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cheap grade of opium, from which the morphine has been extracted, poor ipecac, and common sulphate of potash; but suppose Messrs. Smith, Thompson & Brown, pharmacists, take special pains with their Dover's powder, using the best drugs obtainable, and conforming to an exact standard of purity and strength. The profession find that this Dover's powder can be depended on, and when they prescribe this remedy, they take the pains to write for the "Dover's powder of Smith, Thompson & Brown." But this is lengthy and troublesome, and the firm obviates the difficulty by simply naming their preparation Doveria. Doveria means, then, the "Dover's powder of Smith, Thompson & Brown." Anybody else can make Dover's powder, but he must not call it Doveria.

This principle of progress and improvement runs through everythingfood, clothes, tools, etc. For instance, let us suppose that table salt is coarse, improperly ground, full of dirt and impurities. An enterprising man sees the need of better salt. He prepares a grade which is fine, evenly ground, clean, and pure. To distinguish it from ordinary salt he calls it Saltina, and this is what you ask for because you want good salt. There is a firm in Syracuse, N. Y., which makes children's shoes called Ironclads. They fit better, look better, and wear better than the ordinary shoe, therefore, there is a great demand for them. Any one can make children's shoes, but no other firm can make children's shoes and call them Ironclads, because the word Ironclads becomes the property of the manufacturers who first adopted it as their trade-mark, and hence their right to the name is justly protected by law.

There are just four classes of people who are opposed to the use of ethpharmal medicines. First, those druggists who want to make more on their prescriptions; second, manufacturers of substitute preparations who want to trade on the reputation of established houses by substituting their cheap fake remedies for the reliable preparations; third, doctors who want to advertise the fact that they are ultra-ethical, narrow, and prejudiced, and so domi

nate the fourth class which is made up of those who know nothing of the subject, and are led by the pompous, pretentious men of the third class. It is difficult to understand how any sane doctor, who really wants to cure his patients, and build up a reputation for skillful practice, can reject the elegant ethpharmal preparations, of uniform strength, made by reputable manufacturing chemists, unless his interest is antagonistic to their use. Of course, if

he has something else to sell, or he wants to advertise himself, his course becomes intelligible.

Phthisis.

The great first cause of consumption is, undoubtedly, bad digestion, and an habitual confinement in an impure atmosphere. Bad air is devitalizing; pure air stimulates the respiratory and circulatory centers, and thus quickens general nutritive activity. When the air is foul, the system soon becomes saturated with carbonic acid gas. This gas stupefies the nerve centers, just as water smothers a fire, the heart beats more feebly, the pulse is slower, the brain and nerves more sluggish, digestion, assimilation, and elimination are impaired, the nerves are ill-nourished, become sensitive, and unable to oppose vigorous resistance to the influences of environment.

With the system in this lowered state any trivial occurrence, such as wet feet, prolonged exposure in damp, foggy weather, a draught, etc., will precipitate a pulmonary catarrh, which, ordinarily, is easily cured, but with the vital powers at low ebb soon runs on into consumption. Consumption is a disease of half-way civilization. We have left behind us the immunity of savage life, and have not yet acquired that full and broad knowledge, which, alone, can protect us in the habits and occupations of civilization. If we wish to stamp out consumption, we must worry less over what becomes of the sputum of patients, and take measures to see that factories, shops, tenements, schools, theaters, churches, and other places of employment and assembly are bountifully supplied with pure air. If all such places

were fitted out with machinery to pump in an abundance of air, and mechanical devices employed to keep it circulating, the decrease in the mortality from this dread disease would be astonishing. Air and light are the two greatest tonics on earth. They are cheap and abundant, but ignorant, superstitious man turns from them to dabble in filthy serums, and persecutes the unfortunate sufferer from phthisis with petty restrictions which affect only the results of the disease, leaving the root of the trouble untouched.

Decline of the Klebs-Loeffler Bacillus.

