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We need say nothing then upon the in the reign of William IV. it is about importance of Parliament and of Proprie- one-fifteenth ;—that then landlords paid tors as a body going hand in hand to urge nearly one-half of the public revenue, now forward this great project. Were all other they contribute about the twenty-fifth motives wanting self-preservation will force

But this is not all-of the agrithe latter to give it their support; whilst, cultural system now in use in England, it whether viewed commercially, morally, or may be more truly said than of any other, politically, it has the most powerful claims that there is something rotten in it, whilst upon the protection of the former. At the all the other producing classes have arsame time, we only consider it fair towards tificially decreased the expense of their the manufacturing classes, to whom cheap respective modes of labour, the agriculbread of home growth ought to be infi- turists have actually increased theirs. The nitely preferable to cheap bread from im- Returns to the Board of Agriculture shew portation, to state that we consider the that the expense of cultivating 100 acres of agricultural interest bound to adopt this land in 1790, was 4111.; in 1803, 5471.; cheaper mode of raising food by every

and in 1813, 7711.! With all due allowprinciple of fellowship and honesty. Pub- ances for increase of taxation, and superior lic industry and happiness alike demand farm management, this is not what it ought that nobody in the state should make a to be. Whilst, therefore, we consider the monopoly of their productions, but should protection of our domestic agriculture the avail themselves of every improvement to

first duty of the state, we do not depart make them bear an equitable price to other

from insisting in the name of the manucommodities. If this is just in ordinary circumstances, what is it at a moment when * A Correspondent of The Times, December 7th,

enables us to make the following statements :predial and urban destitution are bringing

The wages of labour are, upon the average, from the largest divisions of our population into 75 to 100 per cent. higher in France than in the collision ? Now it must be kept in view,

United Kingdom. and we think we do the landed classes

The population of France is 32,000,000 : the con

tribution in kind, per head, 3141bs. of flour. The some service by reminding them of it, that, population of the United Kingdom is 24,000,000 : the -(when the poor-rates are subtracted from contribution ditto 228lbs. their incumbrances, which nothing but

The French nation, therefore, collectively furnish

79 per cent. more to Government than the British their criminal mis-management has per

nation collectively; the French nation individually petuated and increased, and the tithes, 37 per cent. more than the British individually. Yet, which a strong pull on their part will

paradoxical as it may appear, the Frenchman in get commuted, and that they are exempt

consequence of the low price of food is less heavily

burthened than the Englishman. If the income of from the legacy and auction duties, and each be 1001, and each pay 251. in taxes, the 75l, of from the house and window duties)—the

the former will buy 14,483lbs. of flour; the 75l. of

the latter, 8,400lbs.ergo, the resources of the one land-tax in this country has remained ab

for the conveniencies of life is 72 per cent. greater solutely stationary for the last 140 years, than the other. whilst those of the continent have been in Further, the French Agriculturists contribute a state of constant and progressive in

16,000,000l. sterling beyond their fair proportion to

the public revenue ; the English Agriculturists crease; that whilst the French land-owners

4,000,0001. less than their fair proportion. pay 123 per cent. on the nett produce of The corn-laws impose a tax, it is computed, of their lands, the British pay only about 3;

£40,000,000 upon the nation. The labouring classes

contribute about 8,000,000 to the Government taxes, that, in the reign of William III. the land

and at least 27,000,000l. towards the bread tax. How tax was one-fifth of the land-rents, whilst important then that change AT HOME to our manu

facturers, which will permit of this sum being exhand of the midnight incendiary has been employed pended upon commodities.

The “Anti Corn-law to a frightful extent. We look forward with fearful Societies” should all change themselves into Pro apprehensions to the coming winter."

