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When the whole of one nation is rep. barked on their venture with aims more resented as hating the whole of another definite or exalted than dividing handnation it is well to suspect that the somely among the shareholders. statement is false, or else that there Is it not curious that while that pehas been a vast amount of falsehood culiar form of patriotism known as employed in achieving this result. To Jingoism is essentially a product of the one who likes to believe that the world Press, the newspapers of Berlin, New is growing better as the masses of York and London are shared, owned people become more educated, there are and managed mainly by people of an few phenomena more perplexing, not to alien race, whose private point of view say depressing, than to note within the is that of the cash-box, and who inlast generation a growth of such bitter- flame popular passion in print with as ness between nations as at any moment little concern for consequences as the may produce war. The newspapers,
postman who brings a death message. to whom we look for faithful reports Early this spring, while making a on passing events, find it apparently walking trip through Germany, it was more easy to stimulate suspicion, jeal. not my fortune to meet with any disousy and dislike, than to educate their courtesy such as should have happened, readers and correct prejudice. Our according to the Press. From my expoliticians, on both sides of the Atlan- perience of the individual German, he tic, are inclined to treat the Press with is courteous to the individual stranger, dangerous deference. No doubt many unless that stranger takes the first step newspapers are leaders and educators towards a quarrel. In these times it of public opinion-the few organs of
my concern to learn German the thinking minority. But those who thoughts-not to ventilate my ownknow their subject are equally aware
and on the all-absorbing subject of the that in the great majority of cases the Boer war I found no reticence. Amongst newspaper is established and managed all classes, and in pretty much every with no more regard for moral senti. part of Germany, the same feeling prement than a soap factory or a steam
vails towards England, and that feelship company. The soap man,
ing is one which would make a war at doubt, rejoices in the purifying influ- any moment, if not popular, at least ences of his produce; and the shipping possible. man delights in spreading his national
On all sides I found but one view in flag in distant seas, but neither are em- regard to the Boer war-that England
was totally in the wrong, and the Boers encourage this view, excepting to make as completely in the right. Few of my use of Germans, to the same extent as acquaintances have written more than they have of Irishmen, or any other I have on the virtues of the Boers in people who would acept money and general, and I have not
shoulder a rifle. words when referring to that illegal When the Emperor despatched his and ill-timed expedition of Dr. Jame- message of sympathy with Kruger in son in 1896.
January of 1896, there was much surBut when I heard my German friends prise and some anger felt in Liberal talk on the subject, I stood amazed at German circles that so important & the statements they made, and I begged state document should have left Gerto know where they had picked up many without the countersign of the their alleged information. The answer constitutional adviser of the Crown, was always the same from the papers. Prince Hohenlohe. It was felt that To the German of to-day Paul Kruger the Imperial Constitution became little is another William Tell-a martyr in more than a piece of waste paper, if the holy cause of Liberty; the British messages meaning peace or war could are the tyrants, who, for the mere love emanate at the caprice of the Crown, of gold, are seeking to trample a noble and become precedents for future sovpeople from the face of the earth. ereigns less gifted in statecraft than
When I protest to these indignant the present Emperor. On the day of friends that England gives the Boers that famous despatch I happened to be in Natal and at the Cape more liberty in Berlin at the same table with two than Paul Kruger gives to his fellow- members of the Cabinet, and I venBoers from other parts of South Africa, tured to ask their opinion on this mes. they look at me incredulously. They sage. Both together raised their eyes have been taught otherwise, and be- and hands to heaven, and almost in sides I am disturbing a deep-rooted
the same breath ejaculated, sorrowprejudice which harmonizes with sev- fully: “But how could he do such a eral other preconceptions regarding thing!" That was the private opinion Great Britain. For instance, it is a of competent Germans then. Yet in pet idea with most Germans that in public, the official papers led the way some ethnological manner the Trans- in discovering that the message to vaal may become the nucleus of a Kruger was eminently wise, and the unTeutonic state which in time may be constitutional phase of it was quite lost absorbed by a combination of German sight of in the general belief that henceEast and West Africa. The Boer talks forth the Boers would regard Germany a patois not far removed from Mecklen- as their only friend, and would show burg Platt Deutsch, and when Paul their gratitude by assisting in hoisting Kruger first met Bismarck they are the German flag in neighboring terrisaid to have conversed in that jargon. tory. I doubt whether they ever got beyond All this sounds ridiculous enough beer and tobacco with their combina- now, but there is nothing more dangertion, but for political purposes the in- ous to the peace of the world than the terview was important; for ever since,
