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the water-weeds, as water-lilies, candocks, reate and bulrushes, that breed there ; and also that as these die for want of water, so grass may grow in the pond's bottom, which Carps will eat greedily in all the hot months if the pond be clean. The letting your pond dry, and sowing oats in the bottom, is lso good, for the fish feed the faster: and being some time let dry, you may observe what kind of fish either increases or thrives best in that water ; for they differ much both in their breeding and feeding.

Lebault also advises, that if your ponds be not very large and roomy, that you often feed your fish by throwing into them chippings of bread, curds, grains, or the entrails of chickens, or of any fowl or beast that you kill to feed yourselves; for these afford fish a great relief. He says that frogs and ducks do much harm, and devour both the spawn and the young fry of all fish, especially of the Carp. And I have, besides experience, many testimonies of it; but Lebault allows water-frogs to be good meat, especially in some months, if they be fat: but you are to note, that he is a Frenchman, and we English will hardly believe him, though we know frogs are usually eaten in his country : however, he advises to destroy them and king-fishers out of your ponds; and he advises, not to suffer much shooting at wild-fowl, for that he says affrightens, and harms and destroys the fish.

Note, that Carps and Tench thrive and breed best when no other fish is put with them into the same pond; for all other fish devour their spawn, or at least the greatest part of it. And note, that clods of grass thrown into any pond, feed any Carps in summer; and that garden-earth and parsley thrown



into a pond, recovers and refreshes the sick fish. And note, that when you store your pond, you are to put into it two or three melters for one spawner, if you put them into a breeding-pond; but if into a nurse-pond, or feeding-pond, in which they will not breed, then no care is to be taken, whether there be most male or female Carps.

It is observed, that the best ponds to breed Carps are those that be stony or sandy, and are warm, and free from wind, and that are not deep, but have willow-trees and grass on their sides, over which the water does sometimes flow : and note, that Carps do more usually breed in marle-pits, or pits that have clean clay bottoms, or in new ponds, or ponds that lie dry a winter season, than in old ponds, that be full of mud and weeds.

Well, scholar, I have told you the substance of all that either observation or discourse, or a diligent survey of Dubravius and Lebault hath told me; not that they in their long discourses have not said more, but the most of the rest are so common observations, as if a man should tell a good arithmetician that twice two is four. I will therefore put an end to this discourse, and we will here sit down and rest us,


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Directions for making of a Line, and for the

colouring of both Rod and Line.

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ELL, scholar, I have held you too

long about these cadis, and smaller W

fish, and rivers, and fish-ponds, and my spirits are almost spent, and so I doubt is your patience; but being we are now almost at Tottenham,

where I first met you, and where we are to part, I will lose no time, but give you a little direction how to make and order your lines, and to colour the hair of which you make your lines, for that is very needful to be known of an angler; and also how to paint your rod, especially your top, for a right-grown top is a choice commodity, and should be preserved from the water soaking into it, which makes it in wet weather to be heavy, and fish ill-favouredly, and not true, and also it rots quickly for want of painting: and I think a good top is worth preserving, or I had not taken care to keep a top above twenty years.

But first for your line. First note, that you are to take care that your hair be round and clear, and free from galls, or scabs, or frets; for a well-chosen, even,


clear, round hair, of a kind of glass-colour, will prove as strong as three uneven scabby hairs, that are illchosen, and full of galls, or unevenness. You shall seldom find a black hair but it is round, but many white are flat and uneven; therefore, if you get a lock of right, round, clear, glass-colour hair, make much of it.

And for making your line, observe this rule : first, let your hair be clean washed ere you go about to twist it; and then choose not only the clearest hair for it, but hairs that be of an equal bigness, for such do usually stretch all together, and break all together, which hairs of an equal bigness never do, but break singly, and so deceive the angler that trusts to them. When


have twisted your links, lay them in water for a quarter of an hour at least, and then twist them over again before you tie them into a line : for those that do not so, shall usually find their line to have a hair or two shrink, and be shorter than the rest at the first fishing with it, which is so much of the strength of the line lost for want of first watering it, and then re-twisting it; and this is most visible in a seven-hair line, one of those which hath always a black hair in the middle.

And for dyeing of your hairs do it thus : take a pint of strong ale, half a pound of soot, and a little quantity of the juice of walnut-tree leaves, and an equal quantity of alum; put these together into a pot, pan, or pipkin, and boil them half an hour ; and having so done, let it cool; and being cold, put your hair into it, and there let it lie; it will turn your hair to be a kind of water or glass colour, or greenish, and the longer you let it lie, the deeper coloured it


will be ; you might be taught to make many other colours, but it is to little purpose ; for doubtless the water-colour, or glass-coloured hair, is the most choice and most useful for an angler; but let it not be too green.

But if you desire to colour hair greener, then do it thus : take a quart of small ale, half a pound of alum; then put these into a pan, or pipkin, and your hair into it with them; then put it upon a fire, and let it boil softly for half an hour ; and then take out your hair, and let it dry; and having so done, then take a pottle of water, and put into it two handfuls of marigolds, and cover it with a tile, or what you think fit, and set it again on the fire, where it is to boil again softly for half an hour, about which time the scum will turn yellow; then put into it half a pound of copperas, beaten small, and with it the hair that you intend to colour; then let the hair be boiled softly till half the liquor be wasted, and then let it cool three or four hours with your hair in it: and you are to observe, that the more copperas you put into it, the greener it will be ; but doubtless, the pale green is best : but if you desire yellow hair, which is only good when the weeds rot, then put in the more marigolds, and abate most of the copperas, or leave it quite out, and take a little verdigrease instead of it.

This for colouring your hair. And as for painting your rod, which must be in oil, you must first make a size with glue and water, boiled together until the glue be dissolved, and the size of a lye-colour; then strike your size upon the wood with a bristle, or a brush, or pencil, whilst it is hot; that being quite

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