Steam-Husbandry Societies."

facturing and other classes, that one of two and eat their bread by the sweat of their things shall be adopted, viz.- either reduc- brow, they shall nevertheless eat it in tion in the price of food, by the cheaper plenty and contentment. Under the somode of cultivation now put within their cial economy

which the extension of power; or TO ABIDE THE CONSEQUENCES. Steam to the purposes of brute labour will

It is truly fortunate for all parties that if allow, it shall no longer be said that the the former be wholly unavoidable to the wealthiest empire in the world is also the agriculturists it is also wholly desirable. most wretched one; or, that with all our The bane of having prices reduced, by boasted wisdom in science and art, we are Steam transport, and the antidote of pro- unwise in that which not rightly to know viding for the same by Steam husbandry, is misery and unhappiness! The better are both before them. We cannot sup- policy of the age of Steam must be to pose that the one will be unaccompanied make the millions rich instead of the by the other. We conclude, therefore, this units—to render monopoly the property of article, congratulating all orders of our the state and not of the stock-jobber-to fellow-subjects upon the bright prospects comfort a thousand happy homes, instead which the general application of Steam to of building up one bloated capitalist. economic purposes opens upon us.

At a

Steam, which, confined to physical purmoment when the resources of the country poses hitherto, has wrought such marvels, are no longer adequate to the wants of our extended further to economic, can achieve population—“WHEN A RESTLESS SPIRIT OF all this for by home means, equalizing the DISCONTENT IS EVERYWHERE ABROAD”

price of necessaries and conveniences, it and cheap food of home growth is a sine will adjust PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPqua non to an ameliorated condition, this TION : the unbalanced condition of which, beneficent agent steps in to accomplish alone, has deranged the currency--parawhat could not have been effected by any lyzed transaction—abridged industry; and, external process whatsoever. The speedy in a word, occasioned all those evils which and general introduction of Steam culti- at length have produced a nation divided vation is all that is required to make cheap into usurers and debtors, to the danger bread in England, in a way that will re- alike of the constitution, the altar, and the duce no one to destitution in England.

throne. If our industrious classes must still earn

RAIL-ROAD IMPOSITIONS DETECTED; Or, Facts and Arguments to prove that Rail-roads never can compete effectually with

CanalsSteum Carriages on Common Roads, or even Stage Coaches. Comprising a critical and statistical Review of all the Estimates now before the Public, both for constructian and revenue ; with comparative Tables of the actual and the ESTIMATED cost and profit, &c.; thus presenting the only safe guide yet published for future Investments.

The following able Article will go far to settle the whole money question, as to whether Rail-roads be or not a profitable speculation; and have only to add, that it is not the first time that our valued Correspondent Veritas has done the State some service, by exposing the errors and mis-statements of Engineers and Speculators.—ED.

At a moment when the mania for Raik burthen carried on the Railway, to be 4,000 way speculation is not unlikely to involve tons daily, for 312 days, or according to at least Sixty Millions of capital, should the original estimate 1,248,000 tons, the all the 3,000 miles be laid down which have total weight paying NOTHING to the Sharebeen contemplated by the Treasurer of the holders would be in the same ratio, at least Manchester Railway, it may not be unin- 880,941 tons. teresting to prove to the satisfaction of those Hitherto, the calculation has been made most prejudiced in their favour, how per- on the supposition that no carriages or fectly unable Rail-Roads are to compete waggons travelled empty. But from the with Canals,-Steam Carriages on com- statement issued by the Directors for inmon roads, or even Stage Coaches. structions to Messrs. Rastrick and Walker,

That rail-roads have a decided supe- dated 12th January, 1829, the following riority over all other methods of convey- calculation is made, shewing that the total ance yet adopted, is certainly true, but weight paying no toll daily, to carry 2,970 only where great weights are required to tons of profitable weight would be as be carried very quickly, and without regard under :to expense.

Waggons and empty waggons from Fons. For example:- Locomotive engines, on Liverpool to Manchester .

