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In confirmation of this result, the Di- bases which carry the rails are two feet rectors state in their Report, July last, that square. The weight of the large locomotive “ the expenses include the cost of two engines is above ten tons, more than half of new engines. But a considerable saving which being thrown on two of the wheels, is expected to take place by the recent ap- each block has three tons weight on it, when plication of brass tubes in the engines, in those wheels pass over it; consequently lieu of copper tubes, previously used, WHICH the pressure upon every square inch of the WERE ALMOST CONTINUALLY BURSTING," foundation is above four times as much as so that where the Doctor got his data for in the boilers of Bolton and Watts' steam the wonderful economy of the engine, the engines, from which result, the sinkings next edition of his work will perhaps ex- and drivings into the ground alluded to in plain.
the Foreign Quarterly Review. In fact, But one of the most vulnerable parts of there are in the whole, including every the whole question is, the bare cost of liability to derangement and repair, above keeping the Railway fit for use. For this 80,000 parts or places in every mile of the expense,
under the head of “Maintenance of Manchester Railway where adjustment of Road”i.e.asum not only more than 14,000l. repair may daily be required.” per annum, sufficient to pay five per cent. on But let us see how this same item will 280,000l. annually, but instead of being a affect Steam Carriages on Common Roads : mere bagatelle comparatively, as originally First. It should be remembered, that estimated, it actually now threatens, at no five or six years must be lost altogether, distant date, to stop conveyance altoge- besides a very large sum in interest alone, ther upon it, till the road is re-laid through- before Rail-Roads for long lines can be out the whole distance.
constructed, even for the chance of income; The Foreign Quarterly Review, for Oc- and then at a cost, which, as compared tober, 1832, observes, “The rails are not with turnpike roads, and the Manchester supported uniformly by laying on the sur- Railway, is as 40,733l. to 1,500l. per mile, face of the road, but rest upon stone pillars or more than twenty-seven times dearer or sleepers, as they are called, placed at than the latter. But, according to the plan distances of a yard from each other; and of Sir Henry Parnell and Mr. Telford, the as the great weights pass over them with
expense of a stone railway to Birmingham considerable velocity, these sleepers are will be about one-tenth of the estimated driven deeper into the ground; so that the cost of the iron railway by four engineers; Rail-road soon becomes uneven, one rail whilst, on the principle recommended by having one direction, and the next a dif- Colonel Macerone, even new lines will be ferent one. Though these defects are not wholly unnecessary. easily detected by the eye, yet they are Secondly. Steam Carriages have not to very sensible upon close inspection with wait five or six years, or a single moment instruments; and still more so by the car- for income, having 28,000 miles of road riages that pass over them, as the wheels ready made for their use, besides the bein passing over the joining of two rails, re- nefit of not being constantly burthened as ceive a severe jolt, and also a change of the Locomotives on the Manchester Raildirection. Driven first on one side of the way are, with a drag to each wheel more road, then on the other, the carriage rocks than 400 times heavier in the shape of the like a ship at sea; whilst, at every swing, first cost; whilst instead of paying 4881. per one wheel or the other strikes a rail with mile for repairs, or“ maintenance of road,” considerable violence."
Steam Carriages can maintain their road Another writer, (Mr.Vallance) after much by paying merely two-pence or three-penceinvestigation, adds, “The stone blocks or halfpenny per mile for every mile they
travel on it, and not before they do travel Messrs. Gurney, Hancock, Ogle, and Ileaon it; whereas, the Manchester Railway ton, Brothers, are constructed on a prinmust pay annually in interest or toll, more ciple of separation and division, thereby than 2,000l. per mile, besides the 488l. per rendering it next to impossible that any mile for repairs, whether the road be used explosion, or rather opening should occur; or not; whilst the stone railway repairs and even if it did, the effect would be abwill cost not more than 301. per
mile. solutely so harmless, that any one riding on
the top of the boiler would scarcely know Thirdly. It may be said, that Steam Carri- that such an opening had been made. ages never will succeed, owing to the com- For the only inconvenience that can arise, plexity of the machinery, and the impossi- is the stoppage of the vehicle. These asbility of freeing it from the effect of jolting, sertions have been proved over and over and wear and tear, on the common roads. again, by the repeated burstings or openings But this, like all other objections, must
of some of the boilers, or rather tubes, surrender at last to the ingenuity of man. during experimental trips, close to the Already has the whole construction been backs of the passengers, owing principally simplified and reduced to a very small to the corroded state of the boilers, but not compass. The Inventors have far excelled to any defect in the principle, nor with any the Inventors of Railway Locomotives, ten other annoyance than delay. Had this not to one in speed off their own road. For been the case, a Committee of Engineers, not one of the latter can move effectually, headed by Mr. Telford, would not, after if at all, on a turnpike road: an assertion such occurrences under their own eye, supported by the evidence of some of our pledge themselves to the full practicability most enlightened engineers before a Com- of Steam Carriages, at a speed not attainmittee of the IIouse of Commons, on the able by horses. In fact, even these acciprinciple, that locomotive enginees on the dents will shortly be made almost imposcommon road, must carry with them from sible: and steam Carriages rendered as 21 to 25 times greater power than they free from delays as they are now destitute want on the railway. Besides, the boilers of all danger to life or limb on common used on the railway will not bear a roads. Yet, says Investigator, p. 107, pressure of more than 50 or 60 pounds to more fatal accidents occurred
the the square inch; whilst the boilers used 31 miles of Iron Railway between Liveron the common road, drive the carriage pool and Manchester, in three months, than along at the rate of ten or twelve miles an upon all the road between London and hour, and bear a pressure of 150 to 200 Birmingham in so many years.”—Witness pounds to the square inch (or more if the late Mr. Huskison, the Engineer's own necessary) that is nearly four to one greater brother, and many others, the names of than the Railway Locomotives.
