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when there is back of it something So substantial that it will withstand time and accident. A check is really paper money, based upon the substantial holdings of a man. A check is worthless when drawn by a man who has no money. Such a check is worth only the paper on which it is written, and the person who passes it is locked up, and properly punished.

But a paper dollar, which had nothing back of it, would be worth neither more nor less than the valueless check. It would be just as much of a fraudgiving nothing for something—and the fact that the great Government of the United States was the offender would not make it any less dishonest.

We can not make something out of nothing, even if we all agree to regard nothing as something. We must give for what we get something of corresponding value. Use, supply and demand, give value and nothing else. We must always bear in mind that all monetary systems have their origin in the early practice of barter, of exchanging something we did not need for something we did. Gold represents all these things; there is less uncertainty attendant on its production, and the price fluctuates less.

We want to get rid of the ambiguous word "coin" on our obligations, put the word gold there, issue bank notes based only on gold, in all denominations, including

one dollar; discontinue the coinage of silver, except the fractional parts of the dollar, and put our trust in intelligent thinking and hard work, rather than free silver, fiat money, or the demagogue's "tale of woe."

Henry George.

Henry George and Pasteur are two men who succeeded in "fooling some of the people all the time." Pasteur gave us a false theory of science, which has retarded our progress, and sapped our strength. Henry George has played the same role in political economy.

To be perfectly fair, we will admit that both men were sincere—that they believed what they taught. Nevertheless, we can not accept a man's conclusions because he means well.

Mr. George had a kind heart. His sympathies went out to the unenlightened, undisciplined human masses, but he lacked that God-like patience, that infinity of wisdom, which places each individual on the rack of life, knowing that only through hardship, toil, and suffering, can the human soul be built up and made strong.

Mr. George was an impractical dreamer. He wanted to substitute an unfair and impossible method for gradual evolution of character. He was a shortsighted man. Jesus was content to die ignobly, and leave the lesson of his life and teachings to do their work through countless generations. And his prophetic vision went not astray when he said he had "overcome the world."

Mr. George believed that those who, by industry, frugality, and forethought have accumulated wealth, should be taxed to a point where these qualities will cease to avail. Practically, he would discourage such invaluable traits by denying them reward. It did not occur to him that it would be less revolutionary, more helpful to preach selfcontrol, self-denial, and untiring effort to those who were to be benefited by the leveling down process.

The single idea, around which grouped all Mr. George's teachings, was that, as land grew in value, the tax on it should be increased. He overlooked the fact that, as the value of any property increases, so do its responsibilities and expenses without artificial aid. And even if his idea were carried out, it would hurt, not help, the masses, for it is always the tenant who pays the taxes.

In lieu of single tax, it would be far better for us if land were not taxed at all. It would stimulate the natural desire of every normal mind to own a home. The possession of a few acres or feet of land which a man has earned will do more to make him a sober, industrious, law-abiding citizen, than all the jails in the country.

What the masses need is not to be told that the minority, which has raised itself from the ranks by certain methods, should divide their gains with them. We should, rather, ask them to investigate and imitate those methods.

Pathies.

When the Doctor first graduates, he is very proud of his diploma and the school of practice which it represents. This is perfectly natural at the time; but, by and by, as he begins to handle disease in the concrete, to read current medical literature, to rub up against men of differing views, he begins to doubt the infallibility of any one 'pathy.

He observes that when a man takes cold, and has active congestion, the allopath will usually give him Dover's powder, the eclectic prescribes the diaphoretic powder of the American Dispensatory, the homeopath uses aconite, and the hydropath puts him in a wet pack, and these various methods all produce about the same effect. He then concludes that Truth is manysided, and starts out to seek it everywhere.