2,180 the Manchester and Liverpool Railway, Ditto from Manchester to Liverpool 2,500 have drawn 90 and even 100 tons at one Ninety-six engines and tenders, at time, at the rate of 20 miles an hour; 10 tons each

1,960 being twice as great as Boats on the Paisley Canal, and Steam Carriages on Total dead weight paying no toll 6,640 common roads.

But as the whole weight carried, in the Thus, if 2,970 tons of profitable weight most profitable half-year of the Manchester cannot be carried without 6,640 tons of and Liverpool Railway, as shewn in State- weight paying no toll, 4,000 tons of the ment No. 1, was 90,972 tons in 5392 trips, former would burthen the railway with averaging about 17 tons per trip at most, 8,942 tons, which, for 312 working days, as the profitable weight; it is plain, that as would be 2,789,904 tons, paying nothing, the engine, tender, fuel, water, and at- for 1,248,000 tons of profitable weight; tendance may be said to average about 12 thereby shewing that the Rail-road must tons, the weight not profitable was more carry nearly twice and a third of the whole than two thirds of the whole weight carried. profitable weight GRATIS, to make even a Assuming, therefore, the whole estimated gross profit of 74 per cent. per annum.

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according to the last half-year's income. wilfully made, far be it from us to assert. Thus explaining why the expenditure in All that we are anxious to impress upon the waggon department was 73} per cent. the mind of the public is, that in questions of the income, while in the coach depart- of apparently easy solution, engineers, j'ubment it was only 44% per cent. See State- licly announced as the “ most eminent," ment No. 2.

and surveyors of “ undoubted talents and But, it will be said, that the question is activity,” are not only confessedly at vænot about the surplus weight, or the amount riance with each other, but even with of expenses generally, but whether a satis- their own statements. factory return can be made for the capital. For example:--After the Manchester line To this however it may be replied, that had been twice surveyed, and all the lethe gross weight not only does now, but vels taken by engineers and surveyors, demust shortly diminish still more fearfully clared by the Directors to be of the highest the dividend. For the weight paying character; and after more than 20,000l. had nothing, is yearly giving birth to fresh been paid for their labours, no sooner were expenses, exceeding already 14000l. per an- they examined, in May, 1825, by a Comnum for repairs alone; whilst it threatens, mittee of the House of Commons, who were at no distant date, to stop the railway al

no engineers at all, than, says Mr. Treatogether. That this is no designedly mis

surer Booth, in his Treatise on the Railchievous view of the case is proved by the way, (p. 18), “a considerable ERROR in fact, that every year has actually produced the levels and sections was found to have a diminished dividend, although the goods been committed; and upon that ground, for conveyance have increased nearly cent. as well as upon others, the Bill was re

jected for the time being, with the excepOf this unpropitious finale to a plan, tion of the preamble, which was carried by that opened with such fascinating pros- a majority of one in a Committee of 73. pects, the cause is to be traced to the mis- A fresh estimate was then issued by the calculations of those, who, devoting all Directors raising the capital from 400,0001. their mind to producing velocity of trans- to 510,0001.; that is, from 12,0001. to port, overlooked every fact likely to im- 17,000l. per mile, and in order to produce pede the prosecution of a speculation, that the most perfect confidence in the accuracy could not fail to be a mine of wealth to of this estimate, after all the previous engineers, surveyors and solicitors, what- blunders, it was stated “ that to avoid ever it might be to the less fortunate Share- all chance of similar complaint in future, holders themselves.

the Committee had engaged the profesThe extent, to which these mis-calcula- sional services of the “ most eminent" tions have been carried, is such as almost to engineers, aided by assistants of “unstagger belief. Some of the estimates, it doubted talents and activity;" whose comis true, have stated in round numbers the bined efforts justified the fullest assurance, probable cost; and a few have even con- not only of the correctness of the plans and descended to enter a little into detail; but sections, but that the whole line would be the majority have wisely failed to furnish arranged with that skill and conformity any data at all; the projectors being well with the rules of mechanical science, which aware, that some influential names were would equally challenge approbation, wheall that were necessary to blind the avidity ther considered as a national undertaking of capitalists, who depend more upon the of great public utility, or as a magnificent integrity of ignorant Committees, than specimen of art.” upon their own good sense.

