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arguments and reasonings are built nion, absurd to oppose in the debion maxims of policy, and those litated state of the papal power, of religion appear in a collateral and from whom friendly conditions light, and chiefly as of an engine might be obtained, if they were of state.
applied to with frankness and canFrom this lett which was dated dour, and if the intrigues hitherto the seventh of January, 1797, Buo- carried on with their enemies were naparte deduced, however, the pro- unfeignedly laid aside. priety of proceeding immediately
Those who favoured this party, to action against the pope, lest the which was the most numerous, filled Austrian minifiry Nould adopt the Rome with pasquinaries and satires plan fuggefted in that letter, and on the conduct of adminiftration, send fuch powerful fuccours, over which they represented as contrary the Adriatic, to Ancona, as might to the true interests of the Roman enable the pope to make a vigorous see, and tending to its inevitable resistance.
ruin. The present pope being the But it was not only among the fixth of the name of Pius, they French that the Roman see had applied to him what had formerly enemies. In Rome itself they were been said of Alexander the fixth,
Republican principles which was, that every sovereign of had filently, but effectually, been Rome, who had borne the name of propagated there, and through other Sextus, had constantly occafioned its parts of the ecclefiaftical state, and ruin. Remonftrances of the inmultitudes were impatiently wait- utility and peril of encountering ing the opportunity of throwing off such formidable enemies as the their subjection to the pope, and of French, with undisciplined troops, erecting a common
onwealth. Encou- and inexperienced officers, were ragements, tending to this end, were anxiously laid before the Roman goftudiously held out to the people of vernment, by its most prudent wellthat capital, and of the Roman do- withers, and enforced by the minimains, by the French emissaries sters of those powers that were desifcattered among them. Thus the rous of its preservation. But whecourt of Rome had to guard againft ther it confided in a change of forenemies no less hostile to it than tune, in favour of its Austrian ally, the French themselves, and, in some or that it hoped, by asuming an aprespects, more dangerous, as they pearance of refolution, and being were domestic, and would oppole seconded by a powerful body of all conciliation with France, as mi- auxiliaries, the French might be inlitating directly against their own duced to grant better terms, it obdesigns.
stinately perfifted in the determiIn addition to these there were nation to try the chance of war, many among those who continued rather than submit to the hard obedient to the papal authority, conditions prefcribed by the and were averse to a change of go
French. vernment, who scrupled not, open- Buonaparte, who had hitherto enly, to disapprove the tardiness in tertained an expectation, that the coming to a pacification with the terror of the French arms might at French; whom it were, in their opi- last operate a submision in the court
of Rome, now finally resolved to these declarations were published on employ hostile measures. He or- the third of February, the day after dered Cacault, the envoy of the re- the surrender of 'Mantua, and public at Rome, to quit that city, had been delayed till this event, and issued a manifesto against the purposely to make the greater impope, wherein he charged him with pression. the breach of the armistice that had A division of the French army, taken place in the month of June commanded by general Victor, had preceding; notwithstanding which entered the papal territories on the he had still persevered in acting an first. A body of the pope's troops, hoftile part to France, by exciting consisting of four thousand foot, and against it the hatred of his own about a thousand horse, awaited his people, and of all over whom he approach on advantagenus ground. poffeffed influence, by arming his sub- The Senio, a river that runs between jects, with a professed design to com- Imola and Faenza, was in the front mit hoftilities, by negociating with of the camp, which was strongly inthe court of Vienna, anil putting trenched. Early in the morning of his troops under the command of the second of February, the French Auftrian officers and generals, and advanced towards a bridge oppolite lastly by refusing the negociation to the centre of their front. It was for peace, proposed by the minister the only one remaining, as they had of the republic at Roine.
broken down all the others, in order This manifesto was accompanied to have only this one to defend. by a proclamation to the people in- But the dryness of the season had habiting the papal dominions. They rendered that river fordable in fewere informed that the French, in veral places, at which large deentering the territories of the pope, tachments of the French croíled would faithfully protect religion over it, and came upon their rear, and property, and maintain the while their front was vigorously atpublic peace. They were warned tacked by the legion of Lombardy, to abstain from all acts of enmity, consisting of northern Italians, which would certainly draw down whose antipathy to the southern is upon them vengeance and all the remarkable. They had requefted horrors of war. Every town and to be put upon this service; and, village that founded the tochin, on though it was the first time they the approach of the French, was were in action, they acquitted threatened with instant destruction. themselves with great valour. They Every district, where a Frenchman broke the line of the papal army, was assassinated, should be declared and carried the batteries opposed hoftile, and subjected to heavy con- to thein, at the point of the bayonet. tributions. The clergy and con. Prefled in this manner, both in front ventuals, who demeaned themselves and rear, the pope's troops, after peaceably, would enjoy the bene- defence, by no means contemptible fits of their present situations; but, for men so unused to tactics, were if they acted otherwise, military completely routed. Five hundred law would be executed upon them, were Nain and wounded, and about and they would be treated with a thousand made prisoners, and fourmore severity than others. Both of teen pieces of cannca taken. The
loss of the French did not exceed papal troops, and where some of one hundred.
