaching thefe the most important interests of the powers from each other, they can country to plenipotentiaries who no longer have the same object lest entrench themselves behind the for perfisting in that policy; at ramparts of etiquette, and ftalk on least, it may no longer be impracthe stilts of ambaladorial miyltiness. ticable to devise means for bringing Undoubtedly, every returning len- them to treat on general principles timent of mutual forbearance and and collective arrangements. This amity ought, by every practicable can hardly be effected without a mode, to be encouraged. Per- congress, in some form or cther. haps, with this view, no better Under this impression, he would beacon or directory can be found, take the liberty of reading such a in the annals of negociation, than form of relolutions as he conceived the conduct of our Indian govern-, would meet the object in view, not ment, in the year 1781, when meaning, however, at all, to press French, Dutch, Mysoreans, and all, them on the house at present: were in arms against the English; Resolved, “ That it is the opiand our interest in the east were, nion of this house, that, whenever if poflible, more nnprosperous than a proper opportunity, occurs, the they are at present on the con- moit eligible mode of establisining tinent of Enrope. An honourable the tranquillity of Europe, on a lebaronet, now a member of this cure foundation, will be, by assemhouse, then second in council, and bling a general congress, such as afterwards governor-general in In- took place last century, previous to dia, in conjuction with lord Mac- the peace of Munster. That the artney and fir Eyre Coote, inti- object of this congress ought to be, mated to the Mahrattas, that, unless to specify and declare to all manin so far as might be necessary to kind the principles of right and support existing engagements with wrong, which onght to govern allies, the Englim government was the relations between independent determined, that their operations states; to fpecify and declare to all against the Mahrattas should be na- mankind the principles of security, val

, and defensive merely. This property, and public credit, which they intimated to the Poonah go- it is necessary to recognize, and renvernment, and, from that moment, der effectual, before any pacificanot a lot was fired between the tion can be negociated with stability Mahrattas and the English. There or honour. is one point, which muit not be “ In the event of the Belligerent omitted. It is well known, that powers not acceding to this opinion, the French, from the commence- it will become this house to make ment of the war, have resisted all known the grounds on which the ideas of treating collectively with war is continued, to ascertain the the confederated powers : in fo form on which it is to be conducted, doing, they have proved their wif- and to declare the principles on dom; for, by treating individually, which a cession of hoitilities ought they have detached every power to be concluded, on the part of his from the confederacy excepting Britannic majeily."

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Sir William Pultney faid, that ally declared its respect for personal what the parliament and the nation fafety, property, and morals, and has Thould require was not so much an denounced vengeance against the immediate peace, as a secure one: anarchists. It has likewise maniand this object would be accom- fested an appearance of a wish for plished by patience under our fuffer- peace. It is for the French nation ings, and perseverance in the con- to realize the peace, of which their telt. As long as the enemy, re- new government speaks to them tained Belgium and Holland there with eautious reserve. And this obcould be no security for England. ject, a frank declaration on the part Now was the moment to strain every of the people of England, through hierve in the firuggle; and he was their representatives, of a fincere more fearsul that ministers would be disposition to peace, on a fair moral too forward than too tardy in bring- basis, equally conducive to the secuing matters to a termination. His rity and welfare of both nations, by complaint against them was that, on awakening the fenfibility, and gainhearing the disasters that had be- ing the confidence of the French nafallen The Imperial arms, they had tion, would materially tend to fornot immediately come down to the ward. The basis to which he alluded house, and called for a loan to invi- was a due regard to justice, private gorate the brave exertions of our property, public credit, and the illuftrious ally.

rights of nations. It was time for the Sir John Macpherson spoke to the English nation to open their eyes on following effect. He thought that it the true objeet of the war : an obwould not be a greater proof of mo- ject which ought to be as remote deration and justice, than of found from the spirit of vengeance, as political wisdom, to declare that we that of conquest. It points, on the stood up only in defence of our own contrary, to a reasonable agreement rights and liberties, and not for the between the belligerent states; an purpose of encroaching on those of agreement dictated by the force of other nations. He was anxious that their wants, and founded on the insuch a declaration should be made, dispensable protection of the right not only because it would contribute of property, without which no to give peace to this country, but to state can be certain of providing all Europe, and among other na- for the subsistence of its subjects, tions, even to our enemies. Thein- nor of maintaining the security of terests of Britain would be best pro- its civil order. Commerce and moted by consulting not onlv our modern finance having intermingled own advantage, but that of all the all property, even that of nations, civilized world: by endeavouring it follows that public credit has benot only to obtain from, but to ex- come the universal depofitary of tend to France, a just, honourable, civilized society. There is only one and solid peace. The French go- . property, and one real finance in vernment has ceased to be an incen- Europe, the circulation of which diary assembly, fanguinary dictators, is as essential to the political body, and a club of plunderers. It has as that of the blood to the human assumed the form and the tone of body: it was a violation of the regular governments. It has officie right of property that produced the

