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two sides to the picture. I have laid When they have law cases between the myself open, I fear, to the charge of Christians and the people, they should quoting somewhat freely from Imperial

settle them justly and without any par

tiality. If at ordinary times they have decrees; but a tone of thought which is

the people's confidence, when unusual altogether peculiar can be best exhib

circumstances occur they will natuited, at times, in the thinker's words.

rally have the confidence of the public, Remembering how directly the Em- and turn great matters into small and press can speak when she wishes, let deeds into no deeds. The strength of the reader place himself in the position the country depends upon this, and of a Governor, and try to draw from

the amicable relations of all rest on the following edict a conclusion as to

this. The Viceroys' and Governors'

instructions to the local officials the category in which the Society that

should be precise, that in all cases of is disturbing Shantung should be en

this kind they should only inquire rolled.

whether the men are rebels or not, and

whether they have created riots or not; Recently cases of robbery and vio- and not consider whether they belong lence have been becoming daily more to a society or religious sect. The frequent in various provinces, and mis- people also ought to have no thought sionary cases are of frequent occur- beyond the protection of their villages, rence. These are all regarded as the and not to commence hostilities and work of seditious societies, and it is de- create a disturbance, or be agitated by manded that they be severely punished. rumors. They should not presume on But there is a distinction in these so- their influence to oppress their neighcieties. Those reckless fellows who' bors. We trust the different districts band together and create riots are will become quiet and relieve our without excuse under our law. But if

anxiety. submissive and loyal subjects learn gymnastic drill for the protection of their families, or unite the villages in A later edict declared, certainly in their districts for mutual protection, less ambiguous terms, the illegality of their object is merely mutual assist- organizations which conduct themselves ance, and quite right. But the local

as The Boxers have done, and authorauthorities sometimes make no distinc

ized the Governors of Shantung and tion, and, mistakenly listening

Pechili to “issue a plain proclamation groundless rumors, treat them all as seditious subjects, and recklessly put

and give clear notice of prohibition," them to death, so that there is no dis- in order that they may "cease their tinction drawn between the good and habits and become law-abiding and the bad, and the people become excited loyal." with fear. This is like trying to stop a pot boiling by adding more fuel; or making a pool to drive out fish. It is If they persist in their foolish ways not that the people are not quiet, but without reform they ought to be that the officials' action is to blame. strictly punished, and no leniency The government of Our Dynasty is should be shown them. In regard to known to be kind and generous, and the divisions between the converts and has cherished the people more than two common people, all are alike Our subhundred years. The food of the people jects, and when there are law disputes and the ground on which they tread the local authorities should adjust are the gifts of Heaven. How can they them carefully, and irrespective of be ready to turn rebels and court pun- class or religion, seeking only to disishment? It depends entirely on the cover who is really in the wrong, and Viceroys and Governors to engage showing no partiality, in order that the worthy officials to govern the country people may realize the fatherly sym. rightly, and to secure the people rest. pathy of the Throne.

to

But either the words have failed to be brought home to her that the present carry conviction, or the movement has Reactionary policy constitutes a danger gained too much headway to be easily for the dynasty and the Empire, she stopped; for it is spreading, evidently, might be induced, yet, to change her in Pechili, and we hear of outrage and course and support the Emperor in a massacre within fifty miles of Peking. policy of Reform. Her halt on the

If the North has its own form of un- threshold of what was intended, clearly, rest, it is peculiar only in that respect. to be a fresh coup d'état, two months The Yangtze Valley is seething with ago, goes to prove that she is not imdiscontent, born partly of Imperial ex- pervious to manifestations of popular actions and partly of loyalty to Kwang sentiment; but many well qualified to Su and antagonism to the Empress's form an opinion are persuaded that she régime. The Kwang provinces, always is kept in ignorance of the real import turbulent, are a prey to brigandage and magnitude of the crisis by ashore and piracy afloat. The dangers which the Empire is assailed. She indicated last year appear

to have is impressed, for the moment, by the grown greater, therefore, rather than volume of remonstrance her project has less. The anti-foreign attitude, which evoked; although she wreaks, womanthe Empress and her advisers are like, her spite on those whom she sinadopting, may encourage an outbreak gles out as opposing her will. The of anti-foreign feeling that would occa- present advice of the Emperor's friends sion intervention; or their domestic at Peking to their partizans in the policy may excite disaffection leading Provinces is said to be not to press to insurrection on an extensive scale. her too hard, but to let her escape, if The only road of escape from the two- she will, by the loophole which the fold danger seems to lie in reverting to protests have left her in laying the a poliiy of reform; whereas the only blame on her advisers. The primary thought of the clique which has usurped object is to save Kwang Su. The great power, at Peking, seems to be to accu- fear of the Reform party is that he mulate soldiers to protect itself against may be made away with. So long as the consequences of the dissatisfaction

he is alive they are contending for their it inspires. One consideration might in- rightful sovereign; but his death would duce the Empress to desert the Reac- undermine that standpoint of objection tionary cause and throw her influence to the Empress's régime.