colonial conclusions of profoundly German colonial theorists have hugged learned professors who travel over the the delusion that because Kruger hates African map with a pair of compasses England, therefore Boers in general and a column of statistics. welcome a coalition with the Black Another widely accepted notion in Eagle. The Boers have done little to Germany is that India is groaning un
der the British yoke, and that the fam- rectorate of the Hong Kong and Shangines in that great country are in some hai Bank; at Cape Town I found a way the product of British cruelty. German President of the Chamber of Now, as a matter of fact, no nation in Commerce. Germans, English and the history of the world has ever shown Americans mingle freely and smoothly towards inferior races so much mag- in social organizations the whole world nanimity-I might say maudlin senti- over-that is to say, everywhere outmentality-as England. An American side of Germany. In the different blushes when he reflects how far be- ports of the Far East, I met many hind England lags Puritan Uncle Sam, Germans who spoke with pride of Kiao for even Canada manages her natives Chow as a monument to their country's better than does the United States. No military glory, but I could find few, if dispassionate traveller has returned any, who desired to colonize there. from India without a tribute of grate. They preferred Hong Kong liberty to ful acknowledgment for what British Kiao Chow glory. On the occasion of statesmanship has done to elevate In- my visit I found 1,500 Germans in Govdia morally as well as materially. ernment uniform as against five civil
Yet I read the German papers in vain ians,-that in itself was enough to kill to discover a generous word on this the enthusiasm of the most ardent colsubject. Not long ago, the chief comic onist. paper of Germany, which corresponds In German East Africa, to say nothto the London Punch, represented the ing of West Africa, the colonization is Queen of England, gorged with cham- much the same. Those countries are pagne and rich food, looking contemp- apparently run in the interests of offtuously upon some starving Indian sub- cials, and colonists must come cap in jects, and the text informed the reader hand for the privilege of adding to the that this was British rule for India. national wealth. After the Jameson We smile, because we know it is cari- Raid some Boers trekked into German cature. The German who has not West Africa, but soon returned discourtravelled, sees in this picture a grim aged by the attitude of the Imperial reality-nor does he reflect that this officials. Though I heard this on the gross insult is directed against the spot at the time, I was inclined to doubt mother of their late Empress, the the fact until quite recently, when it grandmother of William II; a lady of was made public by a former Governor whom anything might be uttered rather of West Africa, Major von François, than that she was lacking in womanly who argued that the Boers were undesympathy for those in distress.
sirable as colonists, because they insistThe Germans whom I have met in ed upon using their own language, and distant parts of the world hold their consequently might some day suppress own with the best, as progressive, en
the little German now talked there. lightened, broad-minded colonists or When I last analyzed statistics on this citizens. Throughout the United States subject there was exactly one German Germans are welcomed to citizenship, to every thousand miles of colonial terfor they develop in that climate a com- ritory. To-day I imagine that there mercial energy coupled with civic qual- are even fewer Germans to the square ities which awaken the respect of mile. everyone. The Yankee shares all he Now, let us ask ourselves whence has has ungrudgingly with those who come sprung this change of feeling towards to him seeking work. In Hong Kong England. We know that for more than I found German merchants in the di- a century England has been the refuge of oppressed Germans; and that in later do in regard to incorporating the Transtimes Germans by the thousands have vaal: "It's good for them; we Germans found a home and a good living improve the Frenchman, the Dane and amongst Englishmen. When Prussia the Pole by compelling him to become rose in arms against Napoleon in 1813 German; we raise him to a higher many of her volunteers marched to level." Leipzig in British uniforms, armed Let us pass on, then, to another view with British muskets, and supported by of the case. British contributions. The venerable In Russia is a small nation of Finns, Emperor William took refuge in Lon- clean, well-educated, enterprising, don from the mob which threatened thrifty, Protestant people. To this nahim in Berlin in 1818, and we have yet tion Russia promised local self-governto learn of any time when Germans in ment, on condition that it came under England were ever molested. Whence Russia's suzerainty. That was in 1808. then this sudden burst of anger-this Loyally have the Finns kept their violent sympathy for the enemy? Ger- word. Never has a rebellious movemans tell me that they take sides with ment started
there. Finns have the Boers because they are weaker. But manned the Imperial Navy; indeed, the wrong side is frequently the there are few ports in the world that weaker!
