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The French army was now dis- næuvres. He was at the head of engaged, and the main strength ten thousand men, and had crossed of the Austrians broken: but there the Adige, where he had forced the still remained considerable divi- French, that guarded the pasiage, to fions, without the dispersion, or retire, and he was now marching the capture of which, the victory with all speed towards Mantna. obtained over them would not be But he was overtaken, early in the complete, as they would either morning of the 15th,' by general throw themselves into Mantua, join Augereau, who cut off the whole the papal forces, or retreat into the of his rear.

He made his way, Imperial territories, where they however, by a running fight, to would help to form a new army. the French lines of circumvallation For these reasons, as not a moment at Mantua, where he arrived at was to be lost in preventing the noon, after losing two thousand vanquished Austrians from effecting men, and fourteen pieces of cantheir retreat; on the very night non. He was now reduced through of the fourteenth, as soon as the this last, and the other encounters battle had terminated in favour of on his march, to no more than the French, divisions were imme- fix thousand men. With this didiately dispatched to pursue every minished furce, he did not, howbody of Austrians that still kept ever, hesitate to assault the entogether. They had not quitted trenchments of the besiegers at the a strong position at Corona, near fuburbs of St. George, by carrying Rivoli, where they remained in ex- which he would have secured his pectation of being able to collect entrance into the city: but they and arrange their retreating troops: were so strong and well defended, but before this could be effecier, a that he was repulsed. His fitualarge division of the French, after tion was now fuch, that unless he marching with all expedition during could enter Mantua, he mult yield the night of the fourteenth, came to the enemy. To avoid this difupon their rear next morning, while after, Provera made a resolute at: they were attacked in front by ge- tack on the French post of La neral Joubert. They refifted vigor- Favorita, another fuburb, while a ously at first; but were at last thrown strong detachment from the garrison into disorder. Those who were supported him. But this attempt, able to make a retreat, directed it which was made in the night of towards the Tyrol: but no less than the fifteenth, in hope of surprising fix thousand were so completely fur- the enemy, failed in every point. rounded, that they were obliged to The Austrians, who had fallied out lay down their arms.

of the city, were driven back by Buona parte himself, with a strong general Victor : and general Serdivision, having left the neceflary rarier took a position between La orders with general Jourbert, pro- Favorita and St. George, which ceeded, immediately after the bat- secured this latter post, and enabled tle, in quest of Provera, an Auf- the corps stationed there to join trian general, who had, on several that of Serrarier. Thus reinforced, occasions, highly distinguished him- he fell upon Provera's rear, while felf, by the skilfulness of his ma- his front was occupied in the attack

of

of La Favorita, and other troops The Austrians were, in the mean advanced upon him at the same time: time, retreating to their strong holds thus furrounded on every fide,all hope on the Brenta, which Alvinzi was of affistance from the garrison was employed in rendering tenable given over, and he was compelled against the pursuing enemy. Bat to surrender himself, with his whole the expeditious movements of the remaining force, consisting of fe- French afforded him no rekpite. ven thousand horse and foot, and General Augereau crossed the lower twenty-two-pieces of cannon, be- Brenta, and advanced to Citadella, fide all the baggage and ammu- a place of strength, from whence nition. What auded confiderably he dislodged the enemy; while to the misfortune of this day was Maslena, palling it in front of Balthe loss of the volunteer corps of fano, compelled the Auftrians toevayoung gentlemen of Vienna, who cuate it with precipitation, though were all either Pain or made pri- they had prepared to defend it. foners.

They withdrew to Carpanedolo, This day decided the fate of higher up the river ; but were folMantua. Though it continued to lowed and defeated by the French, make a courageous defence, it was who forced their paflage over the evident, that being now deprived bridge at that place, after an obof all reasonable hope of relief, all stinate conflict, wherein they new farther resistance would be fruit- and took upwards of a thousand of less, and would only add to the the enemy: this action happened numbers that had fallen in this de- on the twenty-sixth. Fortunately structive fiege. Every day brought for the Austrians, the heavy rains fresh tidings of the losses and de- that ensued, preserved the remainfeats of the Austrians, who were der of them, who basted, with all pursued in all directions, and to- speed, towards the narrow pasles of tally disabled from making any ef- the entrance into the Tyrol. A fectual stand.