To oppose into the opposite scale. It has been her if she were ruling legally as Regent suggested that she is being carried far- for a new Emperor would be to rebel; ther than she intended, having had no and rebellion is as the sin of witchconception of the forces that are at craft; the Chinese have it in superstiwork. The last thing she desires is tious dread. to endanger the dynasty. If it could

R. S. Gundry. The Fortnightly Review.

ON THE MERITS AND DEMERITS OF THRIFT.

There are plentiful maxims in reference to this subject scattered broadcast through the pages of the moralists, and dwelt upon constantly in the greatest book of all. In every form of precept, allegory and illustration we have all learnt, we have all been taught that it is wicked to be rich. I am not quite sure whether we all believe it, judging by the unflinching determination with which the attainment of that supreme wickedness is set before us as a potent factor in choosing a career, a given line of conduct. While with one tongue, so to speak, we tell our youths it is wicked to be rich, with another we dissuade them with all our might from the callings, the marriage, which might prevent them from being So. On one day in the seven we listen to the solemn words which assure us that the wealthy will eventually be visited by so horrible a fate that, if there were any listening who actually and literally believed it, it is inconceivable that they should ever keep a spare sixpence in their pockets again. And yet, miracle of miracles! the very people who, on the first day of the week, appear to acquiesce in the idea that the rich man shall be eternally damned, forget during the rest of it their conception of what those tremendous words may mean, and go on gaily qualifying themselves during five and a-half sevenths of their lives (I am assuming the Saturday half-holiday) to be forever'lost. It is an unnecessary complication of the difficult problems of existence, to have to solve them alternately by two diametrically opposite codes. It is as though on one day in the week we committed to memory tables of arithmetic that inculcated that twice two are three, and three times two are seven; and then, having those

maxims absolutely by rote, we had, when it came to practical working, to admit that twice two come to four and three times two to six, in order to square

them with the practical duties of life. Solomon says "A good name is better than riches;" and he almost invariably assumes, influenced, perhaps, by his nationality, that only one of these two alternatives can be adopted. I am no economist; I do not propose to discuss here why it appears to be inevitable that, as society is at present constituted, there should be inequalities in possession, and accumulations in individual hands. Let us simply recognize that such accumula. tions do take place, and admit that they are not generally, strange though it may seem after recalling the maxims we have been considering, in the hands of the criminal classes. There may be, and no doubt there are, many among the wealthy who use their means in a way unworthy of commendation, but, on the whole, I should imagine that a large proportion of them, whether they have inherited their riches or assembled them themselves, would-in accordance with the aforesaid weekday moralists, that is not deserve to be lost at all, but quite the contrary.

What, after all, does money mean? merely golden sovereigns? do we, if we have it, sit all the time in our cellar running our skinny hands through the glittering pile? No, that is not what money means. It does not, to be sure, mean, either, the biggest things in life, for only inward grace can give those; but it can supplement the biggest, in that it may give us the means of using them to the best advantage. Money cannot give the gift of making the friends worth having, or of deserving those friends; but it means

