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more perfect state, when he shall have put off his chrysalis form, and emerged into the sunshine of higher knowledge.
But what has all this to do with botanical analysis? Much, every way. That is the process by which we study divine thoughts. Analysis first, then synthesis; the nature and force of the alphabet, then words, then languages. Let us learn well the alphabet, we shall then be able to spell out words, to put them into sentences, and to read the language intelligently; the other method might subject us to some rather awkward blunders, mispronouncing words, and attaching to them a meaning other than that which they designed to speak, to put our own notions in place of their true language, such as we often find in what is commonly called "the language of flowers."
According to the idea of a science, as Professor Agassiz defines it, we may conclude that botanical science is as yet very imperfect; cramped by arbitrary rules and distinctions that have no existence in the nature of vegetation; but are not the beginnings of all sciences, that are so pre-eminently empyrical, and where persons must begin at the surface and dig down for the precious metals, of this character? What then! Shall we away with them, until some method is discovered by which mines may be dug by beginning at the bottom? We should rather say, go to work and dig, or at least encourage those who do so, until the soil shall have been taken off, the rocks blasted away, and the vein of ore laid bare in all its richness.
He who loves a flower for its own sake, for the beautiful blending of its mimical colors, for the artistic skill manifested in the proportions of its parts, and the symmetry of the whole, may do much, but if he see nothing more, he feeds opon the husks and shells, and is poor indeed. Nature has not its end in itself. It is but a part of a grand system of truth, in which every thing is fitly and compactly put together, each part serving to complete the whole. Not a flower that blooms unseen, and sheds its fragrance on the desert air, is superfluous. The whole panorama of nature in its outward form is but accidental to something higher; pictures of that which is their reality. Nature and grace hold the relation of the bank note and the specie; the former is good only because the latter is at hand to redeem it; nature is real only because what it promises is so. In the renovated world no notes will be issued; the notes will be worn out, and duly redeemed when the world shall return to God redeemed by his Son.
A HINT TO THE YOUTH.-If the spring puts forth no blossoms, in summer there will be no beauty, and in auturan no fruit. So, if youth be trifled away without improvement, riper years will be contemptible, and old age miserable
THE BEST WISH.
THE cold February wind whistled round the corner of the street, and beat heavily with its burthen of snow against the dwelling that sheltered three rosy-cheeked children. Lightly they heeded it however, for in their pleasant room, the brightly burning lamps added their enlivening light to the fire blaze that flamed up cheerfully in the grate, while the heavy window curtains hid all token of the outward desolation, except in a monotonous pattering of the sleet upon the panes, which rather added to the sense of comfort of those within.
The three children, seated around the fire, were weaving fanciful images from the red coals, when Walter-a fair-haired boy of seven, with his head full of fairy-imaginings and impossibilities-suddenly exclaimed to his sisters: "Now girls, just suppose we could have one wish granted, what out of the whole world would you choose?" Little Alice tossed back her golden curls, with a look half-comical, half-puzzled, as if her wish would be so large she never could get it into words; while the chubby, three-years-old Lizzie, raising her large, thoughtful eyes heavenward, after but a moment's hesitation, clapped her dimpled hands together-while a light like the gleam from an angel's wing broke over her face-and exclaimed, "I would rather be in heaven with my little brother Edward."
"Oh, mother, mother!" shouted the older children, "Lizzie's is the very best wish that could be, isn't it?
"Yes indeed!" answered the mother, clasping the little one in her arms; while a strange unaccustomed thrill came over her spirit, as if she saw heaven's glories well nigh hidden in the darkening shade of death.
One short week, and the wind and the snow sported over a child's grave, that grave only the perishable sign of a desire granted in eternity, for Lizzie was "with her little brother Edward."
Perhaps, my dear children, you may not have a brother or a sister in heaven, but you have a loving Saviour there, and do you ever wish to be with Him? When you kneel down at morning or night to pray to "Our Father," do you ask Him that He will lead and guide you by His Holy Spirit that you may be fit for Christ's sake to go and live with Him forever? If you do, and you grow up to be men and women, and go out into the bustle of life with this one wish of the whole world" in your hearts you can never fear death, for it will be going home; home to an eternity of happiness; if not, if day by day your growing desires are for everything but Heaven, no wonder if you dread to think of the gloomy messenger, the herald of that God who has comman led even little children to seek first His kingdom.