It is sad to note the growing erraticism of the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus. This malevolent little elf has been the right hand of that great oligarchy, known as the Health Board. By means of the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus, health boards have been enabled to appropriate large sums from the public treasury; they have been allowed to go into the drug business to make antitoxin for the dear people; they have billed the residences of those who harbor this germ, as pesthouses; they refuse to permit all children to attend school whose throats contain these germs, regardless of clinical symptoms; they dictate what the individual physician's treatment shall be when this germ is found, and proscribe and persecute him if he does not follow it. They publish in the newspapers sensational accounts of the dire evils which would happen to the people, owing to the activity of this murderous germ, were it not for the sleepless watchfulness of omniscient and omnipotent health boards. When we read these glowing accounts of the paternal care of American Health Boards we feel that "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," were little enough to give in return.

But, alas, just as health boards were riding securely upon the topmost wave of Klebs-Loeffler bacillus popularity, some bacteriologists, with Macbeth-like consciences, have reluctantly admitted that the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus is not at all diagnostic of diphtheria. It seems that this germ may be present for months at a time in the throats of

perfectly healthy children, and that repeated and painstaking examinations may demonstrate its absence in the most virulent cases. Bacteriologists, beginning with the least enthusiastic and most conscientious, are coming logically and inevitably to see that germs are effects and not causes, and that they may be found wherever morbid secretions afford a fertile field for their cultivation. A diphtheritic throat may, or may not, afford such a field, depending upon the vitality and nutrition of the throat structures, the amount and character of the exudation, etc. So, in very severe cases, an extensive, but well organized membrane, with dry and swollen surrounding structures, offers a very poor medium for the development of the germ. The diphtheria, itself, is undoubtedly begotten in the constitution, escaping by the throat. The presence or absence of germs signifies little except to health boards, to whom germs are the chief source of power.

Open Your Eyes.

A man draws a pint of blood from a goat. He removes the fibrin and decants the serum, adding to it a certain amount of tincture of opium. He then christens the combination goatoxin, and advertises it broadcast as a sure relief for pain. What would the profession think? Would it really believe that the goat serum was the pain-relieving agent; or would it see that the tincture of opium was the true anodyne, and the goat serum added simply for effect, in order to charge a great price for the fraud?

If we can see the truth about the goatoxin, why can not we see it about antitoxin? In the latter case, blood is drawn from a horse which has been poisoned, but which has not had diphtheria. The water of the blood is decanted, and carbolic acid or other antiseptic added to it. When this combination of tainted horse water and carbolic acid, or other antiseptic, is injected in diphtheria, it reduces temperature, and relieves inflammation. We do not deny this, nor do we deny that the goatoxin containing tincture of opium would relieve pain. Opium is an

old, old pain killer, and the value of carbolic acid and other antiseptics in diphtheria is nothing new. What we do deny, most emphatically, is that serum, in and by itself, will either relieve pain or cure diphtheria. No case is on record in which serum, used alone, has cured diphtheria. It has never even been tried. Why can not doctors open their eyes to the facts in the case? The drug combined with the serum is the active agent always, the serum nothing but an expensive and dangerous vehicle.

Of course, with hundreds of thousands of dollars invested in the making of this very expensive combination, and health boards moving heaven and earth to extend its use, no stone will be left unturned to force it upon the profession. But doctors should understand that when antitoxin brings down temperature and lessens local inflammation, it is the carbolic acid which has done the work, not the tainted horse water. Carbolic acid alone, salol, acetanilide, or antikamnia, would have done the same thing. This statement is not a matter of theory or prejudice. It can be fully substantiated by any man who will test the efficacy of carbolic acid in aqueous solution. It has been demonstrated by many physicians who are too timid to put themselves on record, that a one-eighth of one per cent solution of carbolic acid hypodermically administered, produces the same effects identically, as does antitoxin. This being true, why pay large sums of money for antitoxin? Open your eyes, Doctor, and see this matter just as it is, divested of its pseudo-science and pretence.

Diphtheria.