Unhappily, however, not even the “most That these mis-calculations have been eminent engineers," nor the “undoubted

talents and activity of the Surveyors," in their original estimates, calculated the have been able to prevent a fourth break expense of an engine doing 936 trips down in the professional estimate, the cost yearly, or three trips per day, at the rate of having risen from 17,000l. to nearly 40,733l. 15 miles per hour, dragging a dead weight per mile. See Statement No. 1.

of about 30 tons, at 3241. 12s. 10d. inBefore, however, we proceed more par- cluding a sum of 541. wisely laid aside ticularly to point out other errors in the each year for replacement of engine and calculations for the Manchester line, it interest on cost, so that the estimated exmay be as well to remark, that the dex- pense for motive power, was calculated at terity exhibited for mystification, appears

less than 6s. 6d. per trip. to be quite equal to the talent for mis- The exact number of 30 mile trips made calculation.

by the engines on the Liverpool Railway Among the fascinations in the Report of in the most productive half year, ending the Directors, in March, 1832, the Share- 31st of December, 1831, was 5,392, of holders were told that the expense of which, 2,944 were with passengers. The Omnibus accommodation was no longer total profitable weight carried, including to be paid by them, but by the public. The passengers at 15 to a ton, was as before cost for carrying passengers in the half stated, about 17 tons, instead of 30 tons; year ending 31st of December, 1831, is yet the expense or cost of these 5,392 stated to be 25. 0fd. each, including 3}d. trips for coke, wages, and repairs alone or about 15 per cent. for Omnibuses; yet, (allowing nothing for replacement) was in the last half-year the cost for passengers,

12,2031. 55. 6d. or a little above 21. 5s. 3d. instead of being 1s. 9 d. averaged about per trip, instead of 6s. 6d. per trip; or the 2s. 10 d.; thus adding to the cost more bare cost of an engine doing 936 trips was than four times the amount of the whole 2,1071. 14s., instead of 270l. 12s. 10d., thus saving professed to be made by the Direc- proving two eminent engineers to be out tors fifteen months previously!

in their calculations, in this item alone, So, with regard to the revenue, the pic

more than seven times over! ture was equally flattering. For the car- To prove also how strangely some of riage of goods was estimated to produce our Reviewers are out in their calculations 50,000l. per annum. or 5 per cent. on one as to the capabilities of this Railway, Dr. million of the capital; instead of which, the Lardner states in his Treatise, that the half year ending 31st of December, 1831, Locomotives actually travel over it, 25,000 did not even yield one per cent. In two or 30,000 miles without any expense whatwhole years, 1831 and 1832, it did not ever for new tubing; yet, in the same average yearly 2 per cent. and in the last half year as last alluded to, the charge for half year, only 1} per cent. The coal and repairs and attendance on the Liverpool turf was estimated to return 20,000l. per Railway Coaches is stated to be 7,4551. annum; yet, the utmost they have pro- including 3,2541. for Omnibus accommoduced in eighteen months is less than dation ; leaving, therefore 4,2011. for re2,3001.

pairs and attendance alone. The number Among other delusions, previous to the of 30 mile trips being 2,944, the total opening of the Railway, it was said by number of miles was 88,320, and as 12 some of the engineers, that in proportion out of 24 engines employed may be consias the speed was increased, the expense of dered actually engaged in the Coach deconveyance would be diminished, as the partment, it follows, that instead of these engines, by doubling their speed, would engines travelling 30,000 miles for nodo, in the same time, double work. Ac- THING, they cannot travel even one quarter cordingly, Messrs. Stephenson and Locke, of the distance without an expense of 4,2011.

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