WE all have our troubles. Troubles in body and in mind. Troubles that spring from ourselves, and such as are brought upon us by others. Troubles that pertain to this world, and troubles that have reference to the world to come.
The greatest number of our troubles we bring upon ourselves. They come from our sins and follies. By undue labor, carried on in a worldly spirit, we cripple and injure our health. How many make themselves physically miserable for life by that abuse and exposure which is the result of "making haste to be rich." Others by leading profligate lives, rack their constitutions in early life, and induce disease, which, like the canker, eats out the vitality of the system, and makes life a scene of misery. A regular, chaste, and temperate mode of life is a grand means of avoiding many bitter troubles. Piety has the promise of the life which now is, as well as that which is to come. The experience of thousands proves this to
If our troubles result from our own follies and sins, we ought to bewail those sins in deep repentance. Our troubles, where they are of that kind, ought to be heeded as earnest monitors, warning us to turn quickly to the fountain by which sin is cleansed, and by which alone sorrows can be healed. When our sins begin to punish us, it may not be too late, but it is high time for us to fly to the refuge. The path will grow darker, and our troubles will only increase if we go on in the same course.
There is no cure for trouble but religion. No one but Jesus can permanently cure sorrow. The world may cover it, or drive it back for a while; but only the great Physician can cure it. touched with a feeling of our infirmities; and such is his tenderness that he will not break the bruised reed. His whispers of pardon and peace can cheer into life and joy the darkest and the saddest heart. Go, sad soul, and pour your sorrows into his gracious heart. Surely he bore our griefs, and carried our sorrows.
Then sorrow, touched by thee grows bright
As darkness shows us worlds of light
His house she enters-there to be a light
THE UNITED STATES.
THE FIRST OF OCTOBER, 1855, was a day long to be remembered in Pennsylvania. On that day the PROTECTION which the State had afforded to the retail liquor traffic for a long series of years, was withdrawn, and the Government declared that intoxicating liquor is no part of "entertainment for man and horse." This is a great triumph for the friends of temperance, morality and religion. After a long and severe struggle, in which they had to encounter the bitter opposition of men influenced by selfish interests and depraved appetites, as well as of that better class who refused to read and examine, and consequently to think understandingly on the subject for themselves, the temperance men have triumphed in part, and, with a continuation of proper exertion, a final and complete victory awaits them at an early day.
Heretofore those engaged in the temperance reform have had the law-the strong arm of the government itself to contend against. Now, government, yielding to the omnipotence of moral power and the independent ballot, has turned around on their side and placed the liquor traffic on the defensive. The temperance men, therefore, will work for the future under much more auspicious and encouraging circumstances than heretofore.
Within the past two years a radical change has been made in our license system, and it is important that the people should clearly understand the provisions of the liquor laws now in force. Three laws now combine to form our license system, viz.: The law "to protect certain domestic and private rights and prevent abuses in the sale and use of intoxicating drinks," passed May 8, 1854, and generally known as the Buckalew law; the law "to prevent the sale of intoxicating liquors on the Sabbath," known as the Sunday law; and the law "to restrain the sale of intoxicating liquors," both of which were passed by the last Legislature. As the operation of these laws is a matter in which every reader of
The Guardian is deeply interested, we feel that we cannot do better than occupy a portion of the Retrospect with a synopsis of their provisions. The "Buckalew law" provides for
1. A fine of from $10 to $50, and imprisonment from ten to sixty days, for wilfully furnishing intoxicating liquors, as a beverage, by sale, gift or otherwise, to minors or insane persons-to any one when intoxicated, or to one known to be intemperate. The same penalty for thus furnishing such liquors to any intemperate person, for three months after notice from friends forbidding the
2. Any person furnishing liquor to another, by gift, sale, or otherwise, in violation of this, or any other act, is held responsible for damages, to persons or property, resulting therefrom.
3. A fine of $50, and imprisonment, at the discretion of the Court, for marrying a person when intoxicated.
4. A fine of $50 for the unwholesome adulteration of intoxicating beverages, or the wilful sale of the same. For the second offence, $100 fine, and imprisonment not exceeding sixty days.