whom, it is said, there is considerable reNor are the boilers of Railway Carri- luctance in declaring. ages constructed on a principal of perfect Besides, turnpike roads can and will safety, being all recipients of great diame- be made suitable. One of our most inter, strong merely by thickness and weight telligent engineers, Mr. Macneill, in his of metal; but sure to commit sad havoc evidence before a Committee of the should they happen to burst. On the House of Commons, observes, “If, on the other hand, the boiler of the Steam Car- road from London to Birmingham there riage patented in July last by Colonel were a portion laid off on the side of the Macerone and Mr. Squire, as well as by
road for Steam Carriages, which could be Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Charles Dance, done without difficulty; and if it were
made in a solid manner, with pitching and with ease and rapidity; and the road will well broken granite, it would fall little be equally open and serviceable for horse short of a Rail-Road.” The Commercial carriages. Road, for example, is confirmatory of Mr. “With regard to the wear and tear of the Macneill's suggestion.
long stones, or parallopepidons, which I Colonel Macerone, late aid-de-camp to recommend to be laid on all high roads for Murat, King of Naples, a well-known the use of Steam Carriages, no inconvedistinguished officer and writer, has also nient wear will take place on their surfaces edited a pamphlet on this snbject, pub- for the
of two or three years. When lished by Wilson of the Royal Exchange. it does, all that will be required, will be to The Times of the 1st of November, 1833, turn them over so as to present a new side in noticing this work, observes :
to the surface; and after another lapse of “ This is Colonel Macerone's plan, and time to do the like, until all the four sides it appears more simple, sensible, and feasi- have been worn in their turn. After this, ble, than any other yet proposed ; and far the parallopepidons may be submitted to less expensive, so the sooner it is adopted, the stone-mason's chisel. In laying these the better for the public,” &c.
long blocks of stone, care must be taken The Colonel describes the principle of that they do not sink so as to form dishis plan as under :
junctions at their ends. To this effect, piles “There is a certain, infallible, and very of wood of about a foot square, and from cheap method, by which almost every ad- two to three feet long, previously soaked vantage of the Rail-Road might be applied in hot coal tar, must be forcibly driven into to every ordinary road, except, I say again, the road, so that the ends of each of the on such lines as Liverpool and Manches- long stones shall rest on the surface of the ter; the like of which there is not in Eu- pile, by which means, if they sink at all, rope. If two lines of pavement, composed they will both sink equally and together. of stones, six or eight feet long, and one But on the construction of such roads, I to two feet square, were laid endways, shall treat more at length and more mialong each side of the road, a track would nutely, when required, at a future period; be formed at a very cheap and durable I will only repeat, that along such a road, rate, along which Steam; Carriages would whether hilly or level, such Steam Carriages most undoubtedly easily travel, at the as our's would travel at the average rate of, rate of twenty miles the hour. There at least, twenty miles the hour, including need be no levelling of hills--no filling stoppages, with ease and safety.” up of hollows-no levelling of any kind ; To shew also that other minds have been nothing but to keep to the surface of at work preparatory to making roads more existing roads. The two lines on one side suitable for Steam Carriages. Sir Henry would be for Steam Carriages going one Parnell has recently written a very elaboway; the other lines, for those travelling rate and able Treatise, explanatory of the in the contrary direction. If the road be
principles on which roads should be made, kept on a level with the surface of the long with plans, specifications, and contracts stones, the
carriages could easily quit the actually used by Mr. Telford on the Holystones for any momentary necessity. A head Road. And a Company is now well-paved road is a good thing in itself; forming to turn, in effect, one side of the but a road to which such lines of long turnpike road into a Rail-Road for Steam stones shall be applied, will allow of a Carriages, without “separating parts of velocity equal to that of a rail-road, at one estates and fields, with immense gashes hundredth part of the expense. All ordi- and mounds,” and without fixing a drag nary hills will be ascended and descended to the wheel of any of the vehicles travel
ling over it for first cost, heavier than a own eyes facts quite sufficient to satisfy
Steam Carriages on the Turnpike Line.
