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that a big German navy is necessary
divided over the moral phases of that for the nation's good.
war, much as in England it has been In 1897 a German official was sent divided regarding the Transvaal. The to Kiao Chow to report on the harbor German Press, however, as though reworks necessary to make the place hearsed for this purpose, burst out with useful, and on his return he published one voice in unexpected attacks upon a book about his journey out and back. America and the Americans. From Franzius was the name of the author, day to day the papers of Berlin proved I think. His whole journey forced his to their own satisfaction that America ship to be the guest of England at would be quickly defeated by the brave every coaling station between Naples Spaniards, who were represented as and Shanghai, yet in the book he has maintaining the cause
of justice no mention of the service to the world's against Yankee cupidity. German pacommerce performed by England. On pers were full of letters from alleged the contrary, the author dwells upon correspondents at the seat of war. At the advantages which Germans might Tampa, however, where the American have if they could avoid British lios- army of invasion gathered, I failed to pitality at Hong Kong and elsewhere. discover a single German war correThe book is remarkable is being an spondent, yet during all that time the \ official expression.
German public read daily bulletins, Now, no doubt this and similar works pretending to be first-hand reports from have the effect of stimulating in Ger- special correspondents. The Government many a readiness to spend pioney for organs of Berlin led the way in this the navy, but at the same time they general depreciation of everything encourage notions that are false and American, and as these articles were mischievous. German trade in the Far reproduced in America they caused surEast has thriven under the protection prise and pain amongst former friends of the British flag, just as it has waxed of Germany. The average American strong under the Stars and Stripes in could not understand what motive America. The tremendous strides of Germans in general could have for disGerman commercial progress in the cussing American affairs in a hostile last thirty years have been the result manner. He could understand Gerof honest and intelligent labor by a mans disapproving of the war, but he people well organized for commercial could not see why Americans in gensuccess. The German receives in his eral should become an object of attack schools, and subsequently in the army, by Government journals. a discipline that tells forcibly when he Then came news that a German Adbecomes an industrial competitor for miral, in the waters of Manila, was the neutral markets of the world. not merely showing active sympathy
The German who knows the world with the public enemy of the United understands the machinery by which States, but was hampering our work in public sentiment in Germany is manu- other ways. Fortunately Admiral factured, but those who stay at home do Dewey combined sailor tact with sailor not, and therefore persist in a point of courage, and Admiral Diedrichs cor. view from which every move of Eng- rected his behavior when it was made land or America is regarded as a men- clear to him that he might draw his ace to German prosperity. We Ameri- country into war sooner than had been cans saw that with painful distinctness anticipated in Berlin. in 1898 when war with Spain was de But the mischief had been done. It clared. Public opinion in America was is well for German official organs now
to tell us that Admiral Diedrichs ex- the etiquette usual on such occasions. ceeded his instructions and that Ger- Consequently German officers felt agmany preserved strict neutrality grieved by the behavior of this party, throughout. That may be accepted in and many expressed to me the opinion the Foreign Office, but it does not carry that these young Englishmen meant to conviction with the people. Two trifles be insulting to Germany. have profoundly modified the relations As to Americans, Germans expect of Germany with the Anglo-Saxon nothing any way. From America they world. The one was the despatch to receive usually the genus DeutschKruger in 1896, the second was the ac- Amerikaner, which is three parts Hetivity of Admiral Diedrichs in 1898. brew, three parts German, and the reEach of these episodes has been offi- mainder a little of all sorts-a thing cially explained away as wholly inno- which talks very bad German, worse cent, if not benevolent, in origin, but English, and usually wears an Amerithe great body of the people has not can flag in his button-hole. His name yet fully realized that the explanation suggests German plants and minerals. is adequate. Whatever our views may
The United States not having permabe, the mischief has been done, partly nent officials, the men who are sent to by the Government, and partly by the represent Uncle Sam in Germany are Press of Germany.
