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Our Monthly Retrospect.


THE ELECTIONS held in Pennsylvania and Ohio on the 9th ult., with the curious and somewhat anomalous results which followed, have formed the leading theme for newspaper and general gossip. While we take no interest in


politics as a trade," or in mere party measures, it is due to our readers that we should have something to say on certain great principles always more or less involved in our general elections, and which rise far above all mere selfish party issues. It is certainly incumbent upon every citizen to be enough of a politician to be able to discharge his duty as a voter understandinglyalthough this qualification by no means implies his blind identification with this or that party or faction. It is clearly the duty of every man to vote-and if each man who is competent to discharge this high duty does not do so understandingly, it is equally clear that the control of our government will fall into the hands of those who do not represent the higher interests of society.

Up to within a fortnight of the late election, the Democrats were very confident of carrying the State by a heavy majority; and this confidence was based on very good reasons. While the party representing the national administration was well organized, and acting as a unit in support of Mr. Plumer, their candidate for Canal Commissioner, the opposition were divided into three or four parties, represented by as many candidates. About two weeks before the election, the State Central Committees of the American, Whig and Republican parties met at Harrisburg, and agreed upon a "fusion," by which Messrs. Martin, Henderson and Williamson agreed to be withdrawn, and Thomas Nicholson was nominated as the representative of all the elements opposed to the Democrats. Had there been time and sufficient unity of action to carry out this fusion complete, Mr. Nicholson could have been elected without doubt. In some counties the tickets with the names of the original candidates had already been printed

and circulated, while in a few others, such as Lancaster and Allegheny, the Whigs and Republicans declined abandoning their candidates. The result was that although Arnold Plumer received a. plurality vote, there were enough votes thrown away upon other candidates to have secured the election of Mr. Nicholson. This is illustrated by the official vote, which is as follows: Arnold Plumer, Dem......161,280 Thos. Nicholson, fusion...150,359

Plumer over Nicholson. 10,921 Williamson, Rep.....1,063 Cleaver, N. A............. ⚫4,041 Martin, American 571 Henderson, Whig....2,270


13,945 Plumer's minority...... 3,023

In the election of members of the Legislature there were still more exciting and distracting elements at work. The liquor dealers had formed a well organized combination known as the Liquor League, which operated extensively in a number of counties, and almost invariably in favor of the Democrats. The result is that the Democrats will have a majority in the next Legislature of 31, on joint ballot, viz., in the Senate 17, opposition 16; House, Dem. 65, opposition 35.

Although it is generally supposed that the Liquor League had a great deal to do with this result, the figures show that the new Restraining Liquor Law will not likely be repealed by the next session. The law will evidently be safe in the Senate; and even if a repeal bill could be passed, Governor Pollock would hardly consent to approve an act repealing a law before it had fairly gone into operation. Of all the Senatorial districts whose representatives voted for the Law last winter, the only one which returns a member opposed this year is Allegheny, which sends Judge Wilkins in place of Mr. Darsie. All the other changes among the districts where members supported the law are in its favor, giving a result,

on full vote, of 17 for the law and 16 against it, with a fair chance of the vote for the Law being increased by one or two members who voted against its passage, but who will not consent to repeal a law before it has been fairly tested. We have not the least doubt, therefore, that this law will be sustained by the Senate and the Governor, and if it is enforced for one year, so as to show the good results that will flow from it, no power in the State can effect its repeal hereafter.

In Опо the Republican party carried their candidates over the Democrats and Americans, electing Salmon P. Chase Governor by a large majority. Both branches of the Legislature are overwhelmingly Republican and Temperance.

THANKSGIVING.-Gov. Pollock has appointed Thursday, the 22nd of the presenth month "as a day of general thanksgiving and praise throughout this State, and earnestly implores the People that setting aside all worldly pursuits on that day, they unite in offering thanks to Almighty God for past goodness and mercy; and beseech him for a continuance of his blessings." This Proclamation is one of the soundest we have seen for many years, and speaks the sentiment of the true christian. He says "a public recognition of the existence of God, as the Creator of all things and the Giver of every good and perfect gift,' with an humble acknowledgment of our constant dependence upon the Providence of Him, 'who rules in the army of Heaven and among the children of men,' is alike the duty and the privilege of a free and Christian people.

He has crowned the past year with his goodness and caused our paths to drop with fatness.' He has blessed our country with peace. The Union of the States-our free institutions-our civil and religious privileges-right of conscience and freedom of worship have been continued and preserved. The great interests of education, morality and religion have been encouraged and promoted-science and art advancedindustry rewarded-and the moral and physical condition of the people improved.

"The goodness of God has signally blessed our Commonwealth. War with its desolations-famine and pestilence with their horrors, have not been permitted to come near us! and whilst the ravages of disease and death have afflict

ed the citizens of other States, we have enjoyed the blessings of health and unusual prosperity. The seasons, in their annual round, have come and gone'seed time and harvest' have not failed

smiling plenty cheers the husbandman, and, surrounded by the abundant fruits of autumn, he rejoices in the rich rewards of his toil. The pastures are clothed with flocks-the valleys also are covered over with corn-they shout for joy-they also sing.'