division of the French, under' JouThe battle of Arcola had de- bert, overtook them, however, at stroyed the fourth, and the bat- Avis, and a part of their rear-guard tle of Rivoli the fifth, army op- was taken. They retired to Terposed to Buonaparte. He had, tola, a place advantageously fituated since the commencement of this between the lake of Guarda and year, been victorious in eight en- the Adige, where they made pregagements, two of them pitched parations to dispute the march of baitles, wherein the loss of the the French to Trent: but they were Austrians amounted to twenty-five driven from this post, and fled to thousand prisoners, exclufive of the Roveredo, which they were also Nain, who were calculated at fix compelled to abandon by Joubert, thousand. The fatigues and exer- who, pursuing his fuccefs, made tions of the French had been luch, himself master of Trent Here iwo' that Buonaparte, in his dispatches thousand fick and wounded fell into 10 the directory, asserted that they his hands, and as many more had had, while fighting at intervals, been made prisoners in the different occasionally measured thirty miles encounters previoufly to the taking of ground in a day,

of this city,

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The Austrians had now posted rals, and principal officers under themselves in force at Lavis, in- him, were allowed, in like manner, tending to stop the progress of the 'to accompany him on their parole ; French, by occupying the other fide the rest of the garrison remained of the river Lavisio ; but this inten- prisoners of war. tion was frustrated, by the rapid ad- The northern parts of the papal vance of Joubert, who forced them territories were already in the from this important position, after poflession of the French, and it fuftaining a great loss of their beft was expected that as soon as Buotroops, and in particular of a select naparte was free from inquietude, corps of Hungarians. Here the on account of the Austrian armies division of Joubert was reinforced still hovering on the borders of by that. of Massena, who had been Germany, and had secured the equally successful; and, in his pursuit capture of Mantua, he would imof the Auftrians, after the action mediately proceed to Rome itself, at Carpanadolo, had taken several and diciate the conditions of a places of strength, and driven them peace. to the other fide of the Pradas, The

pope,

in the mean time, after seizing a large part of their relied upon the exertions of the baggage.

emperor, and had determined to The Imperial armies were now wait the issue of the operations of totally expelled from Italy, and no- his army, under Alvinzi, firmly thing remained to the emperor but hoping that it would be more fucthe city of Mantua, which was cessful than those that had preceded so closely blockaded, and so vigo- it. Buonaparte was fincerely deroully presied, that no fupplies of firous of a pacification with the provisions, or of men, could enter. head of the Romilh church, a reThe garrison, despairing of all re- spectful treatment of whom would, lief, began to think it time to fur- he was conscious, be highly gratifyrender, weakened by the great ing to all the Roman catholic fiates flaughter it had suffered in fo many and people. Prompted by these fallies, and by a contagious diften- mblives, and intirely averse at coper, that committed great ravages ercive measures, he wrote a letter in the city. The Austrians agreed, to cardinal Mattæi, prime minister at length, to a capitulation, upon to his holiness, requesting him the second day of February. The to prevail on the pope to recomterms were as honourable as the de- mence pacific negociations, in orfence had been brave. The French der to prevent the march of the general shewed a laudable propen- French armies into his territories, lity to pay due regard to the merit and to represent to him the inutility of his rival, who, notwithstanding of arming his subjects against men his late ill success, was deservedly who had overcome fo many formid. esteemed a warrior' of the most able enemies, and whom his own distinguished rank. He granted him people were wholly' incapable to ai escort of two hundred horse and refift. feven hundred foot, whom he was This letter was dated the twentypermitted to select, together with fixth of October, 1796. Buonathirty pieces of artillery: the gene- parte was then preparing to march