Diphtheria has been carefully studied of late years, and it seems plain that the disease is a blood poison, attended by a sudden and more or less extensive destruction of the blood corpuscles. It seems clear, furthermore, that the exudation upon mucous membranes does not constitute the disease, but is merely a result of it. Such a view of the cause and pathology of the disease must necessarily affect the treatment. If the disease originates in the destruction of

blood corpuscles, we must have a remedy to check this process. If the temperature runs high, and the local inflammation is severe, we must have a remedy to reduce the temperature, and thereby decrease the pain and swelling in the throat and nose. We must, also, keep the nose and throat clean to lessen local irritation, and prevent additional infection from the absorption of putrescent discharges.

The carbolic acid in antitoxin both checks blood changes and reduces temperature and local inflammation, and has thereby made considerable reputation for this fraud on common sense (antitoxin). But the carbolic acid used alone, hypodermically (one-eighth of one per cent solution), gives the same results, and there are other remedies equally efficacious.

Those who have tried the combination of Dr. Carpenter declare that it is a safe and an exceedingly valuable remedy for diphtheria in its worst forms: R Sulphuris... Glycerini

Acid Sulphurosi..

6 drachms. 212 ounces. drachms.

4

M. Sig.: Half a teaspoonful every half hour. Other physicians have had good success from the use of calcium sulphide, in one-half grain doses, every two hours. The trouble in the use of this drug is that it is slow of absorption, and where the stomach is sluggish it is often expelled from the body just as it was taken in. The preparation should be fresh, and comparatively large doses given. In the prescription of Dr. Carpenter the acid in the combination stimulates the activity of the stomach.

A French physician, named Stroll, reports sixty-nine cases of diphtheria treated exclusively with a solution of myrrh, with recovery in every case. The solution is made as follows: R Tinct. Myrrh Glycerini Aquæ.......

M.

4 parts. 8 parts. .200 parts.

The remedy is to be given both day and night, every hour or half hour during the day, and every hour or two hours during the night, according to the gravity of the case. The dose is a teaspoonful for a child of two years, two from two to six years. As the false membranes diminish decrease the dose. Dr. Stroll uses no local treatment, and re

jects serum therapy. The calomel treatment of diphtheria, as given by Dr. M. P. Morrell, in January, 1897, number of BRIEF, is also a very efficacious method of treatment, and has been very much commended by a very large number of physicians.

We hope BRIEF readers will give these methods of treatment, which are well vouched for, a thorough trial, and report results.

Diet.

Who shall decide where doctors disagree? The value of diet in relieving a diathesis is admitted by all, but it is impossible to arbitrarily prescribe a routine diet for any diseased condition. The wise physician soon discovers that each patient is a law unto himself, and to get the best results must eat that which personal experience proves to agree with him, avoiding that which he finds disagrees.

Some doctors advocate the sole use of red meat, and hot water, in the gouty diathesis. Others have had brilliant results from a purely vegetable and fruit diet. But the experience of centuries amply demonstrates that a mixed diet is best for normal man, and that departures from it, necessitated by disease, should be as brief and as limited as possible.

Undoubtedly, where there exists an obstinate tendency to fermentation in the bowels, a temporary diet of red meat and hot water will give good results, but when the abnormal condition has been removed, by dieting and intelligent drug treatment, return should be made to the ordinary mixed diet. When it is the stomach which is incapacitated, a vegetable and fruit diet will give best results.

Unquestionably, a part of the benefit lies in the fact that, in either case, the system is not gorged. Meat is so satisfying that we are not tempted to overeat as we often are when we sit down to a variety of food, and, in the case of vegetables and fruits, there is comparatively little nutritive pabulum, the bulk of what is eaten constituting an indigestible residuum which is expelled by the bowels. In other words, the semistarvation which patients on such lim

ited diets undergo, gives the digestive and assimilative organs a rest, allows the liver, skin, and kidneys a chance to catch up with their arrears of work, and the individual feels correspondingly better when the ashes and cinders of body waste are removed, the machine cleaned, and freshly oiled, as the result of dietetic abstinence.

A word in this connection about milk. It is not a dietetic cure-all. In fact, its beneficial influence is greatly overrated. Its digestion requires very active digestive powers, conditions seldom found in disease. Many doctors imagine that they are returning to first principles in prescribing milk for patients, but the gastric digestion of young children is very active, whereas, in patients who require to diet at all, precisely opposite conditions usually exist. Many people can not take milk at all. It makes them intensely bilious, and it should not be forced upon any one upon a mistaken hypothesis. Milk may be used in cooking, as in rice, custards, puddings, etc., without causing as much digestive disturbance as when taken plain.