He finds that, as far as anatomy, physiology, chemistry, surgery, and obstetrics are concerned, the teachings of all schools are practically the same. That they differ only in their materia medica and therapeutics. He finds, too, that each school has made great individual progress along certain lines. He sees that allopaths deserve credit for nearly all our advances in pathology and surgery. Then he finds that the eclectics have contributed greatly to, and improved our materia medica. But for them, we should know next to nothing of the wonderful medicinal virtues of many indigenous plants, nor sufficiently consider the importance of pure, active preparations. On the other hand, the homeopaths have given the medical world a quantity of invaluable information pertaining to hygiene and dietetics. The benefits of the system of hydropathy, perfected by Preissnitz, have been recognized by all schools, and, to a modified extent, introduced into their practice.

When the Doctor reaches this point, while he still loves and reverences his Alma Mater, he has long since ceased to lay stress on the fact that he is a 'path, if, indeed, he has not forgotten it. He reads the journals and other literature of all the schools, and uses any drug, or practices any method which gives good results.

If you should ask him for an opinion on the subject, he would tell you that a pathist was a small man, that there was good in all systems of medical practice which had survived the test of time and experience, perfection in none, that the wise man honored Truth wherever he found it, that the true physician was satisfied to be simply a DOCTOR, and that this title, worthily lived up to, should bring him universal recognition, and confer upon him all the privileges and courtesies of the great medical guild, regardless of sectarian lines.

Credulity.

A man takes a pint of tainted blood from a horse. He decants the serum and puts it into a bottle, adding carbolic acid, sufficient to make a one-eighth of one per cent solution. Then he fills a similar bottle with distilled water, adding the same percentage of carbolic acid.

This doctor has two cases of diphtheria-sisters. The symptoms are identical; there is but two years difference in their ages; it is a fair test case. To one he gives the tainted solution of carbolic acid, known as antitoxin; to the other, the pure aqueous solution. The results are the same. In each case the temperature falls, the irritation in throat lessens, the membrane begins to separate, and lymphatic activity in

creases.

But when convalesence begins, he notices a difference. The patient to whom he gave "antitoxin" progresses more slowly than the other. Her heart is weaker, more irritable. She has annoying pains in muscles and joints. Appetite is deficient, and the temperature has a trick of running up a degree or two towards evening.

About this time the Doctor begins to think, and his reflections run in this wise.

If a pure solution of carbolic acid will give me all the good effects of antitoxin, with immunity from these unpleasant sequelæ, why do I use antitoxin? Why does anyone use it? Why are physicians so credulous? Surely, of all people on earth, they should be most original in thought and deed.

Dead blood serum is nothing but a solution of ptomaines. If I should inject it alone, it would produce almost certain death. Why, then, should I believe that it contains some mysterious, undemonstrable antidote to the diphtheria poison? Have not my own senses definitely proved to me that it is the carbolic acid, and nothing else, which produces the therapeutic effect? I will no longer be a shield for humbug. If I wish to give carbolic acid in diphtheria, I will do so, but I will not insist upon having tainted horse water as a vehicle.

Doctor, this is not wholly a fancy sketch. It is based upon a substratum of actual fact. This experiment has been made a number of times. Always with the same results. Those who will not accept its inexorable logic have not made, and will not make, a similar experiment.

The Tyrant King.

Cotton is king in the South, and exercises all the tyranny incident to that estate. Year after year, Southern farmers plant their fields in cotton, causing an immense surplus of this staple, and thereby entailing a fall in price below the actual cost of production.

When more of a thing is made than is wanted, the price begins to decline, and continues falling until an approximate correspondence is made between Supply and Demand. We have seen this exemplified this year in the rising wheat market, occasioned by crop failures abroad, and sudden, unexpected demands upon us to fill the shortage. Some twenty years ago wheat sold at a per bushel, but the opening of great Northwest, with its enormous acreage of wheat, sent the price toppling. The coincident decline in silver did not, as claimed by Mr. Bryan, affect the price of wheat. The decline in silver was caused by the operation of the law of Supply and Demand. More silver mines were discovered, and cheaper methods of working them in

dollar

the

same

vented.

The more of a thing, the cheaper. This law holds with cotton as with wheat.

