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Death of Queen Anne.

323 its firm unbroken front to the patrician authority of the upper house. Violence, mutual animosity, and mutual invectives prevailed between the two branches of the legislature; there was neither unity of council nor unity of action between them; or if they did agree upon any one point, it was in that general one of oppressing the catholics. In the midst of this political confusion in both countries, a confusion which in Ireland was increased by causes that operated but remotely in England, and which in England was aggravated by the fears of a popish successor, Queen Anne died, (1714,) leaving behind her a strong impression upon the minds of her subjects that she was heartily indisposed to the succession of the house of Hanover, and that the efforts of her ministers, as well as her own, had been chiefly directed to the accomplishment of her brother's accession to the throne upon her demise, by per suading him to abandon popery, and become a convert to the protestant faith.

324

Reign of George I

CHAP. XII.

Accession of George I.-Zeal and loyalty of the catholics-Acknowledged by the governmentYet fresh penal statutes enacted-Case of Esther Sherlock and Maurice Annesley-Passing of the act 6th Geo. I.-Character of Swift-Proceedings of the Irish in consequence of Wood's patent-Popularity of Swift for his conduct on that occasion-Account from Lord OrreryProclamation offering a reward of 300l. for kis discovery-Lord Carteret's elegant reply to Swift on the occasion-Character of Primate Boulter, and the means he employed to maintain the English ascendancy.-Death of Geo. I.

IN spite, however, of every exertion made by

the friends of the patender in England, (and it is certain he had many powerful and willing friends,) his cause was not strong enough to prevail against the general sense of the nation, and George I. was proclaimed on the 1st of August, 1714, a few hours after the queen had expired; and a similar proclamation was made in Dublin on the 6th August, about eleven o'clock in the evening; but, so much was it apprehended that the pretender's right would be asserted in Ireland,

Zeal and loyalty of Ireland in behalf of Geo. I. 325 that the very next day another proclamation was issued for disarming all papists and suspected persons, and for seizing their houses. For this severity there seems to have been no other reason or cause than that they were catholics, and the pretender was one also. The last ministry of Queen Anne, indeed, had appeared to take measures which were specifically adapted for the successful attempt of the pretender upon Ireland; for the parliament of that kingdom had been abruptly prorogued, so as to prevent a bill of attainder against that personage being passed. A great part also of the army on the Irish establishment had been disbanded, while partizans of the Chevalier were openly recruiting in that country for his service. Notwithstanding, however, all these presumptive circumstances against the fidelity of the Irish catholics to the Hanover succession, in point of fact not the smallest opposition to that succession was made by them; and with respect to the protestant inhabitants of Ireland, nothing was to be apprehended from them.

In 1715 a parliament was assembled by the lords justices (viz, the Duke of Grafton and the Earl of Galway,) and it was conspicuously distinguished for its zeal in passing several acts recognizing the king's title. They also passed a bill of attainder against the Chevalier, including a reward of 50,000l. for the seizure of his perThe next step taken, to prove their loyalty to the house of Hanover, was an address from the

son.

326

Proceedings of the Irish parliament,

.commons to the king, praying that he would be pleased to remove from his councils and service in that kingdom the Earl of Anglesey, on account of his participation in, or connivance at, the recruiting service, in behalf of the pretender, going on publicly in Dublin. They likewise passed a bill of attainder, with confiscation of his estates, and a reward of 10,0001. for his apprehension, against James Butler, Duke of Ormond, who had already, with too great rigour, been attainted by the British parliament for his co-operation with the Tory ministers of the late queen. These legislative proceedings, together with the undisturbed state of the whole catholic population, were thought to be so decisively declaratory of the loyalty and zeal of Ireland towards the house of Hanover, that the lords justices, in their speech to the parliament, rendered it the most honourable testimony by declaring," that it was with no small satisfaction that they observed the calm which that kingdom (formerly the seat of so many rebellions) then enjoyed, while the traiterous enemies to the king and our happy establishment, discouraged by their early and steady zeal for the protestant succession, had thought fit to change their plan of action, and attempt elsewhere to disturb his majesty's government."

The" elsewhere" alluded to was Scotland, in which country rebellion was shewing her unabashed front, and making alarming progress under the Earl of Mar, at the head of 10,000 Scotch pres

Inconsistency of government towards the papists. 327 byterians. Nor was the declaration of the lords commissioners to be considered in the light of a mere compliment, or as an acknowledgment of virtues whose existence they did not believe, but which they hoped to create (as inay often be done) by the admission of their reality. As a proof that the government, both at home and in Ireland, were sincerely impressed with the truth of that loyalty they commended, the lords justices added, that his majesty had ordered an addition to be made to each company of the militia till such time as he could replace those regiments which the necessity of his affairs had obliged him then to draw from Ireland to suppress the rebels in Great Britain, wherein their safety was equally concerned with that of his other subjects.

Such was the general tone of confidence assumed by the English government with respect to the collective body of the Irish people, and yet, mark the unabated and unabating rigour with which the papists were individually treated, and the inconsistency with which they were eulogised and aspersed in the same breath. These same lords justices, in their address to the commons, said, "We must recommend to you, in the present conjuncture, such unanimity in your resolutions as may once more put an end to all other distinctions in Ireland but that of protestant and papist." Was that the conduct of a wise government? Was that the mode likely to conciliate the preponderating population of the country? or

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