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distress. If all the rich who are lame in the gout, from a life of ease, pleasure, and luxury, would help those few who have it without a previous life of pleasure, and add a few of such laborious men, who are become lame from unhappy blows, falls, or other accidents of age or sickness; I say, would such gouty persons administsr to the necessities of men disabled like themselves, the consciousness of such a behaviour would be the best julep, cordial, and anodyne, in the feverish, faint, and tormenting vicissitudes of that miserable distemper. The same may be said of all other, both bodily and intellectual evils. These classes of charity would certainly bring down blessings upon an age and people; and if men were not petrified with the love of this world, against all sense of the commerce which ought to be among them, it would not be an unreasonable bill for a poor man in the agony of pain, aggravated by want and poverty, to draw upon a şick alderman after this form ;


• You have the gout and stone, with sixty

thousand pounds sterling; I have the
gout and stone, not worth one far-
thing ; I shall pray for you, and de-
sire you would pay the bearer twenty
shillings for value received from,

Sir, Cripplegate,

Your humble servant, Aug. 29, 1712.


The reader's own imagination will suggest to him the reasonableness of such correspondences, and diversify them into a thousand forms ; but

shall close this, as I began, upon the subject of blindness *. The following letter seems to be written by a man of learning, who is returned to his study after a suspense of ability to do so. The benefit he reports himself to have received, may well claim the handsomest encomium he can give the operator. • Mr. SPECTATOR,

• RUMINATING lately on your admirable discourses on the Pleasures of the Imagination, I began to consider to which of our senses we are obliged for the greatest and most important share of those pleasures ; and I soon concluded that it was to the sight. That is the sovereign of the senses, and mother of all the arts and sciences, that have refined the rudeness of the uncultivated mind to a politeness that distinguishes the fine spirits from the barbarous goût of the great vulgar and the small. The sight is the obliging benefactress that bestows on us the most transporting sensations that we have from the various and wonderful products of nature. To the sight we owe the amazing discoveries of the height, magnitude, and motion of the planets; their several revolutions about their common centre of light, heat and motion, the sun. The sight travels yet farther to the fixed stars, and furnishes the understanding with solid reasons to prove, that each of them is a sun, moving on its own axis, in the centre of its own vortex or turbillion, and performing the same offices to its dependent planets that our glorious sun does to this. But the inquiries of the sight will not be stopped here, but make their progress through the immense expanse to the

* A benevolent institution in favour of blind people, and Swift's hospital, seem to have originated from this paper, certainly from the principles of humanity stated in it.

Milky Way, and there divide the blended fires of the galaxy into infinite and different worlds, made up of distinct suns, and their peculiar equipages of planets, till, unable to pursue this track any farther, it deputes the imagination to go on to new discoveries, till it fill the unbounded space with endless worlds.

. The sight informs the statuary's chisel with power to give breath to lifeless brass and marble, and the painter's pencil to swell the flat canvas with moving figures actuated by imaginary souls. Music indeed may plead another original*, since Jubal, by the different falls of his hammer on the anvil, discovered by the ear the first rude music that pleased the antediluvian fathers; but then the sight has not only reduced those wilder sounds into artful order and harmony, but conveys that harmony to the most distant parts of the world without the help sound. To the sight we owe not only all the discoveries of philosophy, but all the divine imagery of poetry that transports the intelligent reader of Homer, Milton, and Virgil.

• As the sight has polished the world, so does it supply us with the most grateful and lasting plea

Let love, let friendship, paternal affection, filial piety, and conjugal duty, declare the joys the sight bestows on a meeting after absence. But it would be endless to enumerate all the pleasures and advantages of sight; every one that has it, every hour he makes use of it, finds them, feels them, enjoys them.

. Thus, as our greatest pleasures and knowledge are derived from the sight, so has Providence been more curious in the formation of its seat, the eye, than of the organs of the other senses.


That stu

* Mr. Weaver ascribes the discovery to Pythagoras.

pendous machine is composed in a wonderful manner, of muscles, membranes, and humours. Its motions are admirably directed by the muscles ; the perspicuity of the humours transmits the rays of light; the rays are regularly refracted by iheir figure, the black lining of the sclerotes effectually prevents their being confounded by reflexion. It is wonderful indeed to consider how many objects the eye

is fitted to take in at once, and successively in an instant, and at the same time, to make a judgment of their position, figure, or colour. It watches against our dangers, guides our steps, and lets in all the visible objects, whose beauty and variety instruct and delight.

• The pleasures and advantages of sight being so great, the loss must be very grievous ; of which Milton, from experience, gives the most sensible idea, both in the third Book of his Paradise Lost, and in his Samson Agonistes.

* To light in the former.

-Thee I revisit safe,
And feel thy sov'reign vital lamp; but thou
Revisit'st not these eyes, that roll in vain
To find thy piercing ray, but find no dawn, '*

And a little after.

" Seasons retum, but not to me returns
Day, or the sweet approach of ev'n or morn,
Or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's rose,
Or flocks or herds, or human face divine ;
But cloud instead, and ever-during dark,
Surround me: from the cheerful ways of men
Cut off, and for the book of knowledge fair,
Presented with an universal blank
Of nature's works, to me expung’d and raz'd,
And wisdom at one entrance quite shut out."

Again in Samson Agonistes,

But chief of all,
O loss of sight! of thee I most complain :
Blind among enemies ! () worse than chains,
Dungeon, or beggary, or decrepit age !
Light, the prime work of God, to me's extinct,
And all her various objects of delight

-Still as a fool,
In pow'r of others, never in my own,
Scarce half I seem to live, dead more than half:
() dark ! dark ! dark ! amid the blaze of noon :
Irrecoverably dark, total eclipse,
Without all hopes of day."

• The enjoyment of sight then being so great & blessing, and the loss of it so terrible an evil, how excellent and valuable is the skill of that artist which can restore the former, and redress the latter! My frequent perusal of the advertisements in the public newspapers (generally the most agreeable entertainment they afford) has presented me with many and various benefits of this kind done to my countrymen by that skilful artist Dr. Grant, her majesty's oculist extraordinary, whose happy hand has brought and restored to sight several hundreds in less than four years. Many have received sight by his means who came blind from their mother's womb, as in the famous instance of Jones of Newington*. I myself have been cured by him of a weakness in my eyes next to blindness, and am ready to believe any thing that is reported of his ability this way; and know that many, who could

* This ostentatious oculist was, it seems, originally a cobler or tinker, afterwards a preacher in a congregation of Baptists. William Jones was not born blind, and was but very little, if at all benefited by Grant's operation, who appears to have been guilty of great fraud and downright forgery in his ac. count and advertisements of this pretended cure.

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