The price having fallen to a ruinous figure, the people are alarmed, disaffected, looking wildly around for relief in any shape, and ready to lay the blame on any scape-goat. The politicians make the most of the situation. They see the farmers mortgage their crops for a pittance year after year, keeping themselves poor, dependent, abject, yet never say: Cut loose from the Tyrant which has enslaved you! Diversify your crops. You have the finest fruit lands on earth, and horticulture can be made a paying business. One of the chief industries of little Holland is bulb-raising. All our bulbs come from there. Study your business. Observe and think. exhaust your soil by eternally planting one crop. In England, farming has been reduced to an accurate science. They have not much territory, and must make the most of it. There they "rotate" crops with the best results. Florida is making money on her camphor forests. Get agricultural books and journals, and make experiments. There is no royal road to happiness or success, and you will continue to suffer so long as you struggle blindly with inexorable natural laws.

Do not

No, the politicians say nothing like this. Every slave of circumstance is a natural adherent of his. The politician would be the last man to cut his bonds. Although he sees around him, undeveloped, immense sources of natural wealth, and he, himself, occupies a position of public trust, he gives the people no hint, nor suggestion, which might set their minds working in the right direction.

Already excited and depressed as the people are by their unfortunate financial condition, and unable to think calmly, the politician continues to stir them up by working on the passions, instead of developing the reasoning pow

ers.

The South is immensely rich in natural resources. Her people are very bright. No man leaves the South but succeeds in making a name and place for himself. He has ceased to be the slave of circumstance.

But for the shameful betrayal of its politicians, the South would, to-day, be

the most prosperous section of the country. Politicians tell the people free silver, fiat money, communistic government, and other fallacies will remedy their condition, thus scaring away the Capital which would, otherwise, start enterprises among them, utilizing their agricultural products, and employing their labor.

Do you believe, Doctor, that this article does not concern you? Are you collecting all your fees? If not, it is because the people have no money to pay with, and if they have no money, it is because they are following wrong ideas.

No money can be made where none is. Money can not be put in a place by printing greenbacks and scattering them along the roads like autumn leaves. Money will inevitably gravitate to any place where it thrives. Material things attain value only through association with men and thought, and use. Doctor, you are a thinking man, a person of standing and influence. Do what you can to educate the people of your town in correct ideas. The first step is for them to cut loose from the tyrant, cotton. It were better for them that they raised no cotton at all, than continue to let this monster devour them, soul and body. And, above all, teach them to pay no heed to politicians who would wrest truth to prove a lie.

Uric Acid.

In the study of vital chemistry, the subject of auto-intoxication has received merited prominence. Of the various injurious products, resulting from deficient, excessive, or perverted nutritive activity, uric acid has received first consideration.

Uric acid is a waste material formed during nerve, muscular, and glandular activity. It is produced in large quantities. In health, the greater quantity is reduced by oxidation to urea, most of the remaining combining with alkaline bases to form more soluble salts, which are eliminated in the urine. Normally, but a slight trace of free uric acid will be found in the body.

In certain individuals, however, notably sedentary and neurotic persons,

who usually suffer from some form or phase of indigestion, tissue metabolism is sluggish, and uric acid is manufactured in quantities so disproportionate that it can not be disposed of in the normal manner.

We have, then, circulating in the blood, a large amount of free uric acid. What effects does it produce on the animal economy? Like all poisons, it first stimulates, then depresses. Passing over the nerves, it makes them tingle, then jangle. It first makes the individual excitable and restless, then causes nervous inco-ordination, mental irritability, and lastly, apathy. Mental brilliancy is very common among these subjects. There is no doubt that many of the neuroses are due to the habitual presence of excessive quantities of uric acid in the blood, various forms of tremor, paralysis agitans, etc.

On the circulation we find that uric acid first increases cardiac irritability, giving no palpitation, then arterial pressure rises, and the heart slows down, or becomes irregular, with intermittent action.

