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consequences more and more remote, and to keep an eye not only on the affairs of one fociety of men but also on those of others. Curiosity is in proportion to intellectual improvement.

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It may, we fear, appear at first sight to our Readers, that we had loft light of the truth of these observations, when, in drawing up the History of Europe for 1797, we devoted so large a portion of our space to the affairs of Great Britain. But it will soon be perceived, that, the British history for that year comprehends events more important to Europe, and, to the British nation, particularly, more striking and alarming than those of any year preceding it, since the commencement of the Annual Register" without were fightings, within were fears :" Not only the British constitution trembled on the pivot of fortune, but the political balance of Europe, An extension of the British hiftory, beyond its usual limits, was unavoidable.- To fwell this part of our Work, by copious accounts of parliamentary debates, with other domestic transactions; and, on the other hand, by a proportionable reduction, to confine the history of all Europe besides, to onefifth, or even fixth, part of our narrative, would be

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a great saving of labour; and, indeed, an easy matter. But it is impossible, that any intelligent and liberal mind should approve of such economy. Our Readers will do us the justice to acknowledge, that our Annual volumes are not written on this plan: if, in the present, we have brought forward Great Britain, which, at all times, makes so conspicuous a figure in the circle of civilization, still more prominently than usual, this conduct, by the clouded aspect of the political horizon, in our quarter, is abundantly justified.

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From a combination of causes, to which we have been, at different times, compelled to allude, the publication of the Annual Register was every year more and more protracted: and the complaint was just, that it had become extremely dilatory, if not, as was apprehended by fome, uncertain. The publication of this Volume at this time, in which we have faithfully observed, and even somewhat exceeded, the engagement we came under in our Volume for 1793, will, we trust, afford to our Readers an earnest of that ziliduous zeal with which we endeavour to give them satisfaction,

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ANNUAL REGISTER,

For the YEAR 1797. +capact oncent tense chec 0944 to 444043*

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Comparative View of the Confederacy and the French Republic, at the Close

of 1796.-Spain, drawen into an Alliance with France, declares War against England.Conjoined Efforts of the French, Spanish, and Dutch, Fleets, for overthrowing the naval Domination of England.--War in Italy.

-Capture of Mantua.--Political Conduct and military Preparations of the Court of Rome. -Letters from Buonaparte to the Cardinal Mattei. The Cardinal's Answer.-The Court of Madrid refuses its Mediation, in Behalf of the Pope, with the French Republic.--Republican Party in Rome, and other Parts of the Ecclefiaßical States.-Buonaparte declares War against the Pope.- A French Army enters the Papal Dominions.--The Papal Troops completely routed.---Buonaparte, by Promises and Threats, induces the Romans to submit to the French, without the Effufon of Blood.-Takes Pofeffon of several Provinces in the Ecclefiaftical States. -Advances towards Rome.--Treaiy of Peace with the Pope.

THE

THE rapid progress of the, of the year, was completely turnFrench arms, in 1796, pro

ed. On the termination of the duced different sensations on the armistice, between the Austrians opposite sides of the mountains, and the French, in the month of The Italian states and princes were May, in that

army

of the ftruck with terror. But a spirit Sambre and Mcuse, under Jourdan, of indignation and exertion was penetrated into Franconia; that of rouzed in Germany; where the the Rhine and Moselle, under Motide of fortune, towards the end reali, into the heart of Germany, VOL. XXXIX.

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and seemed on a quick march to having, in the year 1795, o Vienpa. The authority of the cluded a peace with the repubi archduke Charles, now commander- had afterwards .entered into in-chief of the Auitrian armies on alliance, defensive and offensive the Rhine, restrained dissentions with it, that was explicitly levelled and contests among general officers: at Great Britain.

This treaty, his example inspired courage into which took place in August, 1796, every officer and foldier: and his was followed, in the commencecourage, guided by cool delibera- ment of October, by a formal declation, as well as prompt decision, in ration of war against England, and the very throat of danger and fate, by the preparation of a formidable was victorious.

naval strength, to act in conjunction Yet, on the whole, on 'weighing with that of France. In Italy, every the prosperous against the adverte prince and state was either in peace events of the year, the balance was or confederacy with the French, the greatly in favour of the French re- pope alone excepted; whose fituapublic. Jourdan, though defeated tion, however, was such, that he in several engagements, by the could not long defer fubmission to young Austrian hero, had been able their own terms. Germany could to effect his retreat to Dusseldorf. not be reputed hostile to France. And Moreau, who, for want of a Though certainly averse to the enthird French army, was exposed on trance of its armies into the empire, his flanks, to total excifion or cap- yet the secondary ranks of princes ture, had made a masterly retreat, and 'states, of which it is composed, and conducted the main body of his were not dissatisfied at the humiliaarmy, through many dangers and tion of Austria, of which they dreadcontiets, across the Rhine, into a ed the power and pretensions. situation of safety, within the French These were permanent, and had frontier. Thus, though the French often endangered the liberties of were repulled from Germany, the ho- Germany: whereas, the irruptions nour of their arms, even in that quar- of the French could never be more ter, was unimpaired, while, in ano- than occasional and transitory. The ther, they were gloriously triumphant. precedents of former times had

The policy of France was not thewn, that the politics of France, less successful. After detaching which must continue the fame, Prussia and Spain from the con- whether it were a monarchy or a federacy, fhe had fucceeded, through republic, would always aim at holddint of artifice and intrigue, in ing the balance between the head connecting herself with both of and the members of the empire. these powers by a close alliance. In the north of Europe, the two The former of these had not, indeed, kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden publicly declared in its favour, but were too conscious of the impendwas well understood to be to inti- ing power of Rullia, to lend themmately connected with the republic; felves to the depression of France, that, 'in case of absolute necessity, which they now considered as neno doubt was entertained of its de- cessary to preserve the dominion of termination to assist France to the the Baltic equally divided between utmost of its capacity. The latter those three potentates.

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