affignats, allignats, and the alignats that pro- the calamities of war did not rest duced the revolution, with all the with Great Britain. To a motion mileriès suffered by France, and in- of this tendency, he did not fee ficted on her neighbours. To lhew why any objection should be made a disposition, even a zeal for the by either side of the house: as it settlement of a government in

was calculated to procure an ellenFrance, that should respect the tial advantage to the country, while rights of men and nations, would not it contributed to strengthen the be a greater bleffing to that country, hands of government. On these than to all Europe. The motion grounds, he thought himself jufbefore the house had a happy ten- tified in supporting the present modency to harmonize the great body tion. of the French and English people Mr. Johnes could never forget the (who could not be said properly to ignominiousmanner in which ourambe at war with each other, though bassador had been dismissed, nor fortheir governments were) into peace give the insult offered to the nation. and good neighbourhood, by dif- The objects for which we contended countenancing and disapproving the were, our liberties, our fortunes, infinuations of insincerity, on the our religion, our God, and our part of this country, in the late ne- king! On a division of the house, gociation. It would affist ministers, there appeared for Mr. Pollen's moi proving that the prolongation of tion, 85: against it, 291.

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VOL. XXXIX.

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CHAP

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Sir William Pultney said, that ally declared its respect for personal what the parliament and the nation safety, property, and morals, and has should require was not so much an denounced vengeance against the immediate peace, as a secure one: anarchists. It has likewise maniand this object would be accom- tested an appearance of a wish for plished by patience under our suffer- peace. It is for the French nation ings, and perseverance in the con- to realize the peace, of which their test. As long as the enemy, re- new government speaks to them tained Belgium and Holland there with cautious reserve. And this obcould be no fecurity for England. ject, a frank declaration on the part Now was the moment to strain every of the people of England, through nerve in the ftruggle; and he was their representatives, of a fincere fiore fearsul that mmisters would be disposition to peace, on a fair moral too forward than too tardy in bring- balis, equally conducive to the secuing matters to a termination. His rity and welfare of both nations, by complaint against them was that, on awakening the fenfibility, and gainhearing the disasters that had be- ing the confidence of the French nafallen the Imperial arms, they had tion, would materially tend to fornot immediately come down to the ward. The basis to which he alluded - house, and called for a loan to invi- was a due regard to justice, private gorate the brave exertions of oor property, public credit, and the illustrious ally

rights of nations. It was time for the Sir John Macpherson spoke to the English nation to open their eyes on following effect. He thought that it the true object of the war : an obwould not be a greater proof of mo- ject which ought to be as remote deration and justice, than of sound from the spirit of vengeance, as political wisdom, to declare that we that of conqueft. It points, on the stood up only in defence of our own contrary, to a reasonable agreement rights and liberties, and not for the between the belligerent states; an purpose of encroaching on those of agreement dictated by the force of other nations. He was anxious that their wants, and founded on the insuch a declaration should be made, dispensable protection of the right not only because it would contribute of property, without which no to give peace to this country, but to state can be certain of providing all Europe, and among other na- for the fubfiftence of its subjects, tions, evento our enemies. Thein- nor of maintaining the security of terests of Britain would be best pro- its civil order. Commerce and moted by consulting not onlv our modern finance having intermingled own advantage, but that of all the all property, even that of nations, civilized world: by endeavouring it follows that public credit has benot only to obtain from, but to ex- come the universal depofitary of tend to France, a juft, honourable, civilized society. There is only one and solid peace. The French go- . property, and one real finance in vernment has ceased to be an incen- Europe, the circulation of which diary assembly, sanguinary dictators, is as essential to the political body, and a club of plunderers. It has as that of the blood to the human assumed the form and the tone of body: it was a violation of the regular governments. It has officie right of property that produced the

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