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it necessary to do more than refer our readers to the observations upon the size, equipment, tonnage, &c. of steam ships, by which we arrive in a very satisfactory manner at the conclusion to which he leads us. Believing that if then“ upon the whole he was duly warranted in affirming that the tear and wear of the machinery will be far less that what usually takes place in the sails and rigging of an ordinary sailing vessel,” and that “the destruction

upon the hull of a vessel, as some suppose, is much greater where steam power is employed than when the vessel is navigated by sails and wind, is a very great mistake ; for experience fully proves the contrary to be the fact,"'

--we are doubly warranted to believe the correctness of these statements

Nor do we anticipate that any of our readers will differ with him, or us, in thinking that " it will be unnecessary to enter into any further detail of the other immense advantages which must flow from the adoption of this measure: they are numerous and important, and cannot fail to present themselves to the mind of every one who has at heart the welfare of our Indian possessions."

Believing in the correctness of Mr. Macneill's statement (see the preceding paper), that we are only in the infancy of navigation whether on sea or canals ;” and further that the public mind is every day

approximating to this conclusion, we shall, under the head of STEAM NAVIGATION, in the future labours that lie before us, often have occasion to direct our attention to this most important and interesting subject. Now that India is be thrown open to British enterprise, we know of no object better worthy of public solicitude than that which will bring our eastern empire a half nearer to our shores. To all who agree with us in this opinion, and who are desirous to aid in its accomplishment, our pages will afford a vehicle of making their sentiments general.

We shall here conclude our review of Mr. Seaward's observations, with the remark, to which we fully subscribe,“ that the advantages which would result from employing Steam power to facilitate the intercourse with the East are of that apparent and urgent nature, that no question can exist but the measure will sooner or later be adopted.” That such an event should be accomplished by Mr. Seaward, he has our best wishes ;—but by whomsoever, it will be most grateful to our feelings to offer our assistance in the furtherance of this great object, convinced as we are of the important influence it will have, both in a political and commercial point of view, on the welfare of India and of the British empire in general.

now.

CHAPTER RETROSPECTIVE.

As the present number concludes “ The Journal of Elemental Locomotion,and is prefatory to a Quarterly Publication, in an enlarged form, upon the same subject, we may be permitted to state afresh the object which was proposed in commencing the periodical, and how far it has been realized.

Gurney, whose name as the extender of

Steam to economic uses will take a higher place in the gratitude of posterity than Watt, the applier of it to physical, after bringing his invention to a degree of perfection, that a Committee of the House of Commons reported it to be “one of the most important improvements ever introduced,”—that “ its practicability is fully established,” and that “ legislative protec

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to

tion should be extended to Steam Car bread, and be so remunerated at home, as riages with the least possible delay,” thus consume prosperously commodities concludes the Pamphlet which he pub

made at home. lished in February 1832. “ Having ne

For this purpose we have addressed cessarily attached myself personally to the successively in the different numbers of subject up to this time, having had to The Journal of Elemental Locomotion,contend with difficulties of no common the landed, the manufacturing, and the description, which have long harassed my working classes, upon the common admind, and compelled me to neglect the vantages which will arise to each from the duties seriously due to myself and family;

introduction of a measure which will having conducted it up to a point, when cheapen food, and extend manual industry no further individual exertion can be use at home, in preference to having cheap ful : having placed the plain facts con bread by the method agitated by the antinected with the subject before the public, corn-law party : a method which would not and shewn that the great problem of pro- only aggravate the evil which it proposes to pelling carriages by Steam on common remedy, but which would inevitably unroads has been solved, I shall now retire balance production and consumption to an to other pursuits, until the moral and po extent which would shortly plunge society litical difficulties previously stated, are so

into anarchy. far removed as to shew that further indivi That we have succeeded so far in dual exertion may be useful. When this awakening public attention to the imporis the case, no considerations while I have tance of this project, we have to thank the life and health, shall prevent my returning daily and periodical press, which cordially, to the further prosecution of this immensely and almost unanimously, has supported us important subject." Where Gurney left in the views which we have taken of this off, our labours began. Ilis were to over subject.* In the hope that we shall recome the inertness of matter, ours to over ceive their enlightened and powerful aid, come the resistance of mind. The physical and belief, whether or not, that our labours difficulties were to attain the POWER, the will neither

prove

vain nor unblest, we now moral to form the will necessary to make close this first volume, which, whatever may that power available.

be the multitude of its defects, has at least For this purpose we projected the Pe its good intentions to cover them. riodical of which this is the concluding

That there is some fatal impolicy in our number; and notwithstanding the diffi SOCIAL condition is but too obvious; that culties we have had to encounter, sup it demands instant and extensive revision ported by the conviction that the argu is but too certain. Else, why after ninements which we have advanced are all teen years of peace, and what ought to have founded in truth and reason, and en proved recruitment, has the sere and couraged by the favourable reception which yellow leaf of national decudance come they have met with from many enlightened upon us? Why, whilst ocean groans and distinguished authorities, we have gone under the pressure of our deeply laden forward almost single handed to prosecute barks, bearing to our shores the rich triresearches in this new and unexplored bute of all lands, do the winds of heaven domain of economic science.—and to lay fill the canvass of those who annually the foundation of a school, which, in con bear away thousands of our expatriated tra-distinction to the theoretical ones, may countrymen, who are torn involuntarily be styled that of the hammer and spade, for from all that is most dear and precious to it directly proposes the formation of a community at home, who can make cheap

* Vide notices of the Press annexed.