5. Expenses, not exceeding $20, to be paid to prosecutor. No action to be maintained for liquor sold contrary to any law, and Courts may revoke license, &c.
The "Sunday law" imposes
1. A fine of $50 for each case of selling, trading, or bartering of spirituous or malt liquors, wine or cider, on Sunday. The same penalty for wilfully permitting them to be drank on or about the premises.
3. In cases of conviction for offences on two separate Sundays, a fine of from $50 to $100, and imprisonment from three to twelve months, with loss of license.
3. On failure to pay fines and costs, imprisonment, not exceeding three months, or until discharged by due course of law.
4. Constables, Sheriffs, or Prosecuting Attorneys, are fined from $50 to $100, for refusing to inform on and prosecute offenders against this act.
5. Suits for penalties must be brought in the name of the city or county. Any citizen of the county may prosecuteor be a witness, and receive one-half of the penalty, the other half to be paid over to the Guardians of the Poor. Any Mayor or Judge of the Court of Quarter Sessions may revoke a license for violations of this act. No compromise of suits allowed.
The "Restraining License Law”—
1. Prohibits all drinking houses, and imposes a fine not exceeding $50, with imprisonment not exceeding one month, for selling, and affording a place, inducement, or any other convenience, where intoxicating liquor may be sold and drunk. For the second offence $100, and not exceeding three months imprisonment. The same penalties when two or more persons combine, the one to sell, and the other to furnish a place for drinking, or for aiding or abetting.
2. All sales in less measure than a quart are prohibited. Courts of Quarter Sessions may-not shall-grant licenses to citizens of the United States, provided they be of temperate habits, and give bonds, with good securities, in the sum of $1000, conditioned for the faithful observance of ALL laws relating to the sale of said liquors, to be filed in Court; on which bond, fines and costs may be collected, upon the conviction of the principal. The applicant for license must present his petition, have it lawfully advertised, and the Court shall fix a time when objections may be heard.
3. No hotel, tavern, eating-house; no theatre, nor any other place of refreshment, or amusement, can receive license to sell by any measure whatever, and no unnaturalized person under any circumstances.
4. Druggists are prohibited from selling intoxicating beverages, except when mixed with other medicines.
5. Clerks of Quarter Sessions cannot issue a license until the bond has been filed, fees paid, and the certificate furnished. Fees for license, three times the present amount; but no license granted for less than $30.
6. Persons licensed to sell by the quart and greater measure, must frame their license, and place it conspicuously in their chief place of business, or forfeit it; and all sales contrary to this act, punished according to the second section.
7. Constables, for wilfully failing to return places, kept in violation of this act, are fined not exceeding $50, and imprisoned from one to three months.
8. Importers may sell in the original package, without appraisement and license; commissioned auctioneers are also exempted; domestic producers, brewers and distillers, may sell liquor made by them, in quantities not less than five gallons.
9. Appraisers of licenses, under this act, are appointed according to former laws, except in Philadelphia, where three reputable and temperate citizens, in no way connected with, nor interested in, the liquor business, shall be appointed annually by the Court of Quarter Sessions.
These laws combined, in their practical operation, will produce the following results:
1. Entire prohibition on Sunday. 2. The abolition of all drinking houses, and sale by the small.
3. Entire prohibition of sale to all persons, except temperate adults.
4. The transfer of liquor-selling from hotels and eating-houses, to stores and other places of business.
5. No liquor sold by unnaturalized citizens.
6. The declaration by Government, that "intoxicating liquor is no part of entertainment for man or horse," and the holding of persons legally responsible for the damages resulting from either gift or sale.
Since the passage of the Restraining License Law, the people of Pennsylvania are presented with a spectacle never before witnessed in this State-a concerted and organized resistance to constitutional law! The liquor dealers, banded together in a secret oathbound society, known as the Liquor League, have openly declared in many Counties that they will not submit to the law! The time therefore has now arrived, when the law and order-loving citizens of the commonwealth must determine whether good and righteous laws, passed by their legal representatives to protect society from the eurse of intemperance, shall be violated and openly resisted with impunity, by a few tavern keepers and others - who act purely from selfish and mercenary motives. This law is general and was enacted for the general good-and would it not be a burning disgrace to the commonwealth if the Few should