"Acknowledging with grateful hearts these manifold blessings of a beneficent Providence, we should offer unto God our thanksgiving, and pay our vows unto the Most High.'


KANSAS.-The Free State election for a Delegate to represent Kansas in Congress, was held on the 9th ult., and every thing seems to have passed off with the utmost order and regularity. The vote polled for Whitfield, the proslavery candidate, at a previous election ordered by the Legislature, was about twenty-one hundred, not more than nine hundred of that number being legal. It is thought that the vote for Governor Reeder, whom the Free State men supported on the 9th, will reach 3,000, all of which were polled by actual residents of the Territory. Reliable advices from there assure us that the contest in Kansas is over, and that the Territory will become a free State. Gov. Reeder was there during the election, and seems to enjoy the full confidence of the People. The admission of Kansas as a State will be a great question in the next Congress.

Gov. POLLOCK delivered the introductory of a course of Lectures to be given this winter before the Young Men's Christian Association, on the evening of the 25th ult. His subject was the "Known and the Unknown," in their relation to Man, as a physical, moral and intellectual being. This lecture was listened to with deep attention by a very large and intelligent audience. The Gov'r spoke with great eloquence and no less christian fervor. The aim of his discourse was to show the great results and attainments of the Known and to point his hearers to the greater and more important concerns of the Unknown, all centering in the elevation of the race, the glory of God, and the salvation of the immortal soul. Gov. Pollock is a living illustration of the truly christian chief magistrate.

THREE CASES have been tried at Pitts

burg under the new Restraining Liquor | Law, being the first in the State, all of which have resulted in the conviction of the offenders. It is supposed that one of them will be carried into the Supreme Court on a writ of error, and the question finally decided, that tribunal being now in session in Pittsburg. There is not the least doubt that the constitutionality of the law will be affirmed.

PASSMORE WILLIAMSON is still confined in Moyamensing prison, by order of Judge Kane, for contempt of Courtalthough the question of his release has been up before the Court in various shapes. The Judge has decided that Williamson, being in contempt, has no standing in Court; and that he cannot receive any petition unless it be an application to purge himself of the contempt. If both Williamson and Judge Kane hold to their present positions of law and right, the former stands a fair chance of living and dying in prison.

CALIFORNIA. -The late election has resulted in the success of the "Americans" or Know Nothing party, who have elected their Governor, State officers, and a majority of the members of the State Legislature. The people also voted on the abstract question of a prohibitory liquor law, but the vote was small and the issue still in doubt when the last steamer sailed. The progress which California has been making in her moral and social relations of late is quite encouraging-for certainly no place stood more in need of it. The progress of religion, too, has become one of the marked features of the place; and although much still remains to be done there, owing to the incongruous material composing the population, California is already claiming to be not the least comely among her fair and elder sisters of the national Union.

ing and the news caused great excitement throughout the city. The officers of the expedition were hardly recognizable by their best friends, so much had they been changed in personal appearance. Their long beards and hair, with dog-skin boots and pantaloons, and bear-skin coats, caps, etc., made them look like quite another race of beings; and it was only after undergoing a metamorphosis the next day at the clothing emporiums of New York that their old acquaintances began to recognize their familiar features. The incidents of the expedition are full of interest, but too voluminous for review in these pages.

THE KANE EXPEDITION.-The expedition which left New York on the 31st of May, 1853, in search of the ill-fated Sir John Franklin and his faithful crew, arrived at New York on the 12th ult. Although subjected to almost unheardof dangers and privations, subjected to the intensest extremes of cold, fatigue and hunger, the expedition lost but three of its number, among which we regret to notice the name of Jefferson T. Baker, of Philadephia, a brother of Dr. J. T. Baker, of this city. The scene at the landing of the expedition at New York was said to have been very affect


The news from the seat of war received since our last is less important than was expected. The Russians still remain in possession of the North Forts of Sebastopol, and the fact of the Czar being on his way to the Crimea indicates his intention to prolong the struggle in that quarter. The belief which had obtained in England and France, that the Allied Generals would follow up the capture of the South part of Sebastopol by an immediate attack on the Russian army in the field, has not thus far been realized. A letter from St. Petersburg says that the evening before the departure of the Emperor for the Crimea, a counsel was held, at which it was determined to carry on the war with the greatest determination; and the Emperor directed Count Nesselrode to announce this intention to the political agents of Russia in foreign countries. Gortschakoff is to be appointed Minister of War. Mouravieff is to assume the command of the army in the Crimea, which is to be defended to the last extremity.

A "brilliant" contest of Cavalry was fought on the 20th of September, near Eupatoria, in which the Russian Cavalry, commanded by Gen. Korf, were defeated by the French Cavalry under General Allenville. The French took 100 prisoners, 250 horses, six guns, and a number of ammunition wagons. The Russians lost 50 killed-the French six killed and 27 wounded.