On mucous membranes uric acid first produces a stimulating effect, increasing general functional activity. In this way, we have induced an appetite for food, greatly in excess of the system's needs," which, when gratified, results in the building up of large quantities of soft anemic fat. But the second degree of stimulation is irritation. The function of mucous glands is to protect the membranes in which they are situated. We find, then, catarrhal inflammations of the mucous membranes most manifest in those whose blood supply and functional activity are greatest.

In children, the production of uric acid is very great because of incessant metabolism, but great muscular activity and rapid elimination keep the system in equilibrium in most cases. In others, however, it is the cause of obstinate enuresis, of obstinate post-nasal trouble, of chorea, etc.

In the treatment of uric acid diathesis, the old method consisted of the liberal administration of alkalies to neutralize the free acid. But the formation of soluble urates in such quantities overstimulate the kidneys, causing conges

tion and pain in the pelvic region. Moreover, such treatment did not touch the cause in chronic cases. In acute cases of uric acid storm, which result from temporary dietetic excess, or a sudden change of habits, the alkaline regimen is often satisfactory. the chronic hereditary diathesis, this is insufficient. We must, therefore, turn to digestion and assimilation.

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A majority of those who suffer from uric acid diathesis find difficulty in digesting carbohydrates and fats-intestinal dyspepsia. This throws an undue amount of work upon the liver. In this form of dyspepsia any drug which will stay fermentation is of benefit-sodium salicylate, salol, Listerine, Seng, etc., all are good.

Where symptoms are referred chiefly to the kidney, more especially in recent cases, or crises in more chronic ones, Lithiated Hydrangea gives good results. The hydrangea seems to regulate the kidney's activity.

Where the mucous membranes have developed catarrhal inflammation, as in nephritis, cystitis, prostatitis, urethritis, etc., there is no remedy in the materia medica which can equal Sanmetto for Soothing and healing, if taken long enough.

Nitro-muriatic acid is recommended for its reducing powers, and, where it is used, we would recommend Dr. Brodnax's combination with ferrous sulphate and potassium nitrate.

Cactus.

Some years ago the wonderful virtues of cactus as a cardiac tonic were discovered. Many experiments were made with the drug, and numerous tinctures and fluid extracts placed upon the markets. These gave various results. Some doctors were encouraged, others disheartened by their experience with the drug. Some praised, others decried its efficacy in heart troubles.

At length it was discovered that cactus possessed an active principle upon which all its medicinal virtue depended. Mr. Sultan, of the Sultan Drug Co., St. Louis, made this discovery, and he further found that the percentage of the active principle which

the plant contained varied very much. This percentage was shown to depend upon many different factors, as for instance, climate, meteorological conditions, soil in which the plant is grown, time of year at which it is gathered, etc., and varies all the way from a few grains to an ounce per pound.

These facts explain the great difference in action of the various fluid prepations of this valuable drug-they differed in the amount of the active principle which they contained. Since the introduction of Cactina, which possesses all the therapeutic qualities of the plant, and is absolutely uniform, the profession has had perfect satisfaction in its use.

We cite these facts in the history of cactus to stimulate interest in the subject of pure drugs. If more time were spent in studying the conditions and habits of plant life-or such of them as are used in medicine-and the best methods of extracting and preserving their medicinal properties, it would greatly profit the practical side of medical science.

Indispensable Remedies.

A correspondent asks: "If limited to thirty remedies, which would you select?"

Nearly every Doctor has a few favorite remedies with which he does most of his work. These he knows thoroughly, their good points and their weak ones. Still, there are remedies which have attained wide celebrity through the uniform experience of a majority in the profession. With these all should have a speaking acquaintance.

The Editor's preference is for the so-called ethpharmal or proprietary medicines, those made for physicians' prescriptions only, when they can be had, because of their purity and uniform strength.

Beginning with the most important organ in the body, we would select as stomach remedies: Seng, Lactopeptine, and Fairchild's Essence of Pepsine. In intestinal dyspepsia, however, a combination of Listerine and Seng, equal parts, gives fine results.

Among hepatic remedies, Chionia is excellent where a gradual effect is

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