IT IS BECAUSE THE REMOVAL OF BRUTE

AND CHEAPEN

FOOD OF

AT A MOMENT WHEN THE WANT OF THESE

IS THREATENING THE PEACE AND STABILITY

CIENT

TO

MAKE THE NATION TAKE

UP

THIS SUBJECT AS A NATIONAL MEASURE.

of our

common

their affections ?* Why is Ireland, with

Why is Ireland, with improvidently, into operation. No,-BUT her fertile soil and beneficial climate ulcered over with squalid poverty, the LABOUR WILL INCREASE HUMAN LABOUR, scene of constant insubordination, misery

HOME GROWTH, and crime? Why is the voice of once MERRY England turned from gladness into agitation and woe? Why does the OF SOCIETY; THAT WE SEE A CASE SUFFIvigorous pulse of Scotland beat in a feverish and unwholesome tone ? Why does the cry of wretchedness arise in all our dis This is the object which we have promitricts, and beggary appear in every corner nently before us,—and which we would of our streets ? Alas! hankering after move all parties and conditions to acforeign relations, instead of minding the one complish. The substitution in question thing needful, viz. to provide at home, that has already been retarded for several years, extended consumption should bear an ade from no other circumstance than want of quate ratio to extended production, has co-operation : and if it be delayed for a few been the fatal rock upon which the vessel more that convulsion may take place which,

prosperity has split. through the good providence of God, it Owing to this error it is, that notwith seems provided to obviate. The

power

is standing all our ascendancy in the arts of now given us to remedy, by artificial industry, we have forced our domestic means, evils which, situated as the country population into a condition which makes is, could not have been remedied by any vain and desperate all NATURAL aids for natural ones. Shall the means then be any purposes which are more than pal- wanting? We have already appealed to liating. And now we must retrace our the landed interest to promote its introsteps, and regenerate society by the arti duction. But this is the duty of no parFICIAL means which the progress of inven ticular class—for it contemplates the weltion has at length put within our power: fare of our whole community. We call To accomplish this, our labours have been therefore upon all orders to forward it as and still shall continue to be, directed; the most effectual and extensive mode of unless the clique whose system it is,-pur- improving our social condition. At a suing the shadow and losing the substance moment of such need, when so many and —to make the worse appear the better urgent claims are pressing upon the attenreasoning, turn the edge of an argument tion of the benevolent, it becomes them to away, and make it lose the name of action. reflect that here is a way of administering It is not that elementary power should be relief which will go far towards annihilating applied in a way that will cheapen, ac our distress instead of simply changing its celerate, and improve conveyance, that we character. With the groans then of milhave taken up a subject which might have lions of our fellow subjects ringing in our ended only in •urging it prematurely, and ears, we turn to those who are about to

expend their thousands, and tens of thou*The number of emigrants who landed at Canada

sands, upon the manes of men who require last year were no less than 66,339, whilst about that no column upon their native soil 32,872 went to the United States. Mr. Buchanon, the

should attest their remembrance, for their Government Agent, states the value of property taken

names will live in the east and west for with the former, at 600,0001. to 700,000l. This is an evil of a crying magnitude, and ought to be evaded EVER, upon the hearts of generations whom by the earliest possible exportation of our horses. their noble philanthropy has liberated and To encourage colonization is one thing--to en

saved. Let the friends of Wilberforce and courage it at such sacrifices, moral and pecuniary, is another.

Malcolm,-or rather,--for there is no

friendship between the living and the dead, ject which in a great measure will render

- let the friends of the Great CAUSE OF unnecessary all those other benevolent assoHUMANITY AND Man, which they lived ciations which are now labouring for the to promote, consider that the sum of improvement of the lower orders. Upwards 350,000l., now required to commence this of one hundred thousand pounds, indeundertaking will,-over and above all the pendent of years of toil and discouragement, collateral advantages to arise from the em has been expended by the individuals who ployment that will be afforded in forming have matured the project. Shall then the the road, from accelerated conveyance, nation fail liberally to second their geneand circulation of capital from increased rous exertions? It is not a small matter intercourse, *—be so invested as to sweep which contemplates the regeneration of away the brutes which now consume Great Britain. Parliament has given annually what would feed FORTY THOU 20,000,000l. to break the chain of slavery SAND of our starving people, and secure abroad,- let it not withhold 10,000,0001. constant occupation and independence for to break also that worse than serval upwards of TWENTY THOUSAND FAMILIES, bondage, the chain of pauperism, which is and then think whether, at such a moment unchristianizing society at home. We have of exigent and threatening distress,f any spoken of the vast POLITICAL benefits which better object can claim the appropriation will flow from the general introduction of of their FUNDS. Is it a moment to found this measure. The COMMERCIAL benefits schools, and endow hospitals, when the which will result from a mode of conschoolmaster and poverty are universally veyance which will concentrate the energies abroad? Situated as we are, food and work of the country-economise valuable timeare necessaries, the other superfluities. open up to more distant parts of the emThe Donation Fund of the INSTITUTION pire the avenues of wealth and industryof Locomotion, under the management of generalize those necessaries which want parties in whom the public may place of rapid communication, or its expense, implicit confidence, is intended to ac now confines to local markets—spread the celerate the general introduction of a pro inland tables of all classes and ranks with