against

against Alvinzi, who was at the admonished the general to reflect, head of a numerous army, and had that the death which awaited men obtained some fuccefles over the in battle was the commencement French, which had revived the hopes of eternal life and happiness to the of the Austrians, and their adhe- righteous, and of everlasting, misery rents. But the hattle of Arcola, to the wicked. Armed with this wherein these were completely de- conviction, taid the cardinal, we feated, and the subsequent advan- Thall oppose you with that confitages gained by the French, made, dence in the divine aid, which a at last, such an impreflion on the just cause inspires. He reminded court of Rome, that, dreading to him that he was not invincible, and wait any longer for more fortunate that though infidels, and pretended events, the cardinal was directed to philosophers, ridiculed the idea of return an answer. This came to pafs assistance from heaven, yet, if Proafter the lapse of fix weeks from vidence were pleased to interpofe, the receipt of the general's letter. the French would contend in vain The motive for this delay being against the power of the Almighty. obvious, it was necessary to qualify He concluded, by telling the geneit, so as to foften his displeasure at ral, that if the French were de-, an answer being so long deserred. frous of peace, the Roman see deThe cardinal laid before the gene- fired it still more, and was willing ral the anxiety of the pope to re- to subscribe to any terms, confcimedy the disorders that had lo long entious and equitable, in order to distracted France, and the sacrifices obtain it. he had consented to make of every Such was the purport of this worldly consideration, for the fake remarkable letter, which, to speak of restoring a good understanding truth, was written at a time, when between France and the Roman the realonings it contained were see. He complained that, not fa- little calculated to influence the tisfied with these conceffions, the proceedings of such a people as French government, elated with the , the French. Nor did the court of success of its arms, had made requi- Vienna itself testify much willingfitions incompatible with the dic- ness to be connected with a power tates of his conscience, and sub- whose co-operations were likely to versive of all Christian and moral prove fo feeble. But the folicitaprinciples. Grieved at such into- tions of the court of Rome were so serable demands, he had implored prefiing, that the Imperial ministers, the assistance of heaven, to direct unwilling wholly to abandon the him how to act in fo difficult a situa- holy fee to the control of France, tion. Doubtless, faid the cardinal, consented to join a body of troops he was inspired, on this occasion, to those that were now raising in by that holy spirit which had ani- every part of the papal dominions. mated the primitive martyrs in the In this dereliction of the pope, cause for which they suffered. Ha- the most fervent of his former adving laboured, in vain, to bring the herents feemed, at this period, to directory to a more equitable way agree without reluctance. So ef. of thinking, he thought it necessary ficacious was either the dread, or to rehist them by open forçe, He the influence, of France over the 8

councils

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The Austrians had now posted rals, and principal officers under themselves in force at Lavis, in- him, were allowed, in like manner, tending to stop the progress of the 'to accompany him on their parole ; French, by occupying the other side the rest of the garrison remained of the river Lavisio ; but this inten- prisoners of war. tion was frustrated, by the rapid acl- The northern parts of the papal vance of Joubert, who forced them territories were already in the from this important position, after poflession of the French, and it fuftaining a great loss of their best was expected that as soon as Buotroops, and in particular of a select naparte was free from inquietude, corps of Hungarians. Here the on account of the Austrian armies division of Joubert was reinforced still hovering on the borders of by that. of Maslena, who had been Germany, and had secured the equally successful; and, in his

, pursuit capture of Mantua, he would imof the Austrians, after the action mediately proceed to Rome itfelf, at Carpanadolo, had taken sereral and diciate the conditions of a places of strength, and driven them peace. to the other fide of the Pradas, The pope, in the mean time, after seizing a large part of their relied upon the exertions of the baggage.

emperor, and had determined to The Imperial armies were now, wait the issue of the operations of totally expelled from Italy, and now his army, under Alvinzi, firmly thing remained to the emperor but hoping that it would be more fucthe city of Mantua, which was cessful than those that had preceded so closely blockaded, and fo vigo- it. Buonaparte was fincerely deroufly presied, that no fupplies of firous of a pacification with the provisions, or of men, could enter. head of the Romish church, a reThe garrison, despairing of all re- spectful treatment of whom would, lief, began to think it time to fur- he was conscious, be highly gratifyrender, weakened by the great ing to all the Roman catholic fiates flaughter it had suffered in so many and people. Prompted by these fallies, and by a contagious disten- mblives, and intirely averse at coper, that committed great ravages ercive measures, he wrote a letter in the city. The Austrians agreed, to cardinal Mattæi, prime minister at length, to a capitulation, upon to his holiness, requesting bim the second day of February. The to prevail on the pope to recomterms were as honourable as the de- mence pacific negociations, in orfence had been brave. The French der to prevent the march of the general shewed a laudable propen- French armies into his territories, fity to pay due regard to the merit and to represent to him the inutility of his rival, who, notwithstanding of arming his subjecis against men his late ill success, was deservedly who had overcome to many formid. esteemed a warrior' of the most able enemies, and whom his own distinguished rank. He granted him people were wholly' incapable to an escort of two hundred horse and refift. feven hundred foot, whom he was This letter was dated the twentypermitted to select, together with fixth of October, 1796. Buonathirty pieces of artillery: the gene- parte was then preparing to march

against

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