The latest advices look to the bombardment of Odessa as the next important movement on the part of the Allies. Gortschakoff admits a loss of from 500 to 1000 men per day during the last thirty days of the siege.

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NOTES ON LITERATURE, &c. American papers are remarking on the absence of all literary effort in the Crimea, and are therein noting a characteristic difference between the surroundings of an American and of an English army. The London Athenæum says: "The contrast is fair. The selflaudation is not unjust. Our readers know that when the Yankees marched into Mexico they carried with them a printing press, and published a newspaper along the line of invasion. Across prairies, through dangerous passes, over mountain ranges, sometimes on mules, oftener on men's shoulders, occasionally in wagons-traveled press, paper, type and ink-editors, contributors, and pressmen-fighting, foraging, writing, working onward. Infinite were the uses of the press. It carried orders through the camp. Every morning the soldier read in it the story of the previous day. It anticipated the gazettes. It disseminated orders of the day; it perpetuated the gossip of the camp; reflected public opinion in the army; made known every want; supplied every information; exercised, inspired, and animated every heart. Had the Americans been in the Crimea, they would have had daily papers at Balaklava, Eupatoria, Yenikale and Constantinople; and these papers reflecting the humors, incidents and life of the camp-would have ranked among the best historical documents on the war. As it is, our soldiers in the Crimea are indebted to the London journals for authentic information of what occurs in the camp itself, and within a mile or two of their own tents. Jonathan is far ahead of us in some respects.'


To Mr. Bancroft and through him to American literature, the compliment has recently been paid of a Danish translation of his History of the United States, three volumes of which have already appeared in Copenhagen, the first in 1853, and the second and third in 1854. A good deal of interest in the history of our country and her institutions is felt in Denmark, which the appearance of this translation cannot fail to augment. The Danish work bears the title, "De forenede Staters Historie, fra Opdagelsen af det Americanske Fastland, af George Bancroft. Oversat af Chr. Wulff." We understand that Mr. Wulff is a man of great accomplishments and perfect knowledge of the English language; he has the

highest admiration for the progress of freedom in America, and his labor in his excellent translation has been one of enthusiasm and love.


AT a sale of autograph letters in London, recently, a characteristic note from Benjamin Franklin brought one pound and nineteen shillings. It ran: "Mr. Strahan-You are a member of Parliament, and one of that majority which has doomed my country to destruction. You have begun to burn our towns and murder our people. Look upon your hands! They are stained with the blood of your relations! You and I were long friends; you are now my enemy, and I Yours, B. FRANKLIN. THE Perth Courier says, Mr. J. N. Nevin, gardener, has succeeded in fabricating paper and rope from the common garden hollyhock, and has patented his invention under the title of "Nevin's Patent Hollyhock Paper and Rope." The paper is of the appearance and texture of that used for small bags and parcels by grocers, etc., and is very clean and firm. The rope is about half an inch thick, light and shining in color, and apparently of considerable strength.

THE Boston Public Library building, of which the corner stone was laid, with appropriate ceremonies, a few days since, will be 82 feet in front, 128 feet deep, two stories in height, beside the basement. It will be built of brick, with free-stone facings. The architecture will be of the Roman school of Italian architecture, plainly fashioned, and without elaborate ornament. The first story will be 21 feet high; the second 52 feet high, containing the library room, 40 by 85 feet, with ample alcoves for books. The first story will contain the reading and conversation room, and it is here that the books will be distributed. The upper rooms will contain accommodation for 200,000 volumes, and the shelves to be erected in the lower room will give space for 40,000 more. The building will be entirely fire-proof.

THE N. York Historical Society held their monthly meeting October 2nd. A document said to have been written by Geo. Washington was presented to the Society by Rev. Mr. Tweed. A painting of N. York a year after its capture from the Dutch, was also exhibited in the Society room, presented by Mr. John McGregor, M. M., from the city of Glasgow, through the Hon. James Buchanan.






AFTER a fearful summer shower, a father went forth with his child into the garden. Here all the flowers, hung around in drops, gave thanks and praise to God with their delightful odor. The child rejoiced with the freshness of nature, and stretched forth its hands towards a beautiful rainbow, which had arched the whole heaven.

"How blessed," said the father, "is our Father in His great creations above us. How all His works praise Him: the rainbow, even as the refreshed flowers: the warming and the light-giving sun by day, the silver moon and twinkling stars by night! Who counts their hosts, and who calls them all by their names? But, my child," he added, "do not seek the great only in what seems great; for in this little rain-drop there is also a world, infinite like those worlds above."

Now the father permitted his child to look at a drop of rain through a magnifying glass. "What do you see?" asked the father.

"I see," said the child, "an infinite number of little worms, in a large bright globe: they all spring up and down, full of joy, and are very busy. Whence come all these creatures, O father? They are all so different in their forms, and they are countless in number."

His works are

In a drop of THEO. SCHWARTZ.

"All this," said the father, "has God made. infinite-infinitely small as well as infinitely great. water there is also a WORLD."



John, the pious John, one evening as the sun was setting, and the sky was still red from his departing light, sat and taught on a

VOL, VI.-23

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