the rich but perishable bounties of the deep, * What this will amount to may be guessed at from the fact that improved conveyance between be no longer an unequal distribution of property! Glasgow and Paisley has since 1830 increased the that a new state of society is contemplated ! that annual intercourse from 32,831 to 240,000! and spoliation and agrarian law must take place! and during the last year between Edinburgh and Dale that individual suffering must be endured for keith, from about 1,000 to 50,000. A triumphant ex national good! The rights of property are there emplification of the utility of expeditious and cheap represented as belonging to none individually, but to conveyance, and of its power of reproducing work all generally ; none are to enjoy the fruits of former for itself. See Macneill's Canal Navigation and industry and enterprise ; and those who do not now Chambers' Journal.

stoop to produce are not to enjoy! and we are told + A society has sprung ont of the trades' union in that societies are forined and linked together in Manchester, called the society for national rege England, France ! and Germany, all actuated by the neration. In this it is proposed to found a new same intentions, and all aiming at the same object.order of things--to reduce the hours of labour to Standard eight per diem, and to keep the same rate of wages. Whilst the lower orders are thus at work over A catechism is appended to the rules, containing the whole kingdom, we repeat the question, what amongst the most revolutionary doctrines, the most has the higher orders done to counteract them ?artful appeal to religious prejudices, and holding out We say with Blackwood, in his last number, “ Let prospects to the workinen which common sense the higher orders beware, and take counsel in time. shows can never by any possibility be realized. They appear absolutely blind to the state of the Some letters which have appeared in the Morning country, even when their more clear-sighted infeChronicle throw a little light upon the object of these riors have lost hope : too many of them will be feastunions. These declare boldly that the aristocracy is ing like Belshazzar, when the hand-writing on the a nuisance, and must be abolished ! that there shall wall is before them in characters of fire !”

are

MORAL

with a profusion corresponding with their familiarise themselves occasionally with the inexhaustible abundance—and, in a word, rich land which forms their inheritance circulate over the entire face of society, to inhale the pure invigorating elementthose edible productions, of whatever kind, to smell the sweet breath of nature—to see which carriage now makes the monopoly the towns and towers, the mountains and of wealth, are all self-apparent. But there domains, the lakes and rivers of imperial

BENEFITS also sufficient to Britain - to hear the hum of her busy porecommend it to the support of the humane pulation—to know the lights and shades, and good of every denomination. The re the aspect, manners, and modes of human lease of the noble steed from the cruel do life, through all the length and breadth of minion of the rein and whip, will release man's industrial and social communities. us from the moral degradation which Nor is this all; the power which will ininvariably accompanies the infliction of the

vigorate the body will also refine the soul. latter. The sweeping away of the worth It is the chains and trammels of earth that less brutalized class of society, their at make so many earthy. The bondage of care, tendants, who now fill the gin-shops within, of toil, and of penury—fretting care-unand the streets without, with contamination remitting toil—cheerless penury—which and depravity, will improve the whole tone deadens the crowd alike to the objects of of the neighbourhoods in which they do time and of eternity. Unclog these, and micile. Nor as respects health and clean the unthankful lips will learn the accents ness, will the clearing away of the Augean of gratitude. Things that concern the everstables of all our large towns with their lasting peace will find a place when the filth and pollution, be less than blessed. At concerns of the perishing body cease to be the present moment, the vast lazar houses

perpetual : and millions will put on the in which are overcrowded the trading and spirit of praise, when they can put off the manufacturing portions of our community bondage of heaviness. Discontent will then are enveloped in atmospheres impregnated no longer brood over the land, nor sedition with the effluvia and contamination of op

be busy at work amongst us. Disloyalty pressed and diseased brute nature. The will hide its revolting head, and immorality power which will remove these, and operate shrink down from its bloated dimensions. all the important and desirable changes Religion and loyalty will walk hand in which we have attempted cursorily to enu hand through our happy, attached, and merate, will also give to the poor the most prosperous habitations. And Britons again enviable property of wealth-that of Loco proud of the days and deeds of other times, MOTION. The walls of the eternal City will when their country"filled the ear ofempires no longer surround multitudes in the lower and never bent or bowed to foreign powers," walks of life, who live and die in the impure and worthy of their own, will leave to the air of their confined enclosures. But from ages that are about to succeed, the enduring saving time and shortening distance, it will inheritance of their piety, their liberty, their put within the reach of all classes of the unanimity, and their peace. people, for their health and recreation, to

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