Bananas, when prepared by cutting half an inch or so off each end, and baking in their skins, or hulls, for fifteen or twenty minutes, are especially delicious and nutritious. When done, the skins are split open with a knife, and the inside is then ready for eating. It is said that so prepared, they contain as much nutriment as milk, and are more easily digested.

The Mind.

Mind is the product of brain activity. The powers and extent of any given mind depend upon the health of the individual's brain plus heredity and education. If a man inherits a healthy body, and lives rationally, his mind will manifest force and ability along those lines in which the brain has been trained.

We must bear in mind that the brain is not a finished organ. It is still in process of formation, and its capacity for development is probably without limit. There are departments of knowledge perfectly comprehensible to one mind which another can not grasp at all, because that part of his brain has

never been developed. For instance, a great divine, lawyer or doctor may be absolutely unable to grasp the simplest principles of mechanics, and vice versa.

The brain can be trained to do almost anything, until by dint of practice and perseverance its action becomes automatic. Therefore, as the progress of the world depends upon correct thought, the individual should be early taught to think and reason logically. To inquire of himself if appearances are realities, and if so why, and what they signify, how they influence humanity, and how they may be utilized to promote the general welfare. Logical thinking should be the aim and object of every educational system, which should, also, adapt itself to the special brain capacity of an individual. There is not time enough in one generation to cultivate deficient brain areas enough to make them of practical utility. Therefore, it is necessary to find out what a man is good for, and help him to bend his energies in that direction.

Nervousness.

Nervousness has been termed the great American disease. Nervousness means increased or perverted nerve action. In health the nerves perform their functions without attracting special attention, but when disease develops, this action becomes so altered or intensified as to form a source of great discomfort and distress. When the nerves take on diseased action all sorts of

peculiar sensations are experienced. Burning and itching in various parts of the body, crawling and cramping sensations, lightning pains, slight rigors, abnormalities of the special senses, such as ringing, singing, talking in the ears, specks, flashes, parti-colored lights, and apparitions appearing before the eyes. Odd smells and strange tastes noticed. Sensations of impending calamities, inability to concentrate the attention, loss of memory and fidgetiness, blues, spells of weeping, alternating with hysterical laughter, are some of the symptoms characteristic of

nervousness.

are

Many patients, and not a few physicians, think these symptoms indicate

serious lesions of the brain and cord, but in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred they are due to indigestion. The stomach failing to do its duty properly, the blood is filled with poisonous products which irritate the nerves and produce the morbid phenomena above alluded to.

To cure these patients treatment must be directed to the stomach. Many patients will be unwilling to believe that indigestion is the cause of their trouble, because they have no pain or other symptoms referable to the digestive organs, but examination will usually disclose a dirty tongue, delayed digestion, some irregularity of bowels, etc. The first step will be to clean out the alimentary tract by a brisk cathartic, and to prescribe a remedy which will promote normal secretory activity in the digestive organs. Seng fills the bill admirably, and may be given alone, or in alternation with Chionia if the liver is inactive, or tincture of calumba, and muriated tincture of iron if there is much anemia. An abundance of some pure water should be drunk to wash out the stomach and stimulate elimination; and only such articles of food should be eaten as experience has shown to be digestible.

Be Practical.

The utility of medical progress depends upon the test question: Is it practical? No matter how numerous and ingenious medical discoveries and inventions are, if they can not be anchored by the requirements of ordinary practice, they are of no use to the world. The object of medical science is to cure the sick, to put disabled men and women into a condition of health, so that they may pursue their several vocations with the least possible amount of friction. The doctor is the carpenter of the body, drugs his tools in trade. These tools must be good, and he must know how to use them.

When a man is sick he wants his doctor to give him something to cure him. He does not care whether he is an interesting case or not. He is not anxious to have his disease pursue a classical course, or be treated by classical methods. He does not want to be inspected and discussed by all the

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