can

greater and more agreeable possibili- keep unsparingly before our eyes the ties of frequenting them. It cannot deterioration of character that may be give the power of understanding books; brought about by either the lack or but to those who can understand, it the excess of means, and be on our gives the power of buying books to watch against it. This is an insidious read, without stint. It cannot give the and a great danger. For there are two heaven-sent rapture in pictorial or qualities which most of us agree are musical art, but it gives the possibility fine and good, and to be desired, that of enjoying it more often. It cannot are liable to be modified and distorted give us good and gifted children, but it by the variations in our means. One may help us to train them to advantage. is the large-hearted impulse to part with The best is not to be bought with what we have, not for our own good money, but the setting of the best is. only, but for that of the community or For this reason is the possession of it of individuals; the other is the spirit a crucial test, especially when newly of a sober self-denial opposed to selfacquired; and for those who have no indulgence. This, the spirit of temgentle tastes to gratify a dazzling light perance; that, the spirit of magnifisuddenly shed on their barren exist- cence. But we cannot, in the perfuncence, revealing with unsparing con- tory teaching of morals, which is all spicuousness the vulgar channels in we have time for in these days, make it which alone it occurs to them that clear to ourselves and to others how wealth should run. It is, no doubt, important it is that these finer impulses good that wealth should be spent and should not be at the mercy of our varynot hoarded; the purpose of any cur- ing conditions. We are apt, in the rency is that it should ultimately be hurry of material life, to lose sight of exchanged for something that it will this main point at issue; to confuse enbuy. That the something should be forced, distasteful acts of economy worth having is, of course, essential. with a noble impulse of sober simplicBut what people spend their money on ity; we are misled into attributing generally does, at the moment, appear the constant and cruel necessity, forced to themselves to be worth buying. It on the great majority of mankind, of is other people who feel it is not. What spending and of buying less than they money brings us should add to the would like to spend or to buy, to a adornment, the beauty, the seemliness fine spirit of self-denial, and we graduof life, whether we buy with it things ally grow into considering the mere or ideas. That is the thing to grasp. act of saving as a virtue in itself. But Let us recognize as sanely and wisely it is not there that virtue lies. as we can that the defects incidental to There are certain qualities necessary the possession of wealth need not be to a complicated social organizationinevitable, if we are on our guard Thrift is one of them-which, encouragainst them. The limitations of taste aged at first entirely on grounds of and character which,

have expediency, become through the ages already said, wealth so unsparingly so indispensable to the state of society gives us an opportunity of displaying, which calls them forth, that they are are not caused by it, any more than a erected into virtues necessary to the limelight shed on to an unprepossessing ideal character, and taught to one genobject creates the ugliness it reveals. eration after another, indelibly imLet us not fear to say that in itself it pressed on them. And that quite inis not wicked to be rich, any more than discriminately; for we are obliged to it is estimable to be poor; but let us embody our teaching of morals in a

as

we

an

series of rough-and-ready uncompro

maxim which should govern the mamising maxims, that we impart to all jority; and the minority must hobble alike, whatever the circumstances of through existence cramped by the orthe learner. There is no leisure, in the dinances made to fit the narrowly cirevil days we have fallen upon, to ex- cumstanced, until the minds of the easy pound with care to reverent disciples become inevitably crippled and narhow infinitely varying are the canons rowed, too. “A penny saved is a penny and obligations of what we may call gained”-"Take care of the pence, and the lesser virtues—to point out and to the pounds will take care of themdistinguish, in a dignified, exhaustive selves"-"Turn a penny in your pocket and philosophical fashion. The result before you take it out”-such are some is that we attempt to guide the whole of the stultifying maxims we learn and of our kind by precepts fitted for one repeat until, upon my soul, they can portion of them and absolutely unfitted never quite be unlearnt again. “Penny for another. The terse and pithy max- wise and pound foolish,”-one of the ims in which the experience of gener- few utterances on the other side of the ations finds its final form, although question-sometimes arises to stagger they may serve crudely enough as a and confuse us by confronting us with working basis of conduct, are unavoid- admonition entirely opposite to ably apt to lead us astray by not pre- those we have the acquired habit of senting alternatives. It is obvious that obeying. there must be a want of half-tones, so I recall a saying I used to hear in to speak, about such definite utterances; my youth-we were expected to allow for if a proverb were to attempt to it reverently to sink into our minds qualify its own authority by pointing until it became part of our code of out the cases in which it may be modi- morals—"When you are going to buy a fied, it would cease to be so portable thing, think first if you want it, and a piece of wisdom, and would more re. secondly, if you can do without it.” semble a speech or a sermon. We are, Do without it? Why, all the beautiful therefore, driven into the constant and and most of the agreeable things of life immense mistake of inflicting the same can be “done without” in the sense that ordinances on every one alike. And in we do not die of renouncing them-we the particular subject we are discuss- only become stupidly resigned and liming, we commit the absurdity of laying ited human beings if we carry that prindown for rich and for poor the same ciple to its extreme limit and never get rule; and instead of admitting that anything we can do without. Here, there is a certain line of conduct, not again, we encounter the absurdity of wicked, but only highly inexpedient trying to make such a proposition of and unadvisable for those who are universal application, with the monpoor, and entirely allowable in those strous result that, framed for those who are the reverse, we lay down who could only afford to buy the necesthe

precept for all indis- saries of life, it has been adopted by criminately, and call it virtue. many others who could have afforded Since, therefore, there

very much more, and who actually people, unfortunately, in the world with think they are being praiseworthy in little money than with much, since keeping their lives as barren and unthere are more who are under the obli- adorned as possible. There are chargation to provide for their necessaries acters with regard to whom such a only, and not for the superfluities, we system as this combines the evil influmust needs-so we are told-adopt the ences of both poverty and riches, and

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