10$ But mark, by Statement No. 1, of the following Article, it appears that Steam Carriages, exclusive of the outlay for forming the roads, can be worked at a return of cent. per cent. ; whilst the actual return upon the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, as compared with the estimated profit on the Birmingham line as above stated, although possessing ten-fold advantages over the latter, does not amount to 24 per cent. for the half year ending June last. See Statement No. 2.
But as the weight of TAXATION is such, more than any man had been able to as to compel all classes of the commu- accomplish, the practicability of preconnity to obtain the maximum of labor, ceived impossibilities in the judgment of at the minimum of cost, can any step be some of the most eminent engineers.taken more likely to advance that object, But shall the author of such a boon to than one calculated to facilitate Inland his country be driven to the Land's End Communication, by the substitution of a like an exile, with his resources almost expower cheaper than rail roads, and more hausted, in an honest attempt to serve expeditious than stage coaches?
himself and the Nation at large? or, are To arrive at this desideratum, men of we to wait till he quietly descends into the genius and enterprise have directed their tomb of his ancestors, and then raise a attention for more than half a century, and monument to his memory in mockery of expended a large capital in various efforts the benefits received ? to bring to perfection Steam Carriages on Sir Charles Dance, though no engineer, common roads.
Oliver Evans was the next followed the example of Mr. Gurney, earliest to introduce the principle in Ame- and by some valuable improvements in the rica; Symmington in Scotland; and Gur
plan of his predecessor, succeeded in buildney in England. The first in 1772; the ing a carriage, which has already travelled second in 1786; and the last in 1825. the best part of 5,000 miles. Among nu
Mr. Gurney was no engineer, but a che- merous other trips, including the grand mist, yet did he build a Steam Carriage, experimental trip by the Committee of and actually proved by its performances Engineers, we see by a Treatise published
by Simpkin and Marshall, that Sir Charles * See Report, following Article.
Dance completed one journey from Lon+ See following Article, Statement No. 3.
don to Brighton and back, without any I See Statement No. 2. of this Articie. Ś See following Article, Statement No. 4. failure in the machinery.
Colonel Macerone is no engineer, whilst of ground; the latter 78 miles in one day his co-patentee, Mr. Squire, is one of our without any failure in the machinery; best operatives; yet the practical skill of the whilst Mr. Hancock has actually run for latter, aided by the ingenuity and talents of hire for many weeks together, from Padthe former, has produced a Steam Carriage dington to London: so that no very long time which justifies the Editor of the last Mecha- will elapse before each of these carriages may nics' Magazine, in saying we see enough be expected to take the field permanently to justify us in coming to the conclusion, and successfully against horse coaches. that Messrs. Macerone and Squire have, in The only question is, which is the best truth, produced a very capital machine, Steam Carriage? And the most effectual and one which might be safely left to bear way of solving the problem is, for the the brunt of competition, on its own un- government to do as they have done in the exaggerated merits.” It has travelled more case of chronometers, and the discovery of than 2,000 miles for days, weeks, and the North-west Passage, and that is, to months together, at rates varying from 10 offer different premiums for different Steam to more than 15 miles an hour, and re- Carriages, in the ratio of the reduction peatedly to Windsor and back, including they can effect in the cost of transport on all the steepest hills round London, even common roads; and as soon as a carriage when some have been newly gravelled, at a shall prove its claim to such reward, to speed of seven miles an hour; whilst the give a further sum, not exceeding a reacost for repairs is represented to be con- sonable per centage for previous outlay : siderably less than any other steam car- thus exciting the talent and ingenuity of riage proprietor has yet stated.
the kingdom to still greater efforts, and Messrs. llancock, Ogle, and Heaton finally accomplishing the grand object. Brothers, are not less entitled to credit, for Having thus noticed the claims of these the efforts which they have used to perfect competitors for the best method of cheap the principle of Steam Carriages. Each
conveyance, we resume our review of Railhaving travelled over many hundred miles
ESTIMATES FOR REVENUE. With regard to the estimated Revenue But we see no reason why the ratio for all the Railways now before the public, should be thus decreased, on the following it should be observed, that the whole of ground:the promoters are quite right in taking 1. According to Mr. Stephenson, jun. as a basis for their calculations the propor- the first five years will be the most expention which the expenses bear to the income sive, owing to blocks sinking, and breakage on the Manchester line. But unfortunately of iron. for the shareholders, some have accommo- 2. The published reports of the Direcdated the ratio to a basis of a very different tors, do not contain the whole cost of conkind, not from dishonesty so much, as from veyance in the waggon department, though an over desire to fascinate others with a proved to exceed 73 per cent. of the inliberal display of profits; by reducing the come in the last six months of 1831. For actual cost in some cases 40 and nearly 50 example-engagements outstanding, and per cent.; whilst they have added at least “ extraordinaries,” the latter including pro75 per cent. generally to the revenue, more bably a magnificent warehouse at Manthan is likely ever to be realized, after chester, which cost more than 20,0001. for adding to the cost the whole sum minus for the reception of goods passing along the construction and otherwise.