do not know him as the best of sailors. In 1864 Prussia absorbed a weaker Has any Finn ever suggested that they body of people on her Danish frontier, build forts or make armaments against and to-day those people are persecuted Russia. Has any Finn suggested because they insist on cultivating the measures that would nullify the comspeech their mothers taught them. pact made in 1808? Yet the present They are weaker than the Boers, and Czar, in a whim, orders Finland to vastly more clean in personal appear- surrender her self-government, and to ance. But I hear no great outcry on submit to the degradation of being their behalf,-at least not in Berlin. ruled like the ninety-nine million serfs There are many French on the Western making up the multiplied misery of frontier of Germany who regard them- that vast flat of sad, gray monotone, selves as oppressed because they are ironically called Holy Russia. Is not not allowed to learn their native tongue Finland weak enough to excite the in the common schools. Many of these generous wrath of the whole German French were incorporated after the people? Does the German Government war of 1870, some were annexed in talk of interference? To be sure, a 1814, and they remain French to this few leaders, like Dr. Barth and Profesday. Are they not weak enough to en- sor Delbrück raised their voices, but list German sympathy? Contrast this there the matter ended. Yet Finland with England's behavior towards the is on the Baltic, much nearer to Berlin French in Canada. And what can we than Pretoria. say of the large body of Poles who Or must we take a case even more plead in vain for the right to remain flagrant? There is a strip of territory true to their national ideals? They are between St. Petersburg and Prussia, weak and dismembered, yet keep alive called the Baltic Provinces. This was at the hearthstone the feelings of pa- first explored, conquered and settled by triotic aspiration which the Prussian Germans. The people of this country police prevent them from manifesting are Protestants; they had excellent in public. Some of my German friends German schools and a University at answer me much as
some English Dorpat, which ranked with Heidelberg
and Bonn as a nursery of German science. About ten years ago the late Russian Czar determined to Russify this German land; that is to say, to force the people to talk in Russian, and say their prayers according to the Greek forms. Russian soldiers took charge of Dorpat University, German Professors were driven away, and Greek Priests commenced an active proselytizing crusade, suggesting Spanish methods in the days of Pizarro and Cortez. Soon after William II came to the throne (1888) the persecution of Germans by Russians was at its height. It has gone on ever since. The wildest English Jingo has not dreamed of treating Transvaal Boers as the Russian Government treated, and continues to treat, the Germans within her dominions. Then was the time for Germany to have shown that zeal for the weaker side which now shines so luridly in favor of the Boers. That was a splendid opportunity-especially as Russia was then very backward in her military preparations.
In 1884 Bismarck launched Germany upon her career as a colonial power. Carl Peters and Wissman and other enterprising explorers soon made all the preliminary treaties with black potentates, and English good nature did the rest. Bismarck subsequently pretended that he never believed in Colonies any. way, and was pushed into it by the clamor of those who did. This is the first instance of Bismarck ever having pleaded popular clamor as the reason for his action. However, Germany found herself suddenly the mistress of a million square miles of very hot and moist land, .scattered in many undesirable portions of the globe, while at home she developed at the same time a large number of so-called “Colonial Societies," mostly conducted by people far from the sea, who held learned lectures on the habits of strange savages. The Government organized with
characteristic thoroughness various offices for the administration of these new German subjects and black sav. ages, who, up to that time, had prowled about naked and slept in the tops of cocoanut trees, were suddenly astonished by the policeman from Berlin ordering them to come down and pay an income-tax! Little by little the Colonial Societies of Germany, and even the Government itself, began to realize that the mere running up of German flags, while it looked encouraging on the school maps, did not materially help German trade, or divert many emigrants from the English or American ports.
The present German Emperor was the first to take in the situation, and immediately set about building up a strong navy. With his accession new life entered the Colonial Department of the Empire, and new ambitions nimated every German who looked to the sea as the new highway of German expansion. From being the most unpopular of Princes, when he ascended the throne, he soon convinced men of all parties that in him they had leader, not merely competent to understand the needs of the German at home, but even more keen to defend his movements when seeking markets abroad.
As we know, the German Press is largely official, directly or indirectlythat is to say, under the direct or indirect influence of the Government. There are special officials who busy themselves with providing for the newspapers articles agreeable to the Gov. ernment. When Government requires a new navy, it is the business of the official press to make the people feel that German interests are threatened by some power having a larger navy. Hence a campaign of press articles directly calculated to make simple Germans believe that England stands in the way of German progress, and