them had lost their lives. This engagement decided the fate After delivering this charge to of Rome : the victors proceeded the clergy of the places in his pofimmediately to Faenza, the inha- seslion, he dispatched the chiefs of bitants of which attempted to make the monastic orders to those towns a refiftance: but the gates being and districts, where they, had most inburst open, by cannon, the French fluence, in order to prevail upon rushed in, and the city surrendered them to remain quiet, on the foat discretion. Buonaparte prevented lemn assurance of being left to the all plunder and bloodshed, and dif- full enjoyment of every civil and remissed fifty of his most confiderable ligious right; but, if refractory, on prisoners, ordering them to repair to pain of being delivered up to piltheir countrymen, and reprelent to lage and the leverest chastisement. them the folly of exposing them- This charge, from a military moselves to certain destruction, by a nitor, was found more efficacious fruitless resistance. He next lüm- than the usual charges of bishops moned before him all the priests to the clergy. The promises and and morks in the neighbourhood, threats of Buona parte produced and laid before them the necessity of the intended effect. yielding to superior force, and the to procure the fubunision of the iniquity of exciting the animosity of subjects to the fee of Rome, withthe people against the French, who out effusion of blood. Being himdid not come to destroy their re- felf an Italian, he was peculiarly foligion, but to compel the court of licitous to obtain a character of hu- . Rome to make a peace with France manity among his countrymen, and upon reasonable termis.
to appear, at the same time, the proquired them, as ministers of the tecior of their laws and religious gospel, to defift from preaching war, eliablishments
. He completely fucand to attend solely to the duties of ceeded in both of these intentions : their profession, which was to infuse and though executing the orders of a pacific disposition into all men. the directory, at the head of an He lastly warned them to beware of army of Frenchmen, a people long participating in popular insur- odious to the Italians, he conduđed rections, either by heading them himself with so much prudence and personally, or by giving them coun- circumspection, as to command the tenance. These were acts of crimi- respect and esteem of the latter, nalty for which he folemnly afured without losing any of the attachthem they would find no mercy.
ment and confidence of the forThese admonitions were, by the French commander, deemed the In the mean time, he proceeded more necessary, that several clergy- without delay in the reduciion of men and friers had been present at the papal dominions. the action of the second of Febru- were luficient to take pofleffion of ary, on the Senio, where they greatly the provinces of Romagna, Urbino, contributed, by their encourage- and Ancona, the best countries rements and exhortations, to the re- maining to the pope. The city of fiitance and firm behaviour of the Ancona had made some prepara,
A few days
tions for detence. A
near He specified that five days would be two thoutand men had been posted allowed him to conclude a peace, on the high grounds that command for which purpole he would meet the accels to this important place, the persons commissioned to towards the land; but the French gociate it at a place which he apgeneral, Victor, found means to fur- pointed. round them, and they surrendered The fituation of the pope, dea without resistance.
prived of all hope of affistance from The next place of confideration any quarter, and relinquished even that fell into the hands of the by his own people, left him no other French, was Loretto, famous for expedient to save himself, and the the credulity and superstition ex- Roman fee, from absolute ruili, hibited there in modern ages. The than to accept of such conditions as treasure contained in the church, could be obtained from an exaspewhere the donations of princes and rated enemy, conscious that he substates and the rich offerings of per- mitted through unavoidable nesonages of the first rank and opu- ceflity, and would possibly observe lence had been fo long accumu- the terms he agreed to no longer lating, had been partly removed by · than those who imposed them were the Austrian general, Colli, com- able to enforce their observance. mander-in-chief of the papal forces. Yielding, however reluctantly, to The French, however, found arti- circumstances, he wrote a letter to cles to the value of about a million Buonaparte, apprising him of his of their money. But, to do them desire to treat, and requesting that justice, it was not plunder nor de- he would grant just and honourable yastation they fought in conquering conditions. Four persons were dethe pope's dominions: for which puted to the French general, as the indeed they could plead no pre- papal plenipotentiaries on this octence, as the inlabitants now sub- calion. Cardinal Mattæi, and duke mitted to them without opposition, Braschi, the pope's nephew, were and seemed, in many places, in- the principal. tirely dilpoled to fraternile with The conditions of this treaty French principles.
were of the same tenour as thote After subduing the intermediate concluded by the French with other country, from Loretto to Macarare, powers. The pope renounced his Buonaparte fixed his quarters in this alliance with the coalition. He place on the twelfth of February. agreed to disband the tro: ps he had He was now within forty leagues of levierl againf: the republic, and to Rone, and it was evident hat no Dut his poris against the ships of obstacle could retard his march to war belonging to its enemies, and that city. In order to terminate not to flirnish them with supplies of hoftilities with all speed, he wrote a any kind. All the rights and priviletter to cardinal Matta i, wherein, leges enjoyed by France, in the paafter reproaching the pope for his pel dominions, previously to the reendeavours to injure the republic, volution, were confirmed.
He he adviled him to trust to the gene- ceded io the French, in full soveTohity of the French, and to have reigniy, the country of Avignon, immediate recourse to a paciication and every place in France, formerly 10
subject to the Roman see. He other conditions. The Batavian receded, in like manner, the cities and public was included in this treaty: territories of Bologna, Ferrara and on his punctual compliance with the Romagna. He engaged to pay which, the prisoners taken from him the sum of thirty millions of French were to be set at liberty, and all the livres to the republic, either in spe. places and districts restored, that'had cie or in value, and to deliver the been seized by the French, Ancostatues, pictures, and manuscripts, na excepted, which however they ftipulated in the treaty of armistice, were only to retain till a general of which he agreed to fulfil all the peace.