usually those who have devious reasons And yet from the German point of for desiring the post. The salaries are view we are sinners also-heavy sin- contemptibly small, yet the post of ners. The Anglo-Saxon in Germany Consul to Germany is usually sought has not made himself personally agree- by such as are connected with the imable to the casual man he meets. The port trade of the United States. About German raises his hat when he enters three-quarters of the United States a shop. The Anglo-Saxon is a Boer in Consuls in Germany are German-Amerthis respect. He cocks his hat on the ican Hebrews, and these do not always back of his head, rams his hands into succeed in raising the estimate enterhis pockets, whistles and stares about the tained in Germany for the American streets as though he owned the place. citizen in general or the American offHe laughs at everything that does not cial in particular. There are plenty of meet his approval, and gets angry if Germans who know the truth about the waiter does not bring him just what England and America, and are shocked he has been accustomed to in his native at gross mis-statements circulated about land. The German who has travelled us through official organs. But their and known the Yankee and Briton at voices are drowned in a chorus of antihome knows how to make allowance English and anti-American sentiment, for our habitual absence of good man- which accepts pretty much all that is ners. But the average German listens bad, and raises question marks against incredulously when told that the Briton any statement in favor of such a thing makes up by honesty and other manly as an Anglo-Saxon conscience. virtues for what he lacks in the way To be sure that conscience has had of deportment. Not many years ago I a rather straining time of late, and no was present at some grand field opera- member of the German Press has protions of the German Emperor when a tested against the two last wars more Royal Prince of England was present violently than certain courageous politwith four aides-de-camp. Not one of ical leaders in Boston and New York these aides could speak any German, as well as in London and Manchester. and not one of them apparently knew The Spanish war had scant justification
in public law, and I am persuaded that the fall of Manila, I travelled in com. the American Government was hound- pany with two German Consuls bound ed into it by a clamorous Press agita- for the Far East. Each of them astion joined with large pecuniary in- sured me, with heavy thumps on the terests. But while that is true; it is cabin table, that the idea of America not the whole truth; and German pub- holding the Philippines was absurd, lic opinion apears to have absorbed that Germany would not allow it. And only this much of it, and been kept in to-day I find regrets expressed in Gerignorance of forces even mightier than man official papers that the German yellow journals and financial “trusts." war ships in the East were not strong There was behind this war party in enough in 1898 to enforce this view. America a great moral force which was This very attitude of Germany made shocked by the persistent misrule in unanimous in America a public sentiCuba, and of this no better evidence ment, which, up to that time, had been need be furnished than that 250,000 much divided on the subject of expanmen should have volunteered for active sion, particularly in the Far East. service without the necessity arising Germans who readily see that the for any exceptional inducements on the Pole and the Dane and the Frenchman part of the Government.
are improved by absorption into the Far be it from me to defend the con- Empire of the Fatherland, do not readduct of that war; it was characterized ily put themselves in the place of the by incapacity, jobbery and cynical dis- American who believes that Cuba and regard for human life. The Secretary the Philippines will be better for a of War was compelled to resign in dis- period under the Stars and Stripes; on grace, though he left behind him half the contrary, his official papers regard a dozen officials equally unworthy of
something presumptuous, that public confidence. The officers trained should be resented. to honesty and military leadership at As for the Boer war, England is fightWest Point were almost uniformly ig- ing for the integrity of the British Emnored in favor of amateur soldiers with pire, for the same sort of ideals that political connections, and, in short, I animate Germans who justify the suchave not yet met an honest American cessive military movements by which who does not regard the Cuban war as the Prussia of 1807 with 5,000,000 indisgraceful to pretty much all
habitants has become the German Emcerned, excepting the men who shoul- pire of 50 millions. I will not here endered the rifle and the West Point regu- ter into legal and technical justification lars who bore the brunt of the work, of this war; it is as misty to me as that got no promotion, and are now forgot- which preceded the war with Spain, ten.
or which preceded the Prussian occuAmerica holds Cuba, and the Philip- pation of Schleswig-Holstein. From pines as well-contrary to the official the point of view of men who hold a program sued at the beginning of the vote and not a brief, the war in South war. There was a time when Uncle Africa is now a necessity. We deplore Sam would gladly have handed back it sincerely, we honor the courage and Manila to any one who cared to accept motives of the great majority of the it; but that disposition was altered when Boers we have met; we honor them as the evidence came that Germany had we now honor the memory of Stonewall behaved in a manner which would have Jackson, or Robert E. Lee, or Jefferson robbed this action of all magnanimity. Davis. Grave political errors have been On my way to the Philippines, before committed, and the followers of Paul
Kruger are not without reason for suspicions. It is a melancholy picture for this generation of lads to hear that Jameson and Rhodes have been popular heroes for acts which ordinarily send men to long terms of hard labor in prison. It is not cheering to find that when thousands of brave English volunteers have been killed in the trenches the first people to profit by victory are a group of financiers, largely Jew and German by the way, who own Johannesburg, and who watch their mining shares rising in London while soldiers in the field are falling never to rise again. The Press does not say much about this side of the war, because the great papers of New York and London are under financial influence; but it is a fact which all Europe comments on, and which leads Germans to think that the British Army, as well as the Colonial Office, is moved by other than moral considerations.
The German has difficulty in piercing this web of hypocrisy, of brutal jingoism and cynical financial reasoning. But if he does, he finds beneath a warm national sentiment which has drawn to the battle-field youngsters from every county and every colony in defence of an ideal-the unity of an The Contemporary Review.
Empire. Germans misjudge
us because at this moment they are not inclined to credit us with the same motives they claim for themselves. We ask our German friends to believe that we do not wage war merely because some money speculators and filibusters are interested. We are ashamed of such eleme!lts in our nitional life, and we beg Germans to believe that on both sides of the Atlantic are honest public-spirited men seeking to uo good rather than evil. And furtheraore wc beg Germans to remember that wherever the Union Jack waves, there German commerce enters on the same footing as that of England, and that the German in Hong Kong is treated more liberally than the Englishman in Klao Chow. England has been the policeman of the Far East for now more than fifty years, and what commerce Germany and the rest of the world enjoy in those waters is owing to British administration, honesty, enterprise and money. The English flag nas carried civil liberty to every colony over which it has waved, and Germany has no reason to think that England in South Africa will depart from the traditions established in Australia and Canada, in Hong Kong and Singapore.
The stars look down from heaven above
When human hearts are breaking,
That sets poor mortals aching.
This love, they say, this fatal bane,
To us it cometh never,
Our deathless course forever.
THE VOGUE OF THE GARDEN BOOK.
There is a species of literature which place in which to talk with his friends, has lately attracted serious attention and it is a record of these conversations amongst us, and must, therefore, be which he mainly gives us in his prose reckoned with as one of the instructive writings. Mrs. Earle followed him or entertaining forces of the day. It quickly with the same departure from is not a new thing—it has existed for a old traditions, but with a different obcouple of hundred years or more-but ject, or, at any rate, a different result. in its present shape it is new, and in a From her we chiefly learn the art of larger degree than formerly it is attrac- cookery, as from Mr. Austin we learn tive to the reader. The garden book of --or should attempt to learn-the art of a century and more than a century ago conversation. And so the thing has was emphatically a book on gardening; gone on for half a dozen years. Some it was crammed with cultural instruc- writers choose birds for a main subtions; it abounded in technical details. ject; some choose friends, or Men of The garden book of this present cen- Wrath; some, books; and all under tury was also, until lately, entirely in- titles which lead the public to suppose structive; it cared not to amuse; its aim that it is buying a gardening bookwas gardening and nothing more. In gardening books being a craze of the the eighties there were indications of moment-when it is simply buying a an approaching change in the purpose diary written in or suggested by a garof garden literature, and the last half- den. dozen years have seen this change In so far as the object nowadays is stereotyped into its present features- to amuse rather than to instruct, there less instructive, perhaps, but certainly is no harm in the change. There is more entertaining than the old. There plenty of room for this as well as for can be no doubt about the demand for the orthodox horticultural volume this latest form of floricultural work, which will never be really superseded. and we may tremble at the thought But the mischief will come when the that this demand will probably bring ordinary Miss, in a fervid desire to conupon us within the next few years a tribute to the world's enjoyment, flies perfect avalanche of garden diaries, to a garden and writes within its prewritten to supply the public craving, scriptive recesses her journal intime which appears to express itself very for publication's sake-a diary which plainly in its appreciation and encour- will represent her gentle, simple soul, agement of the new fiction, as it may with its aimless efforts at floriculture, fairly and truthfully be termed.
and its pretty, unnecessary thoughts I think that to Mr. Alfred Austin be- on men and books and things, which longs the onus of first successfully we shall feel that we have somewhere sending forth this style of literature in heard before, or even read before. This the guise of a gardening work. There is assuredly the kind of book we shall were other writers immediately preced- get, and it is essentially the kind that ing him who were influencing the this sort of work should not be allowed change, but he, I think, was the first to fall into, if it is to have any perwho frankly and determinedly and manent value. successfully altered the scope of the We should begin by a clear undergarden book. He used